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Zondcn, I'ublL<'heatltL'^^ ■^'^ flSOZ 7'y ^^- (^oM. 103, Shoe Zone', Fleet Street 



THE m. 

M^ul Cfitomcle, 

FOR 1807: 

CONTAlNINtr A 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OP 

THE mOYAIL NAYY 

OP THE 

UNITED KINGDOM; 

WITH A 

VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS 

ON 

NAUTICAL SUBJECTS: 

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SEVERAL 

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL MEN 



VOLUME THE SEVENTEENTH. 

(from JANUARY TO JUNE.) 



" EfJOLAND EXPECTS THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY." 

' NELSOK AND BRONTI. 



iLontion i 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOYCE GOLD, SHOE-LANE. 

And sold by Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Or me, Messrs. Wilkik and 
Robinson, Mr. Symonds, and Mr. Walker, Paternoster Row; Mr. 
■VVhite, Fleet-street; Messrs. Vernor, Hood, and Sha;;pe, Poultry; Mr. 
AspERNE,and Messrs. Richardson, Cornhill; Messrs. Black, H. Parry, 
and KiNCSBURY, Leadenhall-street ; Messrs. CRosbv and Co., Stationers' Hall 
Court; Mr. Ostell, and Mr. Law, Avemana-lane ; Mr. Goddard, Pall- 
Mall; Mr. Bacster, Str?..^d ; Mr. Andrew.s, Charing Cross; Mr. Mot^.. 
LEY, Portsmouth; Mr. Haydon, and Messrs. Re ts and Cu r t is, Plymouth j 
Messrs. Norton and Son, Bristol; Mr. Robinson, and Mr. Jon es, Liver- 
pool ; Messrs. Manners and Millar, Mr. Creech, and Mr. Co n s t a b l e , 
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^«aTVM-f Tnijur\% tKrniiffViniir thf>- Uni. .1 KinjTrlom. 



Seaport Towns throughout the Uni i Kingdom, 



MDCCCVIk 



• TO 

JOHN HOLLO WAY, Esq. 

ADMIRAL OF THE RED SQUADllOX, 

AND GOVERNOR AND COrJMANDER IN CHIEF OF 
NEWFOUNDLAND, 

THIS SEVENTEENTH VOLUME OF THE 

jl^atjal Cftronicle 

IS RESPECXrULLY DEDICATED 
BV THE EDITORS. 



f>LATES IN VOLUME XVII. 
From Original Designs. 

Plate Page 

Head Piece to Vol. XVII, is an Engraving on Wood, by Nesbit, 
from a Drawing by Pocock, and is an accurate repreientation 'of 
ttie Bow of the Tonnant, as she appeared after the Battle off 
Trafalgar • 1 

CCXXII. PoRTRATT of Commodore Sir Samuel Hood, K.B. and K.S.F. 
Engraved by lirDLEY, fronj a Print published by JMr. Avdrev/s, 
of Charing Cross, by whose permission the present Engraving was 
made • I 

CCXXIII. Walmer Castle, near Deal. Engraved by Cook, from a 

Drawing by Bennett , . , . . 50 

CCXXIV. Portrait of Sir Robert Calder, Bart., Vice-Admlral of the 

White- Squadron. Engraved by Cooke, from an original Painting 89 

CCXXV. The Giant's Causeway in Ireland. Engraved by Rick a kds, 

from a Drawing by Pocock 128 

CCXXVI. Portrait of the late Sir Francis Gearv', Bart., Admiral of 

the White Squadron. Engraved by Cook 177 

CCXXVIL Representation of the Pile of Warehouses at Liverpool, 
as they appeared prior to their being destroyed by Fire. Engraved 
by Hall, from a Drawing by F. W 205^ 

CCXXVIII. Portrait of Captain Richard BuDD Vincent. Engraved 

by Cook 265 

CCXXIX. View of the Straits (or Fare) of Messina, with His Majesty's 
Ship Foudroyant. Engraved by Hall, from a Drawing by 
Pocock 309 

CCXXX. Portrait of the late Captain John Cooke, who fell in the 
Action olf Trafalgar. Engraved by Fittler, A.S.,- from an 
Original Painting, in the Possession of Mrs. Cooke 35a 

CCXXXI. View of the Sound from above Elsinkur. Engraved by 

Wells, from a Drawing by F. Gibson, Esq. F.A.S 393 

CCXXXII. Portrait of Thomas IMacnamara Russel, Esq., Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue Squadron. Engraved by Cook, from a 
Painting by C. G. Stuart, in the Possession of Sir John Hayes, 
Bart 441 

CCXXXIII. Map of the Bay of Aboukir, Alexandria, &c. Drawn 

and engraved by Lu ffm an 489 

CCXXIV. FkontIspiece to the Volume; being a Representation of the 
Monument erected in St. Paul's Cathedral, to the Memory of 
Captains Moss and Rior. 







'wis 71' . ' ^^£^'^""^^^^^^^^^ 



^^^^^.^®CSls^^Mt^^S^^^^' 



F F^ E F A € E 

TO THE SEVENTEENTH VOLUME. 

JU/URING the period which this portion of the Naval 
Chronicle embraces, our good old ship the Britannia has 
suddenly changed its Officers, and its Quarter Masters, whose 
places have been occupied by the followers of her old Comman- 
der, William Pitt; and, as it was found necessary also to 
have a new Siiip's Company, the press has been very hot 
throughout the different counties, and public notice was given 
by Commodore Percivat,, that the Boatswaiti would pi])e all 
hands on the 22d of June. 

Never did party run more high, never was abuse of the most 
angry and calumniating nature poured forth in such abundance 
from both sides : tending, in our humble opinion, to irritate the 
public mind, and to weaken that spirit of patriotism, w hich all 
who are true Englishmen should sedulously cherish. It too 
much reminds us of the wretched and illil)cral Builetins of the 
French. — In the present Ministry are men of the highest 
talents, and the most respectable character. In the late 
Ministry there m as also an aggregate of public spirit, of inde- 
pendence, and of ability, which if it sometimes erred, and there 
never was any Ministry that did not err, most certauily deserved 
the thanks and the gratitude of their country. 

/9at). <3:f)ron.^oI,XVII. l> 



Vi PREFACE. 

Tiie fall.ne of tlie e.%p(?tlilion against Constantinople, and onr 
defeat in Egypt, liave coii.sf.quoiiliy ]>vcn rouinicnttd on Milli 
iiuich asperity. Wlieii these events are discussed in liie House 
of Coninioiis, a uune correct opiiiion can be formed, indeed the 
only oiie that can be leiicd on ; and we pledge ourselves to 
collect this willi impartiality. The recent communication from 
Monte Video, signed I', at page 49'-2, gives a faithful account 
of the state oi' die inhabitants, and offers some judicious vemarks 
respecting that vahiable part of South America. We eariiesdy 
request similar coinminiications from such of our friends as may 
be on foreign stations, or mIio are on board the dilierent 
squadions on liie home service ; as they materially tend to 
throw light on llie naval history of this evcntfiu period, and to 
cori^ct the erroneous statements of self-created politicians. 

The present Volume has rendered some service to our Xaval 
History, by giving, from no common sources, the biographical 
memoirs of Sir Samuel Hood, of Sir liobert Cakler, (page 8}),) 
of Sir Francis Geary, (page 117?) of Captain Richard Jiudd 
Vincent, (page '2G5,) of the late Captain John Cooke, who fell 
in the memorabh? action oft Trafalgar, (page Cio'3,) and of 
Vice-Admiral Russell, (page 4 + 1.) These, as the reader may 
immediately })erceive, have I;een selected witliout anv idea of 
party or partiality. In recording the actions of the brave and 
worthy xVdmiral Geary, we ) evived the professioiKil fame of a 
most excellent oflicer, and jiaul iJuit justice, which is the dutv of 
a Chronicler, to the exertions {>( former heroes : and in detailing 
the career which liie brave Commander of the Arrtnv, Caiitain 
Vincent, had hitherto lan, v. e have shown that ouv Work con- 
tinues oj)en to all ranks of tlie British Ntivy; and that our 
object in publishing these memoirs of living officers, is, by means 
of Biography, to collect those valuable and disj>crsed facts, whicii 
can ahnie give accuracy and interest to the subsecjuent historian. 
AiUidst the variety of docunienls which have thus been pre- 
served, the attention of the reader may be directed to Unit 
interesting letter from the thru Captain Russell, dated off Sandy 
Hook, rVbntary G, 1783, wiiieii ^ives s-j udmiiabie an account 



l'HF,l-ACE. Ml 

oi his action in the Hussar with hi Sybille, coninnindt'd hv ^I. 
!e Comtcde Krergarou, and which h;ts never bciuie iippcarcd in 
print. 

Respecting otlior documcnis wliicli wc have received throuijh tho, 
kinihiess of our frit-nds, our thanlvs arc due' — J. for f lie excellent 
J/Cttcr which forms a sort of Joiiriial of tlio proceedings f tiie 
Squadron inuler Commodore Keafes, olf iJoelifort, in the month of 
Pecember last, (j)age 47,)-^^! I. ']"o the consjir.heii.^ive Narraiive 
of the Proccediiigs of the Crew of IJis -Majesty's ship Por- 
poise, after the h)ss of their sliip, to their arrival at Canton, 
(pages 52, l.>t, 'tOl, and 4.S3.) — Ilf. An accomit of tiic 
Speech delivered by Cenjamin Alilnc, Esq., on the firtit est.i- 
})lishment of Flamborough Light-ljoiise, (page 117.) — IV. Sir 
Jlichard Haddock's account of (he '28th of ^May, 1672, (page 
121.) — V. For an account of the situation of the Centaur, in the 
Jiurricanc (tf July 29, 180.5, (page 12i.) — V'i. i<'or a short 
memoir of the recent services of Admiral Corruvallis, (pn<;e 2()i.) 
— \ 11. To Trinculo, for a Sailor's description of (he liouse of 
Connnons in 1773, (page 219.) — VIll. i''or the extract from 
JJeutenant Copmbe's Log, detail!. is the glorious cxjiloit (hat was 
performeil by the boats of (he (lalatea, (page 304.) — IX. For the 
valual)le Journal of the proceedings of the Squadron under Sir 
J. Jervis, in the ^Vest Indies, during 1794 and 179.^, (pajfes3l2, 
.3S.S, and 473.) — X. For the commu'iicatlon of the original MS. 
Avhicli narrates the vovagc and loss of the Duke ^^ illiam, I'rans- 
])ort, in 17.58, (page 39G.)— And X I. For the Naval ikUads that 
are inserted at pages oOO, .501, and .503. 

'I'he Lettf.rs ox SERvrcv., of vvhi(;h our Chronicle may now 
])oast a very valuable collection, froin the \ ear 1799, record in (he 
present \'oliime, amongst other brilliant exploits,- — !. Capfaiu 
J'earse's action in the Halcyon sloop, wiih (he Sj^anisii siiip Xcp- 
tuno dios dc los Mares, a brig, and a zebe'ck, which teriniiiated 
in tiie captiire of the Neptuno, (page 7S.) — J I. Lieutenant Bar- 
ker's capture of the French slooj) ])rivateer le Tijire, by IJij 
Majesty's armed brig Grenada, being the third which ihat ollicer 
had taken in the course of three weeks, (page l.SS.)— Ml. Capr 
tain NValdeijrave's cliase of eleven of the eneniv's privateers in the 
Strnits of (ribraltar, bv His .Majesty's sloo]) tlie I\iinorca, and his 
sfkilful manicuvre in capturing (he largest, close to Cape Tra- 
falgar, (page 1.59.) — iV, Particulars of an enteiprize hiiihiy 
preditable to i/icuteiiant ^laph-ton, of tl<e Impeiieusej l;0i4 



Vm PREFACE. 

Cochrane, (page ]67.)— V. From Captain Brisbane, of the 
Arelhiisa- eiving an account of the gallant and resolute manner in 
Avhicli the Island of Cura^oa was taken by the four frigates under 
his command, (page 16S.)--VI. List of men of v.'ar and armed 
Tcssels captured and destroyed by tin; squadron on the Jamaica sta- 
tion, from January 1, 1806, to January 1, 1807, (page 254.) — 
Vir. Account of the spirit and gallantry that were displayed by 
the officers and men in tlie boats of the (lalatea and Cerberus, off 
Martinique, (page 335.) — VIII. Gallant conduct of Captain 
Elplnnstone, and Captain Troubridge, in the Java Seas, July 25, 
1808, (page 338.) — The capture of Monte Video, as detailed by 
Admiral Stirling, (page 341.) — IX. Captain Sayer's letter, de- 
tailing the noble exertions of the ofhcers of the Galatea, in their 
capture of the Lynx, (page 346.) — X. Captain Dacres' capture of 
the French schooner Dauphin, and his subsequent destruction -of 
the Fort at Samana, a noted asylum for the enemy's privateers, 
(page 349.) — XL Admiral Duckworth's proceedings in the Dar- 
danelles, (page 425.) — XII. Captain llallowell's account of the 
surrender of Alexandria, (page 433.)--XllL A gallant attack 
made by the armed ship, Sally, Captain Chetham, on a column of 
French troops on the Nchrung, (page 512.) — XIV. The capture 
*)f the St. Pedro, Spanish packet, by the boats of His Majesty's 
ship Comus, Captain Shipley, (page .315.) — XV. The destruction 
of some gun-boats and small craft, in the Spanish Main, by His 
Majesty's sloop Lark, Captain Nicholas, (page 5IG ) — XVL 
And, though last, not least. Captain Barrie's capture of thirteen 
sail of a French convoy, and the destruclion of a fourteenth ; an 
achievement Avhieh, great as it was, would have been extended, 
had the wind been favourable, (page ol7.) 

In Naval Ljteraturl; we particularly recommend to our 
readers, in the hrst place, a Work whicii we ougiit long since to 
have paid a greater attentloni to ; and we intend in our next 
Voiuui" to give some extracts from it: 

1. A 'i'lealise on Xava! Architecture, founded upon Philoso- 
phical and Rational Principles, towards establishing fixed rules for 
tlie best iorm and i)roi)ortional dimensions, in length, breadth, and 
depth, of Merchants' ships in general, and also the management of 
them t') the greatest advantage, by practical seauMinship ; with 
imporhint hints aul remarks relating tiierefo, especiilly bo!h ior 
defence and attacks in war at sea, i'roni long approved experience. 
By VViiiiam Hutclilnsonj Mariner, lately a Dock Master at. 
Liverpool. 



PREFACE. IX 

2. Authentic Materials for a History of the People of Malta : 
la four Parts : contaiuing the Form of Government under their 
own Magistrates, under the Grand Masters, and under the British 
Civil Commissioners ; their former Efi'orts to regain their ancient 
Rights and Liberties, and their present Claims thereto ; a Memorial 
to the King; Revenues, Expenditure, Coins, Cora Measures, 
Agriculture, kc. By William Eton, Esq. 

3. The Present State of Turkey; together with the Geogra- 
phical, Political, and Civil State of the Principalities of Moldavia 
and Wallachia. From observations made daring a residence of 
fifteen years in Constantinople and the Turkish Provinces. By 
Thomas Thornton, Esq. 

4. Some Account of New Zealand, particularly the Bay of 
Islands and surrounding Country ; with a description of the 
Religion and (jrovernment, Language, Arts, Manners, and Customs 
of the Natives. By John Savage, Esq. Surgeon. 

5. An History of Jamaica ; Avith Observations on its Climate, 
Scenery, Trade, Productions, Negroes, Slave Trade, Diseases, 
Customs, iManners and Dispositions of the Inhabitajits. — To which 
is added, an illustration of the advantages which are likely to 
result from the Abolition of the Slave Trade. By Robert 
Rcnny, Esq. 

6. Letters addressed to the Right Hon. Lord M — , on 

the late Expeditions to the Spanish Main ; and on the expediency 
of a gradual and systematical Emancipation of Spanish America ; 
including the Sketch of a Plan for effecting it, in a manner 
beneficial to Great Britain and that Country. By a Native of 
Spanish America. 

7. J'he Pamphlet just published, entitled " Free Trade to the 
East Indies.," is an interesting publication. Although we will not 
enter into the merits of the subject, or give our opinion on it, we 
shall mention to our readers the contents of this production. The 
Author takes a comprehensive view of the Company's present 
situation, and gives a full history of its civil transactions from its 
firsr charter, in IGOO, to the present day. Having finished the 
Iiistory, he proceeds to consider, whether the exclusive charter of • 
the East India Company be advantageous or disadvantageous to 
the British Empire. He then states, in a candid manner, all the 
arguments in defence of the present chartered monopoly. He 
investigates them calml), and, in !iis opinion, refutes fh^m clearly. 
After Mhieh, he concludes thi'. part of ilie ^ubjl.'Ct by endeavwuring 
to point out the nccciiitj/ and udvantu^cs of a Free Trade to the 



X PREFACE. 

East Indies, and, consequently, of a total (erniinaiion to t'le prc« 
sent chartered monopoly. 

For this purpose he first points out the hurtful effects of the. 
present system. He .shows — 1st. The interests of the Public and 
of the East India Company are contrarij to each other. 2. Tluit 
the Company are totally unahla to carry on the trade to its proper 
extent. 3. That the present system prevents competition, and 
represses the industry of the liritish ^Merchant and Manufacturer. 
4. That the trade of rival nations is encouraged and increased, and 
that ihc trade of America alone to the Ea-^t Indies and China^ 
(ictuaUij exceeds that of Great Britain. 5. That by exacting- 
exorbitant profits, they impoveri>h the English people, and lessen 
our foreign trade. 6. That the Directors and Proprietors of the 
East India Company arc totally unfit to be the J^egi>Iators ofagreat, 
extensive, and populous Empire. 7. The Directors are careless 
about the increase of trade, and despise ail economy : and, 8. The 
immense private fortunes poured into the country, endanger its 
independence, and prove subversive of its Jiappiucss. Thc>c facts 
arc all illustrated and explained in their order. The Author now 
points out the advantages \vhich must undoubtedly be derived from 
a free trade. He states, that, 1st. A free trade to India Mould 
greatly increase our exports. '2d. A free trade to India would 
lessen the commerce of our maritime i-ivals uith that country. 
3dly. A free trade to India would equally increase the wealth and 
naval power of the State ; and, 4thly, The condition of every class 
of the comqiiinity would be gi-eatly improved, in consequence of a 
fne trade. The Author harving supported fill these propositions 
by various arguments and illu>trations, concludes with a serious 
address to every friend of his country, in this important crisis. 

This pamphlet is written v\ithmu(h spititand force of argument, 
and has already excited considerable attention. It is said, that the 
Company are preparing an answer to it, Avhich will shortlj- be 
published. 

8. Thoughts on the value to Great Britain, of Commerce in 
general, and on the value and iniportance of rhe Colonial Trade 
in particular. By Charles Bosanquet, I'^sq. 

9. An Account of the Navigation and Commerce of tlie Diack 
Sea, collected from ori^jinal sources. By Charles Wilkinson. 

10. Voyages in Portuga', Spain, Asia Minor, E;;;ypt, kc. from 
1796 to 1801, with serious reflections, by F. Collins, late Lieu., 
tenant of the Dolphin. 

11. A Clergyman of Xykocbing, in Denmark, has trivcn tlie 



PREFACE. M 

description of an Island, the name of \vhidi is ?carc<-]y known to 
the J)anps tiumsclves : it is that of Mors, situated in the north- 
cast part of Juthind, and formed by tiie Cieat Gulf of Limlierd. 

VI. A new JNIap of the Feroe Islands has appeared in Denmark, 
c6nstructcd by M. Loevenvern, adistinguislied OiTicer in the Xavy ; 
it comprehends a space from lat. Gl° ^o', to !at. f)'2° '25'. 

l.'^. Captain Footers vindication of his conduct, when Captain 
of liis Majesty's ship Seahorse, and senior Ollicer in the Bay of 
Naples, in the summer of 1791). Pp. 171. 

'**"* This admirable Pamphlet, -wliich wo shall notice more full)' 
in our next Volume, has been published in consc([uence of a direct 
attack on this excellent Officer, by a Work which professes to con- 
tain " Genuine Memoirs of Lord Nelson's Life." 

We are glad to hear, that Lord ]Mu1grave intends to fnrnlsli 
every one of liis Majesty's ships with a set of correct charts^ 
and to communicate also the numerous observations that have 
been made, anel arc constantly making, by different officers. 
This is worthy of the name of Mulgrave, and will eventually 
lead to other measures of a similar nature. We sincerely hope 
that amidst the scuffles of party, ll;e great and leading interests 
of tlie nation will not lor a nioment be neglected: there are at 
present very cogent reasons, why a most marked and uniform 
attention should no.v be particularly given to the wishes and the 
comforts of the ihili.'sli Xavy. 

!Mr. Anowsmilh has lately published a most valuable Chart 
of the Mediterranean, and two smaller ones, of the iStraits^^of 
Constantinople and the Dardanelles. — His large Map of Scot- 
land is also just published, which gives a most accurate di:li- 
ueation of its indented coast. He is also at ])resent employed 
in draw ing some more of those small Charts of detached places 
of public interest for our ChUoxicle, Mhich have already 
given so nuich satisfaction. 

It has been our custom to mention some of the Biographical 
IMemoirs we have in hand, tliat we might, before iiublitation of 
them, receive such anecdotes, and delineations of their pro- 
fessiontd character, as iheir respective acquaintance might wish 
to fiirni>li : with this idea we therefore inform our numerous 



XII PREFACE. 

literal^ friends, that we have at present on our table, the Lives 
of Vice-A<lmiral Sir J . T. Duckworth, of Vice-Admiral John 
Hollovav, of Lord Cochrane, of the late Captain Pearson, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Greenwich Hospital, of Sir Andrew 
Snape Hamond, and of Admiral George Murray, now at the 
Mauritius. 

We request the sons and relatives of other officers, who are at 
present serving their Country, or v>ho, having served it, have 
drifted on the half-pay shoals, to assist and extend this valuable 
portion of our Chronicle ; which too many writers continue 
to steal from, without the smallest acknowledgment. 

The large orders which wc have lately received from foreign- 
ers, are particularly flattering ; and ^ye beg to observe, that we 
should gladly insert whatever memoirs of foreign Naval Officers 
might be sent us. The variety of beautiful Drawings of Sea 
Coasts and Harbours which we have received, shall in time 
meet with the attention they deserve. We now take our leave, 
and return to our respective Stations ; anxiously hoping to per- 
form our duty, and to preserve the good opinion which we have 
obtained. 



All communications intended for insertion in the, Naval 
CuRONicLt, are requested to be sent to Mr. Gold, 103^ Shoe 
Tiane, London. 



^ 




^'<%, IJihcJSc. 



COMMOJDOMIE SlIL 




AM^'HOOID) KB &K 



PiLblufh£d 31. Jew .rif! ^y, hi/ L froLd J 03. . fhoe Lan/r. F&c-t Strea . 




The above Engraving by Nesbir, is from a Drawing by Pocick, and i; an rccurite r.-prescntation of the 
B®w of the Tonnant, as she appeared after the Battle of Trafalgar. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

COMMODORE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B., K.S.F., 

AND M.P. FOU THE CITY OF WESTMINSTEU. 



The heart of a sailor c\>t fv.li.. 



For his fuieni/s, for ins coi;NTn\'s ui-posii ; 

To TIIESK IT PRESENTS THE SMOOTil PEEL, 

And the rough oak ceneatj!, to theik foes." 

0<nLV!R. 

TrT is recorded^ on die sepuldiral monument of a certain noble 
family, that " all die brothers were valiant, and all the sis- 
ters virtuous." With the female branches of die Hood family, 
ve have not the honour of being acquainted; Ijiit, as far as our 
knowledge extends, respecting the males, we can w ilh confidence 
assert them to be all " valiant." 

Already has it been our task to emblazon the virtues and 
exploits of Sir Samuel Hood's noble relatives, the Lords Hood 
and Bridport; and to embalm the respected memory of his 
deceased brother : it now becomes our pleasing duty to exhibit 

■/9a\;* Cfjron. (HdI.XVH. b 



2 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

the more prominent traits of his own professional life — a lifc;, 
of which upwards of tliirty years have been spent in the service 
of his beloved country. 

This gentleman, whose nautical career we are about to dis- 
close, was born in the month of November, 1762; and conse- 
queiitly is now in his forty-fifth year. Sir Samuel's grandfather 
was the Rev. Arthur Hood, of Dawlish, Somersetshire, elder 
brother of the father of the Lords Hood and Bridport : his 
fatlier was the late Mr. Samuel Hood, an opulent farmer, of 
Kingsland, in the parish of Nctherby, Dorsetshire. Sir Samuel's 
eldest brother, Arthur, was unfoi tunately drowned in His 
iMajesty's sloop Pomona, which foundered in a hurricane, on 
tlie Leeward Island station, in the year 1775;* and his second 
brother, Alexander, Captain of the Mars, was killed in that 
ship, in an action with THercule, on the 21st of April, 

1798 1- 

From the above genealogical particulars, it appears that Sir 
Samuel Hood is second cousin to the two illustrious Admirals 
whom we have mentioned ; and not nephew, as has been most 
generally understood. 

Thus related, however, it is by no means surprising, that the 
subject of this memoir should emulate the proudest deeds of his 
predecessors and contemporaries — that he should mentally 
exclaim : — 

*' That which Alexander sigh'd for, 

T'nat which Cassars soul possess'd, 
That which Iieroes, kings have died fof, 

61or_y ! — animates my breast ! " 

About the age of fourteen, Mr. Hood commenced his naval 
career, as Midshipman, under the protection of the Right 
Honourable Lord Hood, who then (1770) cwunnanded the 
Courageux. He remained in that ship, and in the Robust :j:. 



* The Pomona, Captani Eastwood, and the Ferret, Captain Rodney, were lost 
we believe at the same time, and all their crews perished. 

t Vide biographical memoir of the late Captain Alexander Hood, TS'.was 
Chronicle, Vol. Yl, page 173, et seq. 

* Coninianded by Captain Hood, now Lord Briclport. 



COMMODORE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. S 

until the year 1779- Ih 1778, while in the latter, he was pre- 
sent at the capture of two French frigates, the Pallas and the 
Licorne*; and, on the 27th of July, in the same year, in the 
memorable engagement between Admiral Keppel and ie 
Comte d'Orvilliers f, he had the honour of serving as Aid-du- 
camp to the Captain of the Robust. 

In the course of the following year, Mr. Hood \^ as removed 
into the Lively sloop ; and, in 17Si/', he was in that vessel at 
the capture of la Duchesse de Chartres, a French privateer, 
which surrendered after a short action, in the liritish Channel, 

At the latter end of the year 1780, Lord Hood having 
hoisted a Rear-Admiral's flag on board of the Barileuri, he 
was accompanied to the West Indies, in that ship, by his young 
protege; who served under him, as acting Lieutenant, and 
Lieutenant, from the month of October, 1780, until the ^ist of 
January, 1782. — During his services in the Barfleur, Lieutenant 
Hood exerted himself, as far as his rank and orders would per- 
mit, in the battle with de Grasse, oft" Martmique, on the 29tli 
of April, 1781 ; in the engagement oft' the Chesapeak, on the 
5th of September following § ; and in tfie actions between the 
I wo fleets, at St. Kitt's, on the 2oth and 26th of Januarv, 
1782. 

Were it not that we hare already given a copious and correct 
detail of these respective services, m our memoir of Lord Hood, 
we could here dwell with much pleasure upon their extent and 
importance; and would endeavour to oft'er some tribute to the 
gallantry and skill of those brave Commanders, who perl'ormed 
so much for the honour of the British flag. As it is, we must 
content ourselves with referrmg the reader to the lives of Lord 
Rodney, Lord Hood, and Lord Graves, whose actions form 
such conspicuous figures in the pages of our Chronicle [!. Jt 



* June 17 and 18. Vide X.vval Chronicle, Vol. I, pad,c 27'3; and \o\. 
VI T, page 293. 

t Vide Navai. Chronici.t, Vol. I, page 271. 

i Vide Naval Chroniclk, Vol. II, page 7. 

j The Cntisli lieet was then commanded i>y (lie lale Lord Graves. 

II Vide jVaval CnnoKicLi', Vol. I, page 'Jjo-, \ul. 11, ])agc 1 j and Vol. V. 
page 377, 



4 Biof;nAPincAL memoir of 

would be unjust, however, to dismiss the subject, without 
observing, that the office)-, to whom this memoir immediately 
relates, derived ample experience and profit from the situation 
in which he was placed. Acting so immediately under the eye 
of such distinguished Commanders as those whom we have 
mentioned, he could not but acquire a portion of their skill, and 
imbibe a sentiment of emulation, which opened to him a pros- 
pect of the brightest and the happiest results. We cannot con- 
sider Sir Samuel Hood as otherwise than extremely fortunate in 
liaving been thus stationed. Favoured by nature with an 
excellent constitution, a brave and martial spirit, fortune seems 
to have indulged him with an opportunity of turning those 
advantages to the best account. 

On the 31st of January, 1782, five days after the second 
action at St. Kitts, Mr. Hood was promoted to the rank of 
Commander, and appointed to the Renard sloop, by the present 
Lord Viscount Hood. This appointment took place, it is 
worthy of remark, when he had scarcely passed his twentieth 
year ; a presumptive proof that, joined to his family interest in 
the Navy, he had given sufficient indications of future 
eminence. 

Captain Hood's command of the Renard appears to have 
been rather nominal than real. At the period of his appoint- 
ment, that vessel \\ as lying as a convalescent ship at Antigua ; 
and, revolting from the state of inactivity to which such a ser- 
vice would have condenmed him, he remained as a volunteer on 
board of the Barfleur. 

'• The warrior's wish arose within his soid, 

As Fancy piclur'd scenes of radiant hue; 
He saw, at distance, Fame's immortal goal, 

And future glories press'ti upon liis view 1" 

Captain Hood was in the Barfleur at the well-remembered 
actions of the Qth and i2th of April, I'/SC, in which his noble 
relation so conspicuously 'dv.d eminently distinguished himself*; 
and, on the lyth of the same month, he was also at the capture 

* Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. I, page 589; and VoL 11, page 20. 



COMMODORE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K,3.F. 5 

«f the French squadron in the Mona Passage, consisting of le 
Jason, le Cato •, I'Aimable, and la Ceres*. 

This was the last engagement in which Captain Hood was 
concerned during the war. — When the preliminaries of peace 
were signed, he took the opportunity of going over to France, 
where he remained until the year 1785. 

On his return o Eughuid, he was appointed to command the 
Weazie sloop of war, in which he proceeded to Halifax. He 
was there employed in surveying the coasts and harbours on 
that station ; where, for the vigilance and activity of his services, 
!ie was rewarded, by the Commander in Chief at Halifax, with 
a Post Captain's commission f , and appointed to the command 
of the Thisbe frigate. Captain Hood remained at Halifax until 
tlie latter end of J 789, when the Thisbe was ordered to 
England and paid off. 

In the month of May, 1790, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Juno frigate, m which he proceeded to Jamaica. 
Whilst on this station, nothing particular occurred until the 
beginning of February, in the following year, when Captain 
Hood, in a manner the most honourable to his character as an 
ofiicer and as a man, had the satisfaction of saving the lives of 
three men from a wreck, at sea. His ship was then lying in 
St. Ann's Harbour ; and, in the height of a gale of wind, which 
increased to an absolute hurricane, a wreck was descried from 
the mast head, with three people upon it, over whom the 
waves broke with such unremitting violence, that it appeared 
scarcely possible to rescue them from their dreadful situation. 
The Juno's cutter and launch had been previously dispatched to 
the assistance of a vessel in the offing ; so that Captain 
Hood had nothing but his own barge, with which to attempt 
the preservation of his unfortunate fellow creatures. From the 
extreme apparent danger, the crew evinced the greatest reluc- 
tance to descend into the barge, until Captain Hood undauntedly 
leaped in, exclaiming — / never gave an order to a sailor in my 



* Vide Nav.m. CnnoN'ici.r, Vol. IT, page 22. 
t Dated Mav 2i, 1788. 



6 BIOfiRAPIiICAL MEMOIR OF 

life, zcltich I ccas not reachf to undertake and execute myself I 
The barge then pushed off; and, through the most determined 
perseverance. Captain Hood had the happiness of succeeding in 
liis gallant and meritorious effort. This was an action worthy 
even of I^ord Nelson himself! 

The following extract of a letter, dated Feb. 3, 1791^ from a 
gentleman at St. Ann's, to the Printer of the Kingston Daily 
Advertiser, contains the only authentic narrative of this transac- 
tion, which has ever appeared ; and is now, we believe, for the 
first time published in this country : — 

Ycsterrlay morning a ship in the offing imdcr sail standing in, 
and having a signal of distress, Captain Hood, of the Juno, now 
lying here, sent a sailing' boat (the launch) out to her, and 
ivhich returned with an account that it "vvas tlie Fame, Captain 
]Moyzc, of Bristol, which had been blown out of Spring Garden, 
where she parted four cables, and had not an anchor or cable on 
board. It was surprising with what expedition Captain Hood sup- 
plied her wants ; for notwithstanding the extreme badness of the 
weather, it blowing very hard, and the sea being very high, he 
sent out an anciior and cable by tv.o sailing boats, (the launch and 
cutter,) which could not, after delivering the anchor, regain this 
port, and we entertained some fears for their safety. We have 
however been just now informed, that they got safe into Runaway 
Bay, about nine miles to leeward. 

This morning our feelings were arrested by a most distressing 
scene — a signal of distress — a white shirt fastened to a piece of the 
shallop's mast, about six feet high, was seen about a mile at sea. 
With the glass we could plainly discover some people on the 
wreck of a small vessel, water logged, and scarcely tenable; the 
sea breaking over her with great violence, we could i^ive her no 
assistance, having no craft here that durst venture out. The 
Juno's two sailing boats, (the cutter and launch,) as I have 
already told you, being Avind bound at Runaway, and Captain 
Hood having no other boat but his barge, which no one on shore 
imagined could have lived in so turbulent an ocean as the wreck 
was in. Captain Hood however, as an encouragement to his 
bargemen, leaped himself into her, to undertake an attair of 
humanity, at the great ri^k of his own life. The spectators you 
may suppose were numerous; our distress was increased, instead 
of being allayed, bj' the bold attempt, for we expected every 



COMMODORE SIH SAMUEL HOOD, K.fi. AND K.3.F. 7 

moment to see the barge and her crew perish, the sea running 
mountains high, and with incredible violence ; but it pleased the 
Almighty to favour the attempt, and to protect the brave and 
humane Captain Hood and his men : in less than half an hour the 
barge reached the wreck, which had now driven almost on the 
roaring reef; one of her crew had been drowned before Captain 
Hood came up with her ; the remaining three were saved, but they 
were so exhausted, that they Avcre not able of themselves to get 
into the barge ; and in two minutes more, but for the assistance of 
Captain Hood, must have perished on the reef. 

It required great management to keep the barge from filling, 
having been obliged to go so near the reef, to rescue the poor 
wretches from death, that she was amongst the breakers. 

The wreck it seems was a Turtler, belonging to Montego Bay, 
and had upset about two miles from where the people were taken 
out of her. 

You may form some idea of the violence of the sea from the 
wreck's being overset and righted again several times. 

So highly was the Governrn^nt of Jamaica impressed witli a 
sense of the humane and adventurous conduct of Captain Hood, 
upon this occasion^ that it immediately passed the followhig 
Resolution : — 

HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, ^ 

Tuesday, 22<i day of February, 1791. 

Resolved, ncm. con., that the Receiver-General do forthwith 
remit to the agent of this island, the sum of one hundred guineas, 
for the purchase of a sword, to be presented to Captain Samuel 
Hood, of His Majesty's ship Juno, as a testimony of the high 
sense which this House entertains of his merit, in saving (at the 
manifest peril of his own life^ in a violent gale of wind, off the 
port of St. Ann, on the 3d inst.) tl;c lives of three men, discovered 
on a wreck at sea, and who must inevitably have perished, but for 
his gallant and humane exertion. 

Ordered that the Clerk of this House do transmit to Captain 
Samuel Hood, a copy of the foregoing resolution. 

By the House, 
GEORGE WRENCH, 

Clerk to the Assembly. 

Captain Hood returned to England, in the Juno, in the 
course of 1791 ; having, however, previously received tjie 



8 BIOCnAPHlCAL MEMOIR OF 

following letter, containing the unanimous thanks of the Humane 
Society of Jamaica, for liis philanthropic exertions: — 

siu, 
THE Humane Society of Jamaica, over ready to acknowledge 
those acts of benevolence, which do honour to their institution, 
have at their last general meeting unanimously voted that the 
thanks of the Society should be transmitted to you, for your 
humane and courageous exertions at St. Ann's Bay, in saving the 
lives of your fellow creatures at the imminent risk of your own. 
This, Sir, I do in behalf of the Society, taking this opportunity of 
wishing you a prosperous and safe voyage, to enjoy in the arms of 
your relatives, that happiness which must ever attend a benevolent 
and brave Man. I have the honour to be, 

Wilh esteem and respect, Sir, 
Your most humble Servant, 

JOHN HARRIS, Sec. 
Sumuel Hood, Esq. July 8, 1791. 

Some time after his arrival in England, Captain Hood was 
presented with the sword, which had been voted to him by the 
Government of Jamaica, accompanied by tlie folloAving elegant 
and classical letter : — 

gjjj London, Fchruary 17, 1792. 

IN obedience to the commands of the Assembly of Jamaica, I 
have the honour to present you with a Sword, the value of which 
is greatly increased by their unanimous resolution of the '22d Feb. 
1791, of which the following is a copy. 

Resolved, ncm. con., that the Receiver-General do forthwith 
remit to the agent of this island the sum of one hundred guineas, 
for the purchase of a sword, to be presented to Captain Samuel 
Hood, of His Majesty's ship Juno, as a testimony of the high 
sense the House has of his merit, in saving (at the manifest peril of 
his own life, in a violent gale of wind, off tlie port of St. Ann, on 
the 3d instant) the lives of three rat n, discovered on a wreck at 
sea, and who mu-.t inevitably have perished, but for his gallant 
and humane exertion. 

In obedience to the c-ommand; of the Committee of Correspon- 
dence, I have ordered an Inscription to be engraved, Avhich I hope 
will meet with their approbation, which is as follows : — 
SAMCELi iiooi) on TJir.s civr.s 

SCO EXEMPLO, ET SCO PEUICULO SERVATOS 

JJ.D.D. SFQ. JAMAICEXSIS. 

MDCCiCJ. 



COMMODOIIK STll SAMUEL HOOD, K,B. AXD K.S.T. 9 

To which I have added another very short inscriplion, upon the 
lippcr drriament of tlic scabbard, in order to perpetuate the 
memory of your speech to your sailors, when you sprang on 
boar.l your boat to save the men on t:ie wreck, which I am 
iiifornicd were these : — •• I never g^ive an order to a sailorin my 
life, which I was not rcvAy to undertake and execute myseli." 

The Inscription stands thus ;— 

OMNE NAUTARUM pr.RICULLM 
MEG SUJ3IUE PARATt'S. 

Horace. — Epod. 1. Lib. 1. 

Amongst the ornaments upon the hilt, you Aviil find, in pursu- 
ance of my directions, an elegant enamel of the Corona Civica, 
the chaplet oi oaken leaves, Avhich the Roman Senate, in the time 
of its greatest prosperity, presented to any person that had. sig- 
nalized himself by saving the life of a citizen. — I take upon myself 
to say, that no Roman ever deserved (hat honour better than your- 
self; few so well ; as you saved not one life only, but three : and 
what is more, at the imminent hazard of your own. The applause 
of the whole world will follow you to the end of time, and the same 
applause will follow that liberal Assembly, which has distinguished 
its own humanity by rewarding yours. Permit me, Sir, to add 
one wish of my own, and I have done. oNIay \ic(ory in futura 
finish the character, which humanity has begun ; and may they 
both join hands in promoting you to the highest honour of your 
profession. I have the honour to be, 

Si 15, 

Your most obedient, and obliged humble Servant, 

STEPIIEX FULLER. 

Captain Samuel Hood, of His 
IMaJtity's Sliij) JuiiOt 

In the autiinin of 1791^ after liis return to England, and in 
tliat of the succeeding year. Captain Hood had t!ic honour of 
attending uj)on their jMajeslics at Weymouth. Tl;is duty must 
have afforded him a pleasing relaxation from tlie toils of severer 
service. But a scene more animating, more congenial to the 
enterprising spirit of this ofikerj was on the eve of presenting 
itself. 

At the breaking out of t)ie late war, in 1793, Captain Heod 

Jf9at). Cf;ton, (nohXVIL c 



10 BIOGnAPUICAL MEMOIR OF 

wae ordered up the Mediterranean, in his old ship, the XunO/ 
and was there very actively employed *. 

It will be recollected, that, in the month of December, 1703;, 
Lord Hood had been under the necessity of evacuatinsr Toulon ; 
after which he proceeded, with his fleet, to Ilieres Bay, there 
to await the arrival of a fleet of tiansports and victua'lers from 
Gibraltar. Previously to the evacuation of Toulon, Captain 
Hood had been dispatched to IVlalta; and, on his return from 
that port, 'tt'ith supernunwrarles for the fleet, being wholly 
unacquainted with the events v.hich had occurred during his 
absence, he stood into Tculon harbour. His escape from the 
enemy, under the consideration that it was night when he 
entered the road, may be regarded as one of those fortunate 
circumstances, which history has but rarely an opportunity of 
recording. For his good fortune in this instance, however^ 
Captain Hood was certainly much indebted to his own promp- 
titude of decision, and activity of exertion. The justness of 
this position will be evident, from Captain Hood's narrative of 
the affair, as transmitted to Vicc-Adniiral Lord Hoodj in the 
subjoined envelope : — 

MY LORD, Jvno, Buy of Hkrcs, Januai-y 13, i7^4. 

I BEG leave to enclose your Lordship a narrative of the fortu- 
nate escape of His Majesty's ship Juno, nnder luy conimaiid, from 
the port of Toulon, after having run ashore in the inner harbour 
on the night of the 11th instant. 

The firm, steady, and quiet manner in which my orders Afcre 
carried into execution, by Lieutenants Mason and Webly, in their 
respective stations ; the attention of Mr. Kidd, the Master of the 
steerage, &c. with the very good conduct of every officer and man, 
were the sole means of the ship's preservation from the enemy, and 
for which I must request permission to give them my strongest 
Tecommendation. 1 have the honour to be. 

With the greatest respect, 
Your Lordship's very obliged humble Servant, 




To the Right lion. Lord Hood, Vicc-Admiral 
of the Red, and Commander in Chief, t^-c. 



* For a detailed account of the proceedings at Toulon, see the biographical 
memoir of Lord Hood, Navai. Chuonicle, Vol. II, page 1, ct seq., and tU"* 
3'.ries of Toulon Papers, in the same Volume. 



COWMODOUE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.T. 11 

Juno, Bay qflJieres, January 13, 1794. 
OX file 3d instant I left the Island of Malta, having on board 
150 supemameraries, 46 officers and private marines of Wn 
Alajesty^s ship Uoinnej' : the remainder, Maltese, intended for the 
fieet. 

Ou the night of the 7th passed the S.W. point of Sardinia, and 
steered a course for Toulon; on the ©th, al)out 11 A.M., macJc 
Cape Sicic, but found a current had set the ship some leagues to 
the westMard of oi;.r expectation ; hauled the wind, but it blowing 
liard froTTi th^" eastward, with a strong lee current, we could but 
just fetch to the westward of the above Cape. The wind and 
current continuing, we could not, tiil the evening of the 11th, get 
as far to windward as Cape Sepet ; having thst evening, a little 
before 10 o'cl.jck, found the ship would be able to fetch into 
Toulon. I did not like to wait till morning, as vre had been, 
thrown to leeward before ; and having so many men on board, I 
thought it my indispensable duty to get in a^ fast as possible. At 
10 I ordered the hands to be turned up, to bring ship to anchor, 
being th n abreast of Cape Sepet, entering the outer harbour. 
Not having a Pilot on board, or any person acquainted witli the 
Port, I placed two Midshipmen to look out, with night glasses, 
for the fleet ; but not discovering any ships, until we got near the 
entrance of tlic inner harbour, I supposed they had moved vp 
there in tht^ eastern gale : at the same time, seeing one vessel, with 
several o(her lights, which I imagined to be the Ileet's, I entered 
the innci; harbour, under the top-snils only; but finding I could 
not weather a biig, which lay a little way to the point, called the 
Crjud Tower, 1 ordered the foresail and driver to be set, to 
be ready to t;ick when on the other side of the brig. Soon after 
the brig hailed us, but 1 could not make out what laaguage; I 
supposed they wanted to ■ilnow what ship it was ; I told them it 
was an Kngli^h frigate, called the Juno : they answered, /Vrv/. 
After asking, in Knglish and French, for some time, what brig 
the was, and where the British Admiral lay, tl)ey appeared not to 
understand me, but called out as we passed under their stern, 
JLuj)'! Lnjp ic\cra.\ times; which made me s-uppose there was 
shoal water near ; the helm was instantly put a lee, bui. we found 
the ship was on shore before she got head to wind. — There being 
very little wind, and perfectly smooth, I ordered the sails to be 
clewed up, and handed : at this time a boat went from the brig 
towards the town. Before the people were all oil the yard, 
found the ship went a&tcrn very fast, by a tlaw of wind that came 



12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

down the harbour: hoisted the driver and mizen-stay-sail, keeping 
the sheets' to windward, that slie might get farther from the shoal. 
Tiie instant she lost her yvay, the bow being then in | less 5, let 
go the bost bower anchor, when she tended head to wind,, the 
after part of the keel w :s aground, and we could not move the 
Tudd"r. I oriU^red the launch and cutter to be hoisted out, and 
the 1; tch anchor, with two hawsers, to be put in them to warp 
the ship farther oif. By the time the boats were out, a boat came 
alongside, after having been hailed, and Ave thought answered as if 
an cilicer had been in her. The people w ere all anxious to get 
out o" her, two of whom appeared to be olViccrs. One of theni 
said he was come to inform me, that it was the regulation of the 
Port, and the Conimanding Officer's orders, that 1 must go into 
another branch ot" the harbour, to periorm tcii days' quarantine. 
I kept asking him where Lord Hood's ship lay ; but his not 
giving me any satisfactory answer, and one oi the I\Iidshipmen 
having at the same instant said, " they Avear national cockades," 
I looked at one of their hats more stedfastly, and by the moon- 
light clearly distinguished the three colours. Perceiving they were 
suspected, and on my c^uestioning them again about Lord Hood, 
one of them replied, " Soyez tranqnillc. les Anglois soiit de 
braves gens, nous les traitons bien ^ L'Ainirul Anglois est sortie 
il y^a quclque tems.^'' 

It may be more easily conceived, than any words can express, 
what I felt at the moment. The circumstance of our situation of 
' course was known throughout the sliip. In an instant, .»nd, say- 

ing we were all prisoners, the ofiicers soon got near enough to 
./%X know our situation. At the same time a Haw ol" wind coiniVig 
• " down the harbour. Lieutenant Webly, third Lieutenant of the 
ship, said to me, " I believe, Sir, we shall be able to fetch out, if 
i|^ we can get her under sail." I immediately perceived we should 

'■' have a chance of saving the ship ; and at least if we did not, we 

ought not to lose His Majesty's ship without some contention. 
I ordered every person to their respective stations, and the French, 
men to be sent below ; they perceiving some bustk-, two or three 
of them began to draw their sabres, on which 1 ordered some of 
the marines to take the half-pikes and force them below, which 
was soon done : I then ordered all the ?ila!tese between decks, 
that we might not have confusion with too many men. I believe, 
in an instant, such a change in people was never seen ; csaiy oflicci* 
and man was at his duty ; and I do think, wi.hin three minutes, 
every sail in the ship was sctj and the yards braced rvady fu; 



COMMOOOUE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AST) K.S.F. IS 

(Casting ; (lie sfcatly and active assistance of Lieutenant Turner, 
and all the oHiccrs, prevented any confusion from arising in our 
critical situation. As soon as the cable was taught. I ordered it 
to be cut, and liad the great good fortune to sec the ship start 
from the shore tlie moinciit the head sails were filled ; a favourable 
Haw of wind coming at the same time, got good way on her, and 
we had then i'vcry prospect of getting out, if the forts did not 
disable us. 'J'o prevent being retarded by the boats, I ordered 
them to be cut adrift, as also the French boat. The moment the 
brig saw us begin to loose sails, we could plainly perceive she Avas 
getting her guns ready, and we also saw lights upon all the 
batteries. AV'hon we had shot far enough for the brig's guns to 
bear on us, which was not more than three ships' lengths, she 
began to fire, and also a fort a little on the starboard bow, and 
soon after all of them, on both sides, as they could bring their 
guns to bear. As soon as the sails were well trimmed, I beat to 
quarters, to get the guns ready, but not with an iuteiiiion of 
firing till we were sure of getting out. When we got abreast of 
the centre port of the land of Cape Scpet, I was afraid Ave should 
have been obliged to make a tack ; but as Ave drew near the shore, 
and Avere ready, she came up tAVO points, and just Avcathercd the 
Cape. As Ave passed very close along that shore, the batteries 
kept up as brisk a fire as the wetness of the weather would per- 
mit. When I could allbrd to keep the ship a iiule from the Avind, 
I ordered some gnus to be Jired at a battery tliat had just opened 
abreast of us, Avliich quieted them a little; we then stopped tiring 
till wc could keep her away, Avith the Aviiul abaft the beam ; Avhen^ 
for a few minutes, wc kept up a very brisk lire on the last battery 
we had to pass, and whicli i believe mubt have ot!ier«ise done us 
great damage. 

At lialf-past 12, being out of reach of tlu-ir shot, the firing 
ceased. Fortunately we had no person hurt; some shot cut the 
sails; part of the standing and running rigging shot away ; and 
tAvq French 3G-pouad shot, that struck the hull, U all the damage 
the ship sustained. 

Early in tlie siicrccding month (February) Lord Hood pro- 
ceeded towards Cor.sica, with ilie view of reduciiu; that island. 
On this occasion^ tlje Juno, A\itli the Egnioiit^ Fortitude, uiul 
Lowestoft', UMnicK the orders of Conuiiodore Linzee, in the 
^Icide^ was dlispatched to the Gulf of St. Fioreuw^ for the 



J4 mOSRAPHICAL MEMOIR 0¥ 

purpose of facilitating and covering the debarkation of some 
troops, under the command of Lieutenant-General Dundas. 
This object was effected on the 7th, in a Bay to the vestward 
of Mortello*. We have stated, in our memoir of Lord Hood, 
ihat, *' by the incredible exertior.s of the British seamen, in 
dragging guns up precipices almost perpendicular, the heights, 
which overlook the town of Mortello, were taken." In this 
•ervice Captain Hood v»'as very actively employed, for which he 
afterwards received the thanks of the Commander in Chief of 
the land forces. 

On the day after that on which the debarkation of the troops 
had been effected, it v.as thought expedient to attack the tower 
.of Mortello, from the Bay ; and the J uno, in conjunction with 
the I'ortitude, Captain Young, accordingly commenced a 
cannonade against it, which lasted for two hours and a half. 
The attempt was ineffectual; but the bravery of the assailants 
was not the less conspicuous : at least it may be presumed so, 
from the following c<immunication, addressed by Commodore 
Xfinzee to Captain Hood "• — 

A'cidc, 9lh February, 179-1. 
Memorandum. — Commodore Linzec reqi'csts Captain Hood 
will thank the officers and cr^w of His Majesty's ship Juno, (in 
his name,) for their steady and gallant behaviour in the action of 
yesterday. 

Captain Hood. Juno. ROBERT LINZEE. 

It was, we believe, on the 10th, or 1 1 th of February, that 
the town surrendered, in consequence of the galling fire, 
which was kept up a^tiinst it, froui some great guns on an adja- 
cent heiglit. 

On the night of the J 7th, the heights of Fornelli were 
Yigorously att-.icked, and carried by assault. The enemy then 
retreated into ihe town of St. Fiorenzo, which they also 
•vacuated on the IQth, and continued their retreat tovvarda 
IBastia* Two fine French frigates, la Minerve and la Fortunee, 
which were iyiug off the town, were destroyed. On these 

-<*—»-'■»■ 111 ■ - II ■ | . 

♦ Vide Naval Chbonicli;, Vol. II, page 38* 



COMMODORE STR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. l4 

occasions. Captain Hood again particularly distinguished him- 
self; and, for his different services in this quarter, he had the 
satisfaction of receiving the thanks of the Commander in 
Chief. 

We are not exactly informed, as to the manner in which 
Captain Hood was employed, in the subsequent attack upon 
Bastia ; though he certainly was attached to the fleet at that 
time. At the blockade and capture of Calvi, he served in 
I'Aigle frigate ; and his conduct was mentioned by the Com- 
mander in Chief, on that occasion, as highly meritorious. 

Captain Hood continued in I'Aigle until the year 1796; 
and, during the whole of 17f)5, he had the command of a small 
squadron in the Archipelago, for the purpose of protecting the 
trade, and blockading a squadron of the enemy's frigates, of equal 
force, at Sinyrna. For the unwearied activity and vigilance 
^hich he displayed, while on that station, he received the 
thanks of the Levant Company, conveyed in the following verj 
Jiandsome and gratifying letter, fiom Mr. Spencer Smith, His 
Majesty's Minister at the Court of Constantinople : — 

SIR, Constantinople, January 9, 1796. 

A DISPATCH, addressed to this Embassy by the R. W. 
Levant Company, under the date of 29th, September, has beea 
lately received by me, since the departure of his Excellency th« 
Ambassador, containing the following paragraph relating to you, 
Sir: 

" The testimony given by your Ercellency, of Captain Hood'* 
activity and judgment in protecting the factory and our trade, 
■with a force hardly superior to the enemy, is highly flattering to 
that gentleman, and his conduct on the occasion merits our warm- 
est approbation. We request you will have the goodness to com- 
municate to Captain Hood the enclosed extract o*" t},p minutes of 
our general court, expressive of our thanks for his gallant con- 
duct, and attention to the protection of our trade." 

In the absence of Mr. Liston, this pleasing commission has 
devolved to me, aid I avail myself of the first opportuaity to 
convey the above honourable testimony oJ your rreritoiious 
liohaviour, accompanifid by a copy of the extract allud: d fo. 

I« presenting you my ptrsoijal compliiueuls ou this occasion, 



Is bio(;rapiikal memoir of 

allow mc to add the expression of my own admiration of ihd 
edifying example alforded by your late command upon Ihe 
Levant station, forming a striking contrast with the conduct of 
otir unworthy cneiriief?, under the eyes tff the Ottoman nation, 
and tending to extend and perpetuate the renown of the Bfitlsli 
national charaeteri 

I have the honour to be, 
With great respect, truth, and regard, 
Sir, 
Your very obedient humble (^ervant, 
Samvel Hood, Ksq. J. SPENCER S.AIlTlt. 

Captain IIooil had also tlie pleasure of rcceivlnfj the sub- 
joined comtnuuicalion from Mr. Werry, His Majesty's Consul 
at Sinyrna, enclosing the thanks of the British Factory at that 
port : — • 

SIR Smiinia, Decemhcr '2, itOj. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit you the enclosed letter of 
thanks from the British Factory of INferchants cstahlishcd here, 
a copy of which I hare also transmitted to the Levant Company, 
in order that their sentiments of the essential services you have 
rendered them may be made knoAvn, and publicly acknoAV- 
ledged. 

I am very anxious to have news of the safety of the Nemesis, not 
having any intelligence since you left us. 1 dispatcli a boat with orders' 
to go to Salonica, unless they fall in with that ship at sea ; and wrote 
by an express to Mr. Smith, at Constantinople, giving him every 
information, and saying how necessary it was Captain Linzee 
should be advised of his situation, and of your departure for the 
Commander in Chief. The boat returned on the 2Stii, after being 
from here seven days ; had not been able to weather Myteline, the 
wind blowing strong from southward. On the 29(h we sent off 
your waterman, in a large boat for Salonica, and I ordered a 
smaller boat to cruise for ten days off the entrance of tlie Gulf, to 
put letters on board, in case he should attempt this port. 

Since you sailed, the Sensible, and la Sardine, have got below 
the Castle, nearly in your berth. Le Rosignol, the day after you 
"was known to have been out of the Gulf, they rigged and re- 
mounted her battery : she remains in the Bay. 

The French division is stationed for the present as follows : la 
Kepublicaincj of 74 ; la Junon, of 41 ; and. the brig, of 14 guns, 



COM-.ICDORE SIB SAMUTT. UOOD, K.B. A>fn K.vF. 17 

cruising oil' Mytdino ; la Jiisfirc, of 3G, and PArtcKiisc. 3G, one 
ot'whicli is diimasttd, are at the Dardanelles; la. Ilad.iie, it wa-. 
reported^ Avas criiising off Serigo. We hope .she has i:illen in uiih 
jour ship, as a small rccompc!u»e lor disturbijig us so iinex- 
pecti'dly. 

It is very pxtraordinarj , however, none of Uiem has yet made 
tjieir appearance here; we conjecture from that circumstance they 
iire looking out for the Nemesis. Whatever- their real intention 
is, nc know not; tlicy report every where, they come to destroy 
the frigates and English pro[)erty wliere they find it; at present 
those here have not overcome the disgrace they fell in, by not 
itccepting the-opportuiiily of fighting your ships. 

J flatter myself, Sir, 1 need not repeat what pka.surc it 'wiil be 
to me if I can be made useful to you ia this part gf Asia. 1 beg 
to assure yoa how much 1 am, Sir, 

Your much obliged, 
And most obedient humble Servant, 
Samuel Hood, Esn. FRANCIS WERRY. 

SIR, 

P.S. The gentlemen r,f <!te Factory request you will do them 
the favour to represent to the Commander in Chief the great loss 
it will bo to them to have the goods already purchased remain 
here any time, and particularly the cargoes at Salonica, Avliich in 
part are perishable. We arc not free of apprehensions from the 
insolence of the crews of this squ.idron, who, I have just now 
hcardj are expected in a day or two. 

1 have the ho.iour to be, Sir, 

Your devoted Servant, 

FRANCIS WERRY, 

The foHowlng is the letter of tliaiiks to Captain IJood, from 
the British Tactory at Smyrna, alluded to in t!ie above 
letter : — 

SIR Smiinm, December 2, 17 95. 

IMPRESSED as we are with the liveliest sense of gratitude 
towards you. Sir, f ( r the innumerable bi'nehts Avhich we have 
derived in our trade and persons from your protection, during the 
time you have been in those seas, we should do the greatest 
violence to our feelings, and justly incur the imputaliou of a want 
of this sentiment, if wy Mvro to suppr> ss the expression of it. 
Permit us therefore, Sir, to ofi'cr you our warmest ackpowledgv 



lis BIOGRAPinCAL MEMOIH. or 

ments, for (he very effectual and satisfactory manner in wliicti yoii 
have accomplished the object foi' whicii you were sent here by the 
Comraander ia Chief in the Mediterranean, and your very conde- 
scending and obliging attention to every request of ocrs, con- 
sistent %yith your duty ; and to assure you, that we shall consider 
ourselves as peculiarly bound to retain a deep ar.d grateful sense 
of the important benefiis which we arc indebted to you for:-r- 
benefits which have' been extended, in a great measure, to every 
foreign nation here, who speak in the highast terms of admiration 
of the propriety and dignity Miiich hare marked your conduct ; 
which forms such a striking contrast with that of our enemies here, 
that even the Turks themselves, who are partial to the F.rencb, 
join in the general applause, and have received so favourable an 
impression from it of our national character, that wc assume no 
email degree of pride to ourselves from the circumstance. To 
superior merit, like yours, no commendations of ours can confer 
additional lustre ; we therefore confine ourselves to mere matter of 
fact in this particular, and shall content ourselves with assuring 
you, that you will ever have a place in the admiration and affec- 
tion of the British Factory, every individual of wliich would 
esteem himself happy in the occasion of giving you proofs of thoso 
gentimcnts; and our regrets that you should have expcritnced so 
juany inconveniences, from the necessity of being unconnected 
with the shore, and considerably heightened, by tit;-, circumstance 
having put it out of our power to show you personally that 
respect and those attentions, which you are so much entitled to 
from us. 

We have the honour to be, with the most respectful attachment, 
Sir, your most devoted, and much obliged humble Servants, 

F, Weury, Consul, Jas. La Fontaine, 
George Perkins, Wm. Barker, 

Anthony Hayes, Wm. Tomkinsox, 

Joseph Franel, Edwaro Lee, 

John Haltass, John Lee. 

R. Wilkinson, 
Samuel Hood, "Esq. 

In the month of April, 1796, Captain Hood was appointed 
to command the Zealous, of 74 guns ; in which, during that 
year, he was actively employed under Sir John Jervis, off 
Toulon; and, in 1797:, off Cadiz. In the summer of the latter 
year, he was with Lord Nelson, at Teneriffe, when his Lord~ 



COr.IMODOUE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. 19 

ship had the misfortune of losing his arm *. By his spirited 
and judicious conduct, in effecting the return of the British 
troops and seamen from their disastrous attack, lie had the 
satisfaction of endearing himself to that great Connnander, 
tliat lamented Hero, whose loss we can never cease to deplore. 
After Rear-Admiral Nelson had been wounded, and carried 
back to his ship ; after all the boats had been either sunk by 
the dreadful tire from the enemy's batteries, or swamped in the 
surf. Captain Hood and Sir Thamas Troubridge found them- 
selves in the heart of the town of Santa Cruz, at the head of a 
few seamen and marines, armed with pikes, but surrounded by 
some thousands (3f Spaniards. Their situation was most criti- 
cal, h was dark ; and, for the present, the enemy were kept in 
check, fromiiot being acquainted with the position, or number, 
of the invaders ; but, by day-light, their miserable force must 
inevitablj be discovered ! They deliberated ; and 

" Decision foHowerl, as the thunderbolt 
The lightning's flash !" 

Captain Hood immediately waited on the Spanish Governor, 
Don Juan x\ntoine Gutterry, with the following laconic 
message : — " I am come, Sir, from the commanding Ojjicer of 
the British troops and seamen iiozv within your zcalls, and in 
possession of the principal strutto, to say, that as zee are disap- 
pointed in the object zohich zee came for, (alluding to specie,) 
j)7'ovided you znnll furnish iis zcith boats — those zi^e came in 
being all lost — -zee zcill return peaceably to our ships; but, 
should any means be taken to molest or retard us, zee zcill f re 
your tozcn in different places, and force our zvny out of it at 
the point of the bayonet." Taking out his watch, he added: — 
'' I am directed to give you ten minutes to consider of this 
offer." 

"^rhe Governor was astonished at the proposal, made with 
such confidence, on the part of men whom he conceived to be 
already in his power. He observed, that he had thought they 
zcere his prisoners; but, as it zn'as not so, he zoould hold a coun- 
cil zcith his officers, and let the British Commander knozv the 

* \'ide iVAVAt Chroniclk, Vol. Ill, page 178. 



20 T5focriAPntrAL memoir o* 

fCault in the course of an hnirr. To this Captain iJood coolly 
replied^ that he was limited to a second, and that his frie?id.i 
ti-cre anxiously awaiting hin return, to re-commence hostilities, 
should not his demand have been complied zcith. He was 
about to take his leave ; wheu the Governor, alarmed at the 
probable consequences of drivhig" Eiiji;lishnien to extremity, 
acceded to his proposal. He accordingly provided boats, and 
sent all the English off to their ships, vhere they had ceased to 
be expected, laden with fruit, and various other refreshments. — 
The conduct of the Spanish Governof was indeed eminently 
noble and generous. Previously to the embarkation of the 
invaders, he furnished tliem with a ratio of biscuit and wine ; 
and gave orders, that such of the British, as had been wounded, 
should be received into the hospital. He also intimated to 
Admiral Nelson, tliat he was at liberty to send on shore, and 
purchase whatever necessaries the squadron might be in need of, 
"whilst it remained off the island. 

In 179B, Captain Hood was employed in blockading the 
port of Rochfort. He was recalled from this station, for the 
purpose, it was said, of commanding a secret and remote expe- 
dition ; and was only waiting to be relieved by Captain Keats, 
when some of the enem.y's frigates, attempting to escape by 
night, afforded him another opportunity of displaying his vigi- 
lance and skill, in preventing the accomplishment of their 
object. 

Instead, however, of being appointed to the command of an 
expedition, Captain Hood, in the Zealous, (with Sir Tliomas 
Trowbridge, in the Cullodifn, and nine other ships,) was dis- 
patched to reinforce the squadron of Lord Xelson. 

On the mem<)rable 1st of August, 1798, Captain Hood, 
having the 'look-out, tiist discovered the French fleet in th« 
Bay of Aboukir, and was ordered, by signal, to reconnoitre their 
position. ^Vhen Admiral Nelson, about six in the evening, 
arrived off the Bay ot" Shoals, he hove to, and hailed Captain 
Hood, to ask him, *' JVhat he thought of attacking the enemy 
that night f His answer was, *'*^ fVe have nozi' eleven fat hums 
vater; and, if the Admiral will give tne have, I icill lead in. 



COMMOUOUE Sin SAMUEL HOOt), K.E. A^SD K.S.F. 21 

mahvig I:how71 my soundings by signal, and bring the van ship 
of the enennj to acliun." Late as it was, ihe firmness of ihis 
answer decidf d ihe Admiral^ who said, '•' Go on, and J tiish 
you success." During this conversation, the Goliath passed, and 
took the lead, which she kept ; but, not bringing up alongsid* 
tlie first ship, went on to engage the second. On this. Captain 
Hood exclaimed to his officers : — '' Thank God! my frieiid 
Foley lias left me the van ship." He soon after took such a 
position on the bow of le Guerrier, the ship in question, as to 
shoot away all her masts, and efit'ect her capture, in twelve 
minutes from the time tiiat the Zealous commenced her fire. 
This u as achieved without the loss of a man, or the slightest 
injury to Captain Hood's ship. 

The Zealous afterwards engaged, alone, the four French ships 
\vhich escaped*, until called off by signal. The total loss 
which she sustained in the conflict amounted to only one seaman 
killed, and seven wounded. 

For the service w hich Captain Hood rendered, in this glorious 
and important engagement, he w as subsequently honoured with 
the thanks of Parliament ; and was also presented with a sword 
by the City of London. 

After the victory of Aboukir, Admiral Nelson proceeded to 
Naples, and left Captain Hood with the command of the follow- 
ing squadron, on the coast of Egypt : — 

Ships. Giuis. Commandrrf. 

v^calous 74 Captain Samuel Ilood. 

+ Goliath 74 Thomas Foley. 

Swiftsure 74 Benjamin Hallowell. 

Emerald 36 T. M. Waller. 

Alcmcne..-. 32 George Hope. 

Fortune, polacre 18 

Bonne Citoyenne.. 20 

+ Seahorse 38 Ed, J. Foote, 

La Tonide, advice boat 
La Legere, do 



* Le Guilliaume Tell, of 80 guns; le Gfaereu\, 74; la J)iane, 4b; siai la 
Justice, 44. 
•j- Ileuirned to join the fleet under Admiral Ntls«». 
^ Joiaed at'teCwards. 



22 BIOGKAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

With this force. Captain Hood kept the port of Alexandria 
closely blockaded. He also contributed, in a material degree, 
to the interests of this country, by his amicable communications 
with all the Pachas and Governors under the Grand Seignior; 
and particularly with Jezzar, Pacha of Acre, whose friendship 
he succeeded in acquiring. 

While on this station. Captain Hood took, and destroyed, 
upwards of thirty of the neutral transports, which had carried 
the enemy's troops to Egypt ; and, as an honorary reward for 
his services, was presented, by the Grand Seignior, with a 
handsome snuff-box, set with diamonds. 

In the month of Februarj', 1799^ he joined Lord Nelson at 
Palermo, and was employed in reducing His Sicilian Majes- 
ty's subjects to obedience, and in driving the French out of the 
kingdom of Naples. — At Salerno*, with only forty marine* 
belonging to the Zealous, Captain Hood kept in check a force 
of 3000 men, who were attacking that place, until the few 
Neapolitans that had taken up arms had time to escape. The 
enemy attempted to surround the little band of Neapolitan 
royalists ; but, favoured by the exertions of Captain Hood, they 
had the good fortune to effect a retreat, with the loss of only 
two killed, nine wounded, and six prisoners. Twice also Cap- 
tain Hood drove the French out of Salerno, by the fire from the 
Zealous. 

Captain Hood was afterwards employed on shore at Naples, 
in taking charge of Castel Nuovo -f ; and kept the city perfectly 



* Salerno is a sea-port town of Italy, in the kingdom of Naples, and capital of 
tlie province of Principato Citra. It has a good harbour, forlined, and defended 
hy a castle. It is situated at the distance of twenty-six miles, E.S.E. from 
Naples. 

•j- Castel Niiovo was taken possession of on the 26th of June, the French 
having previously evacuated the City of Naples. This is one of the five castles 
which protect the city. It has a communication with the royal palace, and on 
•ne side is contiguous to the sea. It» arsenal formerly contained 50,000 complete 
stand of arms. 



COMMODOUE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. 23 

quiet, during the siege of St. Elmo*, and of Capua f, until the 
period of their reduction. His Sicilian Majesty acknowledged 
these services, by presenting him with a snuff-box, enriched with 
diamonds ; and at the same time conferring on him the rank of 
Commander of the Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit. 

This honour was confirmed to Captain Hood, by his owa 
Sovereign's royal license and permission, er;closed for hira in ths 
Tollowing letter to Lord Viscount Hood : — 

MY DEAR LORBj College of Arms, May 1, 1801. 

AS I am at present unacquainted with the address of Captain 
Samuel Hoed, I take the Hberty, at the suggestion of Sir Thomas 
Troubridge, to commit to your Lordship's obliging care the 
enclosed Royal License, authorizing your distinguished relative to 
accept the rank of Commander of tfee Order of St. Ferdinand and 
of Merit, and to bear the Insignia of the said Order ; as also the 
letter of notification of His Sicilian Majesty's Secretary of State; 
both \^hich in.itruments have been duly recorded in this College. 

Captain Hood's Agents have discharged the usual fees accruing 
upon the occasion, at the Duke of Portland's Office, and at this 
College. I have the honour to be, with great respect, 

Your Lordship's faithful and obedient humble Servant, 

ISAAC HEARD, 

Lord Viscount Hood, cjfc. <|-c. ^c. Garter. 

The subjoined is a copy of His Majesty's License, for Cap- 
tain Hood's acceptance of the Sicilian Order of St. Ferdinand 
and of Merit : — 

GEORGE R. 

GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith, &c. To our right trusty and right entirely beloved 

* The Frencl), when they evacuated Naples, retained possession of tlie fort of 
St. Elmo, or St. Eranio, which is hewn out of a rock, towards the west of the 
city. Its subterraneous works are wide, lofty, and bomb-proof; and it has eight 
reservoirs for water. The harbour is spacious, with a canal and a raole nearly 
600 paces in length ; and, on the whole, it is a place of great strength. On the 
present occasion, it held out eight days, during which time our heavy batterie* 
were advanced within 180 yards of tlie ditch. Sir Thomas Troubridge, assisted 
first by Captain Ball, and alterwards by Captain (now Admiral) HalleweU, 
fiommanded the forces which were landed from the English squadron, 

f Capaa i» situated fifteen ipUe» sortb of NapUs, 



21 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

Cousin, Charles Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marsha!, and out 
Hereditary Marshal of England, greeting. Whereas our good 
lirother, Ferdinand the Fourth, King cf the Two Sicilies, hath 
solicited our consent to allow our trusty and well-beloved Captain 
Samuel Hood, of our Royal Navy, to have the rank of Comman- 
der of the Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit, which it is our 
said good brother's intention to confer upon him. And wc being 
graciously pleased to approve thereof ; know ye that we, of our 
princely grace and special favour, have given and granted, and by 
these presents do give and grant, unto him the said Captain 
Samuel Hood, our royal license and permission to accept the said 
gracious mark of His Sicilian Majesty's favour, and bear the 
Insignia of Commander of the said Order. Our will and pleasure 
therefore is, that you, Charles Duke of Norfolk, to whom the 
cognizance of matters of this nature doth properly belong, do 
require and command, that this our concession and declaration be 
registered in our College of Arms, together with tiie relative 
documents, to the end that our Officers of Arms, and all others, 
upon occasion, may take full notice and have knowledge thereof. 
And for so doing this shall be your warrant. Given at our Court 
at St. James's, the seventh day of January, 1801, in the forty- 
first year of our reign. 

By His Majesty's command, 

PORTLAND. 

Recorded in the College of Arms, London, in the register 36, 
pursuant to a warrant from the Most Nobje Charles Duke of 
Norfolk, Earl Marshal, and Hereditary Mai>hal of England, and 
examined therewith this fourth day of February, ISOl. 

GEORCE HARRISON, 

Captain Samuel Hood , License to Norroj Regi^ttr, 

accept the Rank nf Commander 
0f the Order of St. Ferdinand 
Mtid of Merit, and to bear the 
Jnsignia ofCommunder of thi 
said Order. 

The Zealous was paid off in the month of May^ 1 SOO, uuti 
Sir Samuel Hood was appointed to tlie Courageux, of 7-i guns, 
in which he was for some time actively employed in the 
Channel Fleet. The Courageux afterwards formed part of a 
detached squadron, under Sir J. B. Warren, at Ferrol and 
Vigo, until Jamiary 1^01 : at wlilch period Sir Samuel w?.^ 



COMMODOIIE SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AXD E.S.r. 23 

revnoved into the Venerable^ another 74 gun ship. In ilie 
Venerable he was again employed in the Channel ileet, until 
the month of April ; when he escorted a valuable ficet of East 
Indiamen beyond the Cape de Verdes. On his return, he 
joined Sir James Saumarez, off Cadiz ; and, after making some 
captures on that station, was in the action of the (ith of July, at 
Aloesiras*. This action, it will be recollected, was not of the 
most fortunate stamp ; but, as we had occasion to observe, in 
our memoir of Sir James Saumarez, the failure was attributable 
to catises which no prudence could foresee, which no valour 
could controul. — Sir James Saumarez, in his official account of 
this attack upon tlie enemy's fleet in Algesiras Bay, says : — 
*' I had previously directed Captain Hood, in the Venerable, 
from his experience and knowledge of the anchorage, to lead 
the squadron, which he executed with hi.i accustomed gallantry ; 
and although it was not intended he should anchor, he foiuid 
himself under the necessity so to do, from the wind's failing, (a 
circumstance so much to be apprehended in this coiUitry,) and to 
whidi circumstance I have to regret the want of success in this 
M'ell intended enterprise." — Sir James Saumarez also observes : 
^' My thanks are particularly diie to all the Captains, officers, 
and men under my orders ; and aUhough their endeavoius have 
not been crowned with success, I tiiist the thousands of specta- 
tors from His Majesty's garrison, and also the surrounding 
coast, will do justice to their valou;- and intrepidity, which waij 
aiot to be checked by the fire from the numerous baliciies, 
■however formidable, that surround Algesiras." — Sir Smnuci 
flood's ship, on this occasion, sustained a loss of eight killed^. 
and twenty-live v\ oundcd. 

After this action, Linois, the French Commander^ wan 
reinforced with a Spanish squadron of five sail of tjie line; not- 
withstanding which, and notwithstanding the ci ipplcd state of 
his own ^hips. Sir Janjts Sauniarez delerjnjncd to pursue, and 
attack the enemy -j-. A glorious victory, in Mhich Sn Samuel 
Jlood had the honour of bearing a distinguished j)art, was the 

r — 

* Vide Navai. Chhonicli , Vol. VI, pngc 109, and UC t Ibid. <>. li:5, ami Ms. 

/3at. er!;i8H. ffCcbXVIL E 



tQ BIOGRAPHICAL MElilOiR OP 

result of tills determination. In the evening of July IS, the 
enemy's ships were observed to have cleared Cabarcta Point ; 
at eight, Sir James bore up after them ; and, by eleven, the 
engaoenient had commenced. The Admiral continued the 
pursuit all night. " It blew excessively hai d till daylight," says 
Sir James Saumarez, in his dispatch of July 13, '' and in the 
morning the only ships in company were the Venerable and 
Thames, a-head of the Cassar, and one of the French ships at 
some distance from them^ standing towards the shoal of Conil^ 
besides the S})encer a-stern comhig up. — All the ships imme- 
diately made sail ^^■ith a fresh breeze; but, as we approached, 
the wind suddenly failing, the Venerable was alone able to 
bring her to action, which Captain Hood did in the most 
gallant manner, and had nearly silenced the French ship, when 
his main-mast (wiiich had been before wounded) was unfortu- 
nately shot away, and it coming nearly calm, the enemy's ship 
Avas enabled to get off without any possibility of following her. 
The highest praise is due to Captain Hood, the officers and 
men of the Venerable, for their spirit and gallantry in the action, 
which entlded them to better success. The French ship was an 
84, with additional guns on the gunwale. This action was so 
near the shore, that the Venerable struck on one of the shoals, 
but was soon after got off, and taken in tow by the Thames, but 
with the loss of all her masts." — Sir James Saumarez, in his 
official letter of the following day, observes : — " Captain Hood's 
merits are held in too high estimation to receive additional 
lustre from any praises I can bestow ; but I only do justice to 
my own feelings when I observe, that in no instance have I 
known superior bravery to that displayed by him on this 
occasion^'.'' 

In this engagement, the Venerable had 30 killed, and 100 
wounded']-. — Oil his arrival at Gibraltar, after the action. Sir 

• For Sir Samuel Hood's own account of his ciigageinent with this French ship, 
(the. Forniidabk',) the reader is relcrred to the Vlth V^olume of the ]Navai, 
CnnriMCLE, pa.ge 239. 

t The Gazet'.e account of this action (vide Naval Cijronicle, Vol. ^'I, pags 
239) states the loss of the VeneraMe to have been 18 killed, and 87 wounded ; 
but Sir Samuel Hood's Alemorial, which will preicntly appeRv, nientioijs the low 
as above. The latter account, we presume, may be the correct one» 



co?.iMODonr. sir samltx hood, k.b. and k.s.f. '27 

Samuel Hood, in common with the other Captains of the fleet, 
received tlie following Memorandum of Thanks from the 
jAdmiral : — 

C(X&ar, Rosia Bay, Ju/a I/), lOtfl. 

Rcar-Admiral Sir James SaumarcK, Bart, has the happiness to 
ofl'er his most heartfelt congratulations to the Captains, ollicors, 
and men, of the ships he has the honour to command, on the sig- 
nal success with which it has pleased the Aliuigluy God to crown 
tlicir zealous exertions in the service of their country. 

To the discipliue and valour of British seamen, is to be 
ascribed their great superiority over the enemy, who although 
treble the force of the English squadron, in number of guns and 
weight of metal, have been so singularly defeated. 

The Rear- Admiral has not failed to transmit, in his late dis- 
patches, a report of the unparalleled exertions of all the ofliicers and 
men in refitting His Majesty's ships after the battle of Algesiras, 
(where their conduct and bravery were equally conspicuous,) 
which has led to the late glorious success. ^ 

Sir Samuel Hood had afterwards the satisfaction of receiving 
the particular Thanks of tlie Admnalty, in addition to the 
general vote of thanks from Parliament, for his great and 
extraordinary exertions. 

Sir Samuel returned to England in the month of November ; 
and, on the signing of the Preliminaries of Peace, his ship, tlie 
Venerable, was paid off. 

His services, ho^^ ever, were too valuable and important, for 
him to be permitted a long enjoyment of repose. In the 
month of October, 1802, he was appointed a joint Commissioner 
for the Government of the Island of Trinidad ; and, on the 
death of Rear- Admiral Totty, he w as -ajjpointed Commander in 
Chief on the Barbadoes and Leeward Island station. 

At the breaking out of the present war. Sir Samuel Hood, in 
conjunction with General Grinfield, the Commander in Chief of 
the army, captured the Islands of St. Lucia * and Tobago ; 
made prisoners upwards of twelve hundred of the enem\'.s 
troops ; and completely destroyed their trade in those seas. 

*" St. Lucia suirendcreu to flis Majesty's iiriiis on t!ii ',"id or.lune, ISO,-. ]'i:tc 
Naval Chkomcli:, Vol. X, page 260. Tobajjo surrcutkicJ on {h^- oOUi ut ihe 
smiie iiiuiUli. 



28 EIOGItAPincAL MEMOIR OF 

Wiiliiu the period of tlirce months, Sir Samuel also, ill 
conjunction with General Grinfichl^ captured the valuable 
colonies of Denierara, Isscrjuibo, alid Corbice * ; and, in about 
eight months after, he compelled the settlement of Surinam 'J- to 
surrender, and subsequently reduced the island of Jlartiniquc to 
tlie greatest distress. 

In addition to the above-mentioned important captures, Sii* 
SiMiinel Hood tcck a id destroyed, as our Letters upon Service 
most amply testify^ a great number of the enemy's privateers 
•and fillips of v.ar, upon the Leeward Island station ; and pro- 
tected our own trade in tliat quarter, to the entire satisfaction of 
all parties. Tor these numerous and signal services. His 
^Majesty was graciously pleased to bestow upon him, as a dis- 
tinguishing mark of his royal favour, the mo:;t honourable Order 
of the Bath. 

On the arrival of Kear-Admiral Cochrane in the West Indies 
in 1S03, Sir Samuel Hood returned to England; but, before 
his departure from the Leeward Islands, he was presented with 
the most flattering addresses from the respective Legislative 
Assemblies, accompanied by an elegant service of plate, valued 
at three hundred guineas. The garrison of Barbadoes made 
him a similar present, as a token of their gratitude for his 
attention to them, during his three expeditions, against St. 
Lucia and Tobago, Demerara, Is.'^equibo, and Berbice, and 
Surinam. Sir Samuel also experienced many highly gratifying 
marks of attention, from the merchants and inhabitants, for his 
.services in the culonit^, and for the protection which he had 
atlorded to the trade. 

After his return to England, in the course of 1805, this de- 
serving ofhcer was made a Colonel of Marines. 

Early in the year 180!^^. Sir Samuel Hood was appointed to 
the Centaur, a".;d placed urider the orders of Earl St. Vincent, 

* Demerara and L>equiba surrendered on tlie 19tli of September. liae 
?v^vv.4L CiinoxicLE, Vol. X, page 501; and \'oJ. XI, page 57, ct scq. Jjerbite 
surrendered on the 24ili. Jbid. page 57, ct scij. 

t Tliis colony surreudered, by capitulation, on the 4t]i of May, loOi. Vide 
Naval Chronicle, Vol. XII, page 80, ct scq. On Uus occasion, JJaior General 
i-'if Churlts Green was the military toiumander. 



Commodore sir samuel hoop, k.b. axd k.s.t. 29 

who gave iiim the command of seven sail of the Hne, with some 
smaller vessels, to watch the motions of the enemy off Roclifort. 
On the morning of September Q.3, after four montli.s' perse- 
verance in this service, he had the good fortune to fall in with 
a squadron of the enemy, consisting of five large frigates and 
two corvettes, full of troops. In the action which ensued, Su- 
♦Samuel was severely wounded, and was afterwards under the 
^necessity of having his right arm amputated. He succeeded, 
liowever, in capturing four of the frigates, all very tine ships, 
one of which bore the French Commodore's pendant. — Sir 
Samuel's official account of this action has so recently appeared 
in the Naval Chromcle *, that we now feel it unnecessarj 
to enlarge upon the subject ; but justice requires us to state^ 
tliat, altiiough he had seven sail of the line> &c. under his orders, 
only three of his ships — the Centaur, Monarch, and iNIars — 
"were able to come up w ith the enemy. The total loss of Sir 
Samuel's squadron consisted of 9 killed, and 32 wounded. 

For his conduct upon this occasion, and in consideration of 
the loss of his arm, and of his former numerous services. His 
Islajesty has since been most graciously pleased to order liini a 
pension of oOO/. per aiutum. 

Having brought the subject of this memoir thus far upon his 
career of glory, we shall subjoin, by way of summary of what 
V\c have advanced, the following 

McMouiAr. nf Sir Suinucl Hood, K.B.^ a Commodore in Ills 
Majc^iij's Nai'j/, scliing J'oiih his Services, and flic loss of his 
rii^ht (inn J in an Action icith a Squadron of the Enciiijj''s Fri- 
gatfs on the 23th of September last ; and praijing a Vcmioiu 

To the King's jNIost Excellent ]Majcs(y in Council, 
The Meiijorial of Sir Samuel Hood, Knight of the most 
honourable Order of the Uathj and a Commodore in your ^Mujes* 
ty's Royal Navy, 

MOST HUMBLY SUEWETU, 

THAT your Majesty's ^Memorialist ha^i served upwards of 
thirty years iu the Royal Navy ; as Midshipman in your Majesty's 

* "\ol. XVI, page Sio. 



30 BlOGnAl'irTC.lL MEMOIR. OF 

ships Courageus and Robust, from the year 1776 to the 
beginning of the year 1779 ; that he was actively cruising in the 
former ship, and in the latter, at the ca])ture of la Pallas and 
T^icornc in 177S, and in the action of the 27th July, was Aid-de- 
camp to the Captain, in which action the ship had 9 men killed 
and 23 wounded ; that he served in His Majesty's sloop Lively in 
the latter part of the year 1779, until Octob^^r 1780, and was at 
the capture of the Duchesse de Chartrcs privateer, in the Bristol 
Channel, after a short action; that he served as acting, and 
Lieutenant of Tlis Majesty's ship Barllcur, under the flag of Sir 
SauMiel (Novv^ Lord \'iscoun() Hood, from October 1780, to the 
3!st January, 1782, and was in the action of the 29th of April, 
J 781, with Count de Grasse, olf Martinique : in the action of the 
two fleets ofl' ihc Chesapiiak, the 5th of September 1781, and in 
the actions of the 25th and 2Gth of January 1782, between the 
two fleets at St. Ritt's; that your Majesty's Memorialist was then 
first Lieutenant of the Barflcur, and was promoted the 31st of 
January, 1782, at St. Kitt's, Avhile the enemy's fleet was in sight, 
into His Majesty's sloop Renarde, she being laid up as a conva- 
lescent ship at Antigua; your iMajesty's Memorialist seeing this 
would be an inactive life, volunteered to remain on board the 
Barflcur, and was in that ship serving as Volunteer in the 
memorable battles of the 9th and 12th of April, 1782, in which 
the BarUeur, wearing Sir Samuel (now Lord) Hood's flag, bore a 
very conspicuous part, and suffered a great loss in men ; that he 
also was in her at the capture of the squadron of the enemy in the 
Mona Passage, on the 19th of April, 1782; that owing to some 
misunderstanding on the subject of your Majesty's Memorialist, 
he was not promoted. Sir Samuel (now Lord) Hood would not 
ask Sir George Rodney the favour, and Sir George would not 
give it without a request from Lord Hood, which then prevented 
vour Majesty's Memorialist from being promoted : he therefore 
remained a Volunteer in the Barfleur until the preliminaries of 
peace were signed, when he joined his sloop at Antigua, and 
carried recommendations to Admiral Pigot, but he had unfortu- 
nately sailed for England, by which your Majesty's Memorialist^ 
was again prevented from gaining the rank of Post Captain ; and 
in June 1783, the Renarde b^ing paid ofl', your IMajesty's 
^Memorialist Avent to France, that he might obtain useful know- 
ledge for his future services to your Majesty ; that he was, on his 
r::turn to England in 1785, appointed to the Weazle sloop of war, 
aiii] scat un the Halifax stationj where, from his gaining a thorough 



COMMOnOUE SIR SAMUEL JIOOl), K.T!. AND K.S.T. 31 



knowledge of the coast, he made his services very useful to the 
Commander in Chief on that station, and was in 1788 rewarded 
with a Post Commission, and appointed to the command of Jlis 
Majesty's ship Thisbe, where he continued until the latter end of 
the following year, when the Thisbe was ordered to England, and 
being a few days only stationed to ])rotect the llevenuc, he cap- 
tured a famous smuggling cutter, called the Lively, of one hundred 
and twenty tons, and was, on his return to Portsmouth, paid off. 
In May, 1790, he was appointed to your Majesty's ship Juno, 
and shortly after proceeded to Jamaica, Avherc your Majesty's 
IMemorialist, in 1791, had the good fortune by his exertions in the 
barge, to save the lives of three men from a wreck at sea, for 
"which the Assembly at Jamaica gave him a sword, value one hun- 
dred guineas ; that your Majesty's Memorialist returned to 
England, and was stationed to protect the Revenue in the 
Channel, between Dunnose and the Start, and had the honour, 
that and the following year, to attend your Majesty at Wey- 
mouth. 

In 1793 your Majesty's Memorialist was employed in the Chan- 
nel, and made several captures from the enemy, two of them were 
privateers; he then, in the Juno, proceeded to the Mediterranean, 
where he was actively employed, and in that ship's escape from 
Toulon, he trusts his judgment and firmness were conspicuously dis- 
played ; that, in February, she Avas employed at the attack of St. 
Fiorenzo, and particularly engaged against Mortello Tower ; and 
your Majesty's Memorialist received the thanks of the Admiral for 
his conduct, and also those of the Commander in Chief on shore, 
for his services in getting cannon up for the several batteries, and 
otherwise aiding the army in the reduction of that port. Your 
Memorialist was immediately after appointed to your Majesty's 
shipl'Aigle, in which he served until 1796, and was employcdat the 
blockade and capture of the port of Calvi ; that your .Majesty's 
Memorialist the whole of 1795 was employed in tlse command of 
a small squadron in the Archipelago, where lie J.ot only pro- 
jected the trade, but also kept blockading a squadron of thi^ 
enemy's frigates of equal force, and received the thanks of th« 
Levant Company, with that of the British Factory in those seas- 
in very handsome terms ; your Majesty's INIenioriulist, in April 
17S6, was appointed to the command of your Majesty's ship 
Zealous, and was actirely employed under Sir John Jervis, (no\r 
Earl St. Vincent,) oil'J'oulon, in the same year, and in 1797 off 
ijnilh ; your Majesty's Meiaorialiat accompauied Lord Neljou in 



3^ BIOGRAPHICAL MEirOIR OF 

the Zealous to Tenerifie, and was in the action when he lost hist 
arm ; the next year he also served under him in following the 
ei\emy's lleet up the Mediterranean, and was at the Battle of the 
Nile, in which the Zealous alone captured the Giicrrier, the van 
»hip of the enemy, which was dismasted twelve minutes after the 
Zealous opened her fire ; tliat your Majesty's Memorialist in the 
Zealous alone, engaged the four ships escaped, until she was 
recalled by signal ; that your JMajesty's Memorialist, after the 
action, Avas left by the late Lord Nelson with the command of a 
squadron on the coast of Egypt, and kept the port of Alcxan Iria 
eloselv blockaded, which afterwards hastened its capture; he 
'opened an amicable commuuication with all the Pachas and 
Governors under the Grand Seignior, and conciliated a friendship 
with Jezzar Pacha of Acre, which was afterwards of essential ser- 
vice to Sir Sidney SmiMi, and gave the squadron abundant supplies 
and rcfrtshnients during its stay oii the coast of Egypt ; that your 
Majesty's Memorialist took and destroyed above thirty of the 
neutral trant^ports that carried the enemy's troops to Egypt, and 
the squadron made some other caijtures ; that he was sometimes 
engaged in annoying the enemy on shore with the gun-boats ; and 
was, as au acknowledgment for his services by the Grand 
Seignior, i)rescnted with a handsome snulT-box set with diamonds; 
that your Memorialist returned to join Lord Nelson at Palermo, 
in the month of February 1789, and afterwards was employed 
with Lord Nelson in reducing Ilis Sicilian Majesty's dominions to 
obedience, and driving the Frauch out of the kingdom of Naples ; 
that at Salerno, the enemy, with a force of 3000 men, attacked 
that place, and your jMajesty's Memorialist, with only 40 
marines, kept the whole army in check, until the few Neapolitans 
who had taken up arms had time to escape; and though the 
cnenif attempted to !-urround this small party, he was cnalj-led (o 
embark the greater part, with the loss only of two killed, six 
wounded, and nine taken prisoners ; that your JMajesty's 
INIemorialist drove the enemy twice out of Salerno by the fire of 
the Zealous, and very n.uch assisted the Royalist Party ; that your 
M2Jesty's Memorialist was afterwards employed on shore at 
Naples, in taking charge of Castel Nuovo, and kept the city most 
perfectly ([uiet during the siege of Elmo and Capna, til! the period 
of their reduction : which services His Sicilian Majesty acknow- 
ledged, by giving your Memorialist a handsome snniF-box svt with 
diamonds, and conferring on him (with your IvTajesty's per- 
Biission) the rank of Comiu^iider of St. Ferdi^iiind and cf Merit, 



C05{M0I)0j1E Sik SAMt'EI- HOOD, K.D. AND K.S.f. 33 

fhe Order of; that your Majesh's Memorialist, after distressing 
the enemy's trade on the coast of Spain, was ordered to lOngland ; 
and the Zealous, in May 'SOI, being found in want of great 
repairs, your Majesty's Memorialist was appointed to the com- 
inand of the Couragoux, and Avas actively employed in lier in the 
Channel fleet, and in a detached squadron under Sir John 
Warren, at Fcrrol and Vigo, until January ISOI ; your Majes- 
ty's Memorialist Avas then appointed to the V^enerable, and 
actively employed in that ship in the Channel fleet, until Aprii, 
when fhe escorted ft TuluaWc ilret for the East Indies beyond 
Cape de Verdes, and returned oft" Cadiz, after making some cap- 
tures ; that your Majesty's Memorialist soon afterwards joined 
Sir James Saumarez, and put himself under his command, liad the 
honour of being in the action on the Gth July, at Algcsiras, and iu. 
those of the Tith and 18th, when the Venerable had all her masts 
shot away, and had 30 men killed, and 100 w^ounded, for which, 
your Majesty's Memorialist was not only thanked by Sir James 
Saumare/., but also particularly by the Admira'ty ; that your 
Majesty's Memorialist, after the V enerablc was refitted, returned 
to England, and in November, from the ship wanting considerabia 
repairs, and preliminaries of peace being signed, he was paid off; 
that your Majesty's JNIemorialist was in October appointed a* 
joint Commissioner of the is^Iand of Trinidad, and, oii the death of 
ilear-Admiral Totty, v.as appointed Commodore and Comirander 
in Chief on the Barbadoes and Leeward Island station, to which he 
proceeded in the Blenheim ; that on the suspicion of the com- 
mencement of hostilities, every arrangement was made for 
attacking the enemy's colonics and trade, tiie success of whicft 
was, that within ten days after tiie receipt of the infor?nation of 
war being declared, the islands St. Lucia and I'obago were cap- 
tured, the enemy's trade quite destroyed in those seas, and more 
than 1200 of their trooi)s made prisoners ; and in conjunction with, 
the Commanders in Chief of the army, the valuable colonics of 
fiemerara, Berbiec, Isscquibo, and Surinam, were placed under 
ilis Majesty's Government within twelve months, PvIartiniqutJ 
reduced to the greatest distress, many of the enemy's privateers 
■were taken and destroyed, and our ovvn trade protected, to the 
satisfaction of all parties J those services received your Majesty's 
gracious apjjrobation, and the distim:;uished honour of the most 
honourable Order of the Bath.' — In Eeljrnary, ]S05, an enemy's 
force, much superior to your iNiajesty's squadron, made its appear- 
ance in tlic U est Indies. Your Majesty's Memorialist cull?Gted 



34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIU OF 

all the scattered force, threw reinforcements of troops into tfrtfe 
islands most likely to be attacked, and joined Rear-Admiral 
Cochrane's squadron with the only ship of the line he had, and 
frigates that could be of service to him, and was then superseded 
in the command by the arrival of this senior officer. Your 
Majesty's Memorialist received the most flattering marks of 
attention from the merchants and inhabitants, for his services in 
the colonies, in the protection of their trade, and annoyance of the 
enemy, Avhen he returned to England, and was early this year 
appointed to the command of the Centaur, and placed under the 
orders of Earl St. Vincent, who gave your ^.laj^est} 's Memorialist 
a command of seven sail of the line and other small vessels, to 
watch the motions of the enemy off llochfort. After four months 
perseverance in this service, your Majesly's Memorialist had the 
good fortinie to fall in with, and capture the greatest part of a 
squadron of the enemy's fiigates, full of troops, endeavouring to 
escape; and in the action into which the Centaur had the good 
fortune to get up, your ^Majesty's Memorialist was severely 
Mounded, and was obliged to suffer the amputation of his right 
arm. Your Majesty's Memorialist prays you will be pleased to 
take (his his severe loss while in command.of the above squadron, 
and those his other services herein mentiojied, together with tho 
circumstance of his having lost two brotiiers in your i\iajosty's 
Naval service, into your Majesty's most, gracious consideratioiij 
and you? ^Memorialist ia dutj- bound will ever pray» 



^ WN-N^^^^^^ 




[rac-biniue after die loss of his arm.] 
Centaur, Spithead, December 8, 1506. 

In the year 1782, Sir Samuel Hood met with a very serious 
accident, which is not recorded in the above Memorial. At the 
time that he was serving as a Volunteer in the Eailieur, that 
ship being then in Port Royal Haibour, a fire broke out ofi 
beard of a merchahtman, which excited considerable alarm. 
Sir Samuel was very actively emplo\ed in the hold, in making 
some necessary clearance^ for the, purpose of getdng the Bartieur 
out of the reach of the flames, when a hawser, suddenly hauled 
away tVom tiie spot \> here he was stimding, tore up a part oF 



COMMODORt: SIR SAMUEL HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. 35 

die flesh of one of bis legs. Tills wound \\ as a long time before 
it healed ; and even at present, on any excess of fatigue, it 
gives him considerable pain. Sir Samuel, however, from 
a point of honour, as the hurt iiad not been incurred ni the 
regular course of service, refused to mijntion it in his Memorial. 
Had he been less delicate, it is not unlikely that the munificence 
of his Sovereign might have been somewhat farther exieuded. 

At the late general Election, Sir Samuel Hood's professional 
services having acquired him a just portion of popularity, he had 
the honour of being returned as one of the Members of Par- 
liament for the City of Westminster. Throughout the ilfteeii 
days' poll, he maintained a decided superiority of numbers; and, 
aJ: the close of the books, on the last day, lie had polled 5478 
votes; whilst Mr. Sheridan had but 4758, and Mr. Paull, the 
unsuccessful candidate, only 4481. — Agreeably to custom, from 
time immemorial. Sir Samuel was afterwards cliaired by the 
populace. As this is a ceremony, with tlie nature of v.hich 
some of our readers may be imacquainted, for dieir information 
and amusement, whilst employed peihaps upon a tedious and 
unprofitable cruise, we shall here insert the Order nf Procession, 
in which Sir Samuel^ accomjuuued by Mr. Sheridan, the 
Treasurer of the Navy, was conveyed from the hustings, at 
Covent Gaiden, through Catherine Street, and thence to the 
Thatched House Tavern, in St. James's Street, \\licre tlie par- 
ties dined with a numerous assemblage of their frieiius. — 



ORDER OF PROCESSIOX. 

High Constable on horseback, Constables, ?>Iarrow4joncs and 

Cleavers, and three Banners. 

SrR Samuel Ifoon's Car. 

Band of ?Jnsic, CLnOemen on horseback. Lord Petersham, 

Hon. Berkeley Craven, ^'*r. Mellish, Hon. ^Mr. Bar.'-y, iMr. 

Homan, &c., <S:c. 

Beadles of St. Ann's, Banner, and Parodiial Coinmittcc for con- 

diicthiiT tl'.e f'-icciion, 
Readies of St. Clement and St. JMary.lc-Strand, Banner, and 

Connnittee. 



26 BIOGRAPHICAL MCMOia Of 

Beadles of St. George, Hanover Square, Banner, and Committee, 

Beadles of St. James, Banner, and Committee. 

JJeadles of St. Margaret's and St. John's, Banner, and Committee. 

Beadles of St. Martin in the Fields, Banner, and Committee. 
Pcadlcs of St. Paul and St. Martin-le-Grand, Banner, and 

Committee. 

Large Banner — '' The People's Choice." 

Banner — " Sacred to Female Patriotism." 

Gentlemen on liorseback, two and two. 

Band of Music. 

Party of Sir Samuel Hood's Seamen, -' 

Various Banners of Mr. Sheridan's, intermixed ^vith Sir Samuel 

Ilood'i. 

THE CAll WITH T[IE MEMBERS, 

Surrounded by their Friends, draAvn by six horses, decorated 

■with ribands. 
The Busts of Mr. Fox and Loi-d Nelson, both crowned with 

laurel. 

Members' Carriages, with niany of tho^e of the Nobility and 

Gentry, &c. Sec. 

Since his election. Sir Samuel Hood has sailed Mith a 
"Squadron of ships, to the Baltic ; for tlie supposed purpose of 
convincing the enemy of the impracticability of any attempt to 
shut us out of those seas. — Lord Nelson, it will be recollected, 
obtained three great victories after the loss of his arm ; and, 
Avhen we retlect upon what the subject of this memoir has 
already achieved — ^vhen we reflect, that, to him, it hag ever 
seemed 



" ■ — ■ ■ an easy leap. 

To pluck bright honour I'roin the pale-faced moon; 
Or Llive Jnlo the bottom of the deep, 
Whsre tathoin line could iieve^: touch the ground. 
And pluck up drowned iionour by tlic loclcs," 

Shakspearb. 

^vc are fully justified in forming th:. most sanguine expectation^* 
pi' his future progress. 

We have only to add, that, whilst in Barbadoes, on the 6th 
of November, 1S04, Sir Samuel Hood married ISIarv, the 
eldest daughter of the Governor, Lord Seaforth, the repiesen- 



COMMODORE SIR SAMUEI, HOOD, K.B. AND K.S.F. 37 

tative of the ancient Earls of that title in Scotland ; by his wife, 
the daughter of Dr. Proby, Dean of Litchfield, uncle to the 
present Earl Carysfort *. 

Sir Saiiiuel Hood is at present the presumptive heir of the 
night Honourable Lord Viscount Bridport ; his Lordship's 
patent having been made out, with remainder to the second 
and every other son or sons born after him of Henry Hood, 
only son of Samuel Lord Viscount Hood, and their heirs 
respectively ; to Alexander Hood, who was killed in the Mars ; 
and to his surviving brother, the present Sir Samuel Hood, aud 
their heirs. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &e. 

NANTES IN GUnCITE VASTO, 

<;ALLANT exploit of lieutenant KERR. 

|N the 1st of July, the boats of the Jason frigate, Captam 
Coclirane, and of the Maria scljooner, Avcre sent, under the 
Gomniand of Lieutenant C. Kerr, of the former sliip, to sik-nce a 
small fort on the coast of Porto Rico, -which liad annoyed the 
Maria very much the day before. On landing close under the 
fort, the boats; grounded at such a distance, that tlie men -were up 
to their middle in the water, by which all their ammunition was 
spoiled, and tiioy cunseciuciitly could not fire a single musket 
against the enemy. Tlio Spaniards kept up a smart and mcI!- 
directed fire, which killed and wounded a number of our people, 
and, among others, the second in connnand, Master of the Maria, 
Avas struck at once ])y four bullets, and almost instantly expired. 
In this situation, Lieutenant Kerr, considering that cither liesita- 



* Lady liuoi! had nciti'y niti with a fat;il accident, whuii, upon the return of 
Sir Samuel to port, after liis engagement with the frigate«, she went on board the 
Centaur to visit hira. Slie got alongside the sliip between three and four o'clock 
in the morning : it was then quite dark ; and the boat, not having been properly 
made fast, driried away fiom the ship at tlie moment she was getting out : Lady 
Hood con!^cf|uentlY fell overboard; and, had it not been for the most active 
exertion, siie must inevitably have been drowned, 'the alarm of Sir Samuel upoQ 
tljis occasion wmy be more eiisilv conceived than described. 



3-S NAVAr, ANECDOTES, 

tion or retreat threatened certain destruction to the vhole party, 
instantly stormed the fort, and carried it without farther resis- 
tancf, the Spaniards ali running off the moment our brave tars 
began to advance. In the fort, instead of a single cfuiaon, Avhich 
they only supposed it to possess, were found five ; an iron 24- 
pounder, three brass twelves, and an iron eight-pounder. The 
first four were immediately spiked, and the last was turned 
against the Spaniards, who siili lurked in the bushes near the 
place. By some uiifoitunatE mistake, just as our men were about 
to leave the fort, a cartiidgc, much too large, was brouglit from 
the magazines ; and, after it had been cut, the overplus powder 
was left upon the ground, immediately under the gun. On firing, 
a spark set this loose powder on lire, which coDmmnicated to the 
magazine, and blew it up, by which two of our men were killed, 
and three badly wouiidtd. Lieutenant Kerr was wounded in the 
leg by a splinter, and had his face so much burnt, as to be in dan- 
ger of losing his si-ht. Of -10 men who landed from the boats, 22 
were killed or wounded, all before storming, excepting those killed 
and wounded by the explosion. 

In about a month after the accident, however, Lieutenant Kerr 
•was so much recovered, as to be nearly able to resume his duty. 

DISTRESS OF SIH RICHARD STRACIIAN's SOUADRON. 

THE following extract of a letter, from a young gentleman 
on board of His Majesty's ship Montague, to his father, dated 
Cawsand Ba}', September the 30lh, 1806, meritji preservation; 
as it conveys some idea of the course of Sir Richard Strachan's 
squadron, in pursuit of Jerome Buonaparte; and of the subse- 
quent distress and danger to which it \\as exposed : — • 

We this moment arrived from (he coast of America, under jury- 
top-masts ; and as T, have reason to think we are the fust of the 
fouadron, I shall give you the folio.ving account of our dangerous 
circuit round the Atlantic ocean. From Kng'and we made all 
expedition to Madeira and St. Jago; from St. Jago we returned 
to St. Michael. Standing northward from tliis island, we fell iu 
with a vessel Jjonnd to England, with dispatches from 'the West 
Indies, nnjiouncing tho French squadron's arrival at Martinico, 
for whici) we immediately steered, and had the pleasure of seeing 
Barbidoes in the short space of fourteen days, whose distance is 
2200 miles. Wc oxpvctccl to liave surprised Jerome arid his. 



COMMEKCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIOXS, &C. 39 

squadron; but jvere jireatly disappointed in finding them pursued 
to the northu'cifd by Sir J. B. Wari-cn, whoso vigiJancc, no doubt, 
has been equal to our own. It was o\v necessary to victual and 
"water before we could proceed any fdrthcr, after having suffered 
considerably from the saltncss of provisions, intense heat, and a 
scarci(y of water ; but, before even this was nearly completed, 
"wc sailed, with all expedition, to the northward. ^ I am, however, 
sorry to say, our endeavours in thrs were soon frustrated by tho 
following dreadful event: — On the 17th of August, it blowing 
fresh, the Admiral, in the Caesar, ma;!o a signal of having sprung 
a leak. The gale Increased towards night iii(o a most dreadful 
and alarming hurricane. It was supposed by the most experienced 
seamen, that a vessel could not survive this tremendous night. 
jVothing could be heard but the violence of the wind ; yet every 
thing Avas effected for the preservation of our ship, beyond 
imagination. The lightning that prevailed at Intervals, depicted 
the "most awful atmosphere ; and the rain, which was a great nicans 
of allaying the sea for our preservation, fell in a solid mass ; no 
sail could be set, so that we lay entirely at the mere)- of the 
waves, which, thank lieavcn ! v.erc less turbulent than the wind. 
The damages we sustained require a ruiich ;ibler description than I 
can give you, especially if I extend it beyond iho Montague, who, 
I am fearful, felt it much more favourable than others. 'I'ln; 
next morning, being the 18th, it was debated whether we should 
cut away our maiu-mast; but as the wind began to abate, and the 
sea not being yary high, we saved it, though in an useless con^ 
dition. As the sky cleared up, avo saw the Audacious to winJ- 
ward, totally dismasted, wiili wliom we parted company that night. 
Wc now directed our course to V irgiuia, the latitude of rendez- 
vous. Several tine da} s \jere employed in repairing damages, 
tishing our main-mast, getting up jury top-masts, kc. 

On the 2d of September, we had another severe gale, very little 
inferior, excepting for wind, to the former, in which the sea ran so 
high, that many people received violent contusions, and wei-c iii 
danger of being washed overboard. Our Captain finding it 
impossible to stay any longer in this turbulent latitude, after 
running the greatest risk, and using every possible means to join 
the squadron, we bore up for England ; and the ship has beea 
preserved entirely through the good conduct and perseverance of 
our intrepid officers and seamen ; she arrived here in a deplorable 
condition, with neither sails, ri::ging, masts, nor yards. 

lu making England, we again fell in Avith the poor Audacious,.. 



46 



NAVAI, ANECDdfES, 



Vho we found had suffered considerably that night ; licr fofc-mast 
fell overboard, and her fore-yard went through her decks ; allhei' 
boats were destroyed, excepting one ; and she informed us, she 
heard frequent firing of guns, as signals of distress. She remained 
a perfect Mrcck five days, during which she saw a deal of wreck 
floating. 

PROCEEDINGS OF PRINCE JEROME BUONAPARTE, IN 
THE VETERAN. 

THIS distinguished, and valiant personage, having had the 
good luck to elude the grasp of our cruisers, the Moniieur, of 
September the 3d, thus announced his fortunate return to 
France : — 

Captain Jerome Buonaparte, who commanded the Veteran, 
arrived in France on the 2Gth ult. lie gives an account, that he 
Jias left the squadron under the command of Vicc-Admiral. 
Guillaumcz in the t)est condition, having made SO rich prizes, and 
being in pursuit of a numerous convoy. 

It is impossible to give a detailed account of tlie operations of 
Our squadron, which is commanded by that Admiral, as it xcould 
unjoldihe olject of his missio7u It is suilicicnt to say, that he 
has already injured the English commerce to the amount of 20 
millions ! 

The Veteran celebrated the foast of the Emperor on the 15th of 
August, in a manner very honourable to its Captain and brave 
crew. The following is an account of it, taken from the 
Journal : — 

Aus^ust \5. — At the dawn of day we perceived two English 
ships of war escorting a convoy of IG sail. A general cry of 
*' Long live the Emperor !" resounded through the ship, which 
in an instant crowded all its sails. Being arrived within cannon 
shot, we hoisted English colours. The enemy made signals, to 
■which we did not answer ; but observing that the ships dispersed, 
and sought for safety in flighty we hoisted Vac French flag, and 
accompanied it with a discharge of cannon. The frigates manocu- 
Tercd, and a part of the convoy followed their example. The 
Veteran inimcdiatehj pursued those to the windward, which were 
twelve in number, of which she took nine : — The Alexander, of 
210 tons; the John and Isabella, 350; the Janus, 350; the 
Silver Eel, 400; the Success, 55; the William, 70; the Esther, 
300; the Hilton, 200; the Lydia, 210. 



COM^tEPvCl An JIINTS, UECCLT.ECTIO.VSj &.C. 41 

The convoy w<iq comin<T from QiK'])ec, and was loaded with 
jnasts, pitch, skihs, £ind other produce of that colony. Tiie prizes 
are valued at live millions ofU res. 

OnihslGch, at four P.M., the Veteran having collected tha 
j^nglish crews, and what was most valuable of the citrgoes, set the 
vessels on fire, and took advantage of several American sliips 
which she met, to dispose of the Engli h sailors on board them. 

During the nine months that the Veteran has been on her 
rriiise, she has lost but five men. Tiic crew have constantly beea 
in good health. Some scorbutic symptoms made their appearance 
before the ship arrived at St. Salvador, where the men were per- 
fectly cured. 

Admiral Cochrane, with four ships and two frigates, appeared 
at the distance of three leagues to the vvindward of the French 
squadron oif Tortola ; but that Admiral, perceiving that the 
Frc7ich squadron manceuvered to bring him to an engagement^ 
j)ut to sea, and having the wind, soon disappeared. 

Not contented with the preceduig rhodomontade^ another of 
the French papers, of the 9th of Septeinber, exhibited the 
following pompous and bombastic detail : — 

Prince Jerome. Buonaparte arrived on Sunday at St. Cloud, after, 
his long cruise. His Majesty inmiediately presented him with the 
Great Riband of tlie f^cgiou of Honour. From the 13th Decem- 
ber, to the 2Gth of August, this Prince contiuually kept the sea. 
in the midst of hostile squadrons^ supporting in every quarter the 
honour of the French flag, and doing irreparable mischief to the 
English commerce. In tracing the history of his voyage, as it is 
detailed in the English papers, we see him, on his first putting to 
sea, compel the convoy destined for tlie East indies aiid Ain:'rica 
to return to the Irish ports : from thence he went to St. Helena, 
in which remote cruise he destroyed several enem} 's vessels. The 
squadron afterwards put into >it. Salvador, the capital of the 
^Brazils, to procure fresh provisions for the few sick the} had on 
board. It afterwards coasted along South America, and destroyed 
several English privateers; and, on a sudden, appeared in th« 
West Indies, throzcing the trade and colonies of the enemij into 
consternation, and obliging Admiral Cochianc to take shelter iii 
Barbadoes. After it quitted Martinique, it went to St. Domingo, 
ivhere it repressed the scandalous traffic of some American adven- 
turers, who trade with the rebel negroes. It appears that, m 

jl2ab. <s:pmu CJoIiXVII, e 



d 



4» NAVAL ANECaOT£."!, 

pursuing them to the northward, the squarlron encountered a gal4 
of wind, wliich separated the Veteran from the other ships. The 
Prince then steered for the coast of France, and :;fter liaving 
chased several other vessels, ho destroyed above half the Quebec 
convoy, ^\vl put iojii^ht the frigates which accompanied it. The 
loss of this convoy creates the most painful sensation in England, 
because it was freighted with timber for the Navy, which Avas 
much rcanted. At la^-t (he Veteran entered a French port, without 
the English Government being able, not^vithstanding they had 
covered the seas with superior squadrons, under the orders of 
Duckworth, Louis, Cochrani^, Straehan, and Warren, to prevent 
tho. French division from fuiiilling any ony of its missions. Letters 
from rOrient mention, that Prince Jerome, dnri-ng this long 
Ciuise, wiMied to partake the fatigues of it liki an^ other oiScer ; 
and that the only time when Admiral Duckworth, with a supcrion 
force^ was near enough to rtnder an en;;aj^en;ent probable^ the 
Prince entreated Admiral GuillaumezHo be allowed ike honour of 
leading the .squadron into action. The crews, animated hy his 
example^ manifested the g^reatest impatience to engage; and every 
thing leads us to hope the result of it zcoitld have been glorious to 
the French Navy, if the wind had not separated the twa 
squadrons, 3,ncl given Admiral Guillaumez au opportunity of pur- 
suing bis destination. 

His Royal Highness, PRINCE Jerome Buonaparte, lias 
not only been invested uilh the great riband of the Legion of 
Honour, since his return to Fiance_, but he has had ihe honour 
to be promoted to the rank of Rear- Admiral ; and, according to 
report, he is on the eve of being married to a Princess of the 
^oLise of Whtemberg ! ! ! 

©ANGERS OF THE ASTEEA FKIGATE. 

THE following letter describes, with affecting minulenessj 
the incidents of this dangerous^, and almost fatal voyage : — 

Y.hineur, Deceviber i, 1806. 
After a tremendous passage, no description of which can give 
any adequate idea of its horrors, the Astrea frigate arrived here, 
1 may say almost a total wreck. V/c had little to complain of, 
considering the season of the year, and the dreary region we were 
approacliingj from the time we left the English coast, till Fiidaj 



fcOMMEUClVr. lit Jit?!, HECOI-LECTfOXS, 8cc, 43 

J'dist, when we made the ?v;\zo of Norway, which is the soutlierrl 
part of that country- ^Ve had the shore upon t'ue larboard hand^ 
a good bree/.c of wind, and were going at the rate of Un knots; 
*« h?n, on a sudden, without the smallest indication whatever that 
Biich an evil was iniponditig, one of the most terrible gales of wind 
broke upon us, th;it tlie oldest seaitiin ever witnessed. The roar 
of its sudden burst Is yet in my ears. Tremendous as the tempest 
was, the admirable dii^^cipline of the ship, and the alertness of our 
men, were able to meet it with every exertion that, under such a 
difficuUy, it was possible to make; but the wfM'^hi: of the storm, 
and its rapidity, had disabled our rigging considerably; and it was 
only such a crew as wc had, that, under Providence, was able to 
work our safety. For a tiiue we apprehended that our fate was 
inevitable, and that the Astrea was destined to leave her ribs on 
the shoals of Norway ; but we Avere reserved for new, and still 
more alarming dangers, though, thank God, ultimately for safety. 
We disengaged the vessel frdm the shore with infinite difficulty, 
and, pursuing our course, we had to encounter the risk of touching 
upon the Skaws, which arc off the point of Jutland, and which are 
objects of terror to the best Pilots even in the tinost weather.— 
With the best preparations that precaution and seamanship could 
take; every man looking out that was possible; soiindisig con- 
tinually ; and the Islastcr and Pilot as vigilant, as our officers and 
men were, strenuous and active, we escaped the Skaws, and got 
into the Cattegat. Here our confidence was somewhat restored ; 
and the piercing cold, and the furious gale that was blowing, were 
scarcely inconveniencics, when we reiiected upon what we had 
cscapi'd. In (his disposiition, our spirits felt relieved, though there 
was not any material abatement of our caution; our Pilot did not 
seem to give us much cause for apprehension, and we wore pur- 
iuing our course briskly, w!ien, to our dismay, the ship struck ! 
We found ourselves upon a reef of rocks, perhaps those called tha 
New Dangers, about three miles from the island of Anholt, and 
nbout nine miles, as well as 1 can guessj from any other shore- 
Jt will require some aid from the fancy of whoever has witnessed a; 
scene of this sort, to imigine our condition, \^'e immediately 
hoisted siguals, and fired guns of distress — but in vain. Not a 
soul from the shore put off to assist us in any way. Several vessels 
passed us, indiHerent spectators of our distress, and insensible to» 
every indication we made to them of our dreadful situation : their 
fcrews were as callous as the reef of rocks. All this time no effort 
*'as spared on board the Astrea, that coolueis and beamaushiy 



44 NAVAL AXECDOTESj (fcc. 

could devise. The mizcn and main-masts were cut away, the guns 
ivere thrown overboard, as well as the stores and provisions, to a 
considerable degree. Still the vessel laboured hard, and the water 
was rushing t'nroiigh her l)ottom, in a degree that left no man the 
hope of being saved. Before it gained considerably, a great 
quantity of the ballast Avas thrown over. At this awful moment, 
it was only a British man of war that could exhibit so noble a dis- 
play of cool ana sober heroism. The conduct of every man in the 
ship was great beyond all praise. Although imi)endiHg death had 
levelled us all to a sentiment of equality, and though every man 
expected momentary engulphment, still not a voice was heard but 
the coramaiid of the officers from one end of the ship to the other— 
jiot a face betrayed fear — not an instance of turbulent despair; 
everv man was displaying, in this sort of passive courage, as much 
heroism as if he were grappled with an enemy. The miraculous 
eHorts made by the crew, with all the pumps, kept the water from 
gaining wholly upon us ; and while we were in the midst of all 
this exertion, to our astonishment, and to our horror in some 
Tcspects, thv' ship floated ! Judge of our situation, lightened even 
to the loss of some of oar ballast, with only the foremast standing, 
and the vessel so damaged in the bottom, as that it required all the 
pumps to prevent the water gaining to a fatal increase upon us ! 
Those territic difBcuHies, however, only showed the resources of 
skill and courage. In an incredibly short time, jury, main, and 
inizen-masts were rigged, though only a few could be spared from 
the pumps; and, as the wind was fair, we took a farewell of the 
reef that had been nearly so fatal to us : and at length, exhausted 
almost to death, we arrived here this day. 

During the dreadful scene we had experienced, Lord Hutchinson 
and his suite were not inactive assistants. New as the danger was, 
they were as composed under it as any person on board, though 
the expectation of safety was abandoned by all. If British seamen 
■wanted the force of example, they would have it very amply, in 
the amazing coolness and collectedness of Lord Hutchinson during 
the whole of our danger, in wi;ich the force of his Lordship's luind 
afforded some valuable suggestions. His Lordship, I am sorry to 
say, has not escaped the eilects of his exertions and privations for 
nearly three days ; he is gone on shore somewhat indisposed. 



45 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. EDITOR, 

T HAVE had the honour of filling several of your pages, and 

the pleasure of perusing the zchole of them. Your labours 
have been extended through a most eventful period of general 
history, and one most peculiarly honourable to the profession your 
VFOrk is designed to iuTorra, and to do justice to. If you have 
space enough vacant from the lab;mrs of more valuable corre- 
spondents, be so good as to insert this letter, for the sake of its 
topic, which I hold to be most critically interesting, no^ to the 
Navy only, but to the national honour and character. 

Whatever expressions fall from the lips of Lord Howick, must 
come with weight, as sanctioned by the known abilities and inte- 
grity of the speaker. Such is my opinion of that nobleman, that it 
is painful to me to differ from him ; but I very much lamented to 
see the following sentence inserted iti your last C'iiuonicle, and 
the newspapers, as part of a speech made by his Lordship : — 

" Sir H. P. has chosen to write circular letters to manufactur- 
ing towns, on the principle, and from ihs fa/ fd injlucnce olihsit pa- 
triotic society at Lloyd's^ which is held out to the Navy, as giving 
greater encouragement than ihe government of the conniry.'''* 

What, Sir ! am I to consider this society, which is so justly esteem- 
ed a very high honour to our national character, as everting, or 
having used, a fatal injluence? Was it in the power of our Go- 
vernment, as now and usually executed, to have placed so many 
prisoners^ icidows, and orphans, in comparatively easy and com- 
fortable circumstances? fVoidd, or could the Government (I 
repeat, as now executed,) have given so many honourable marks of 
reward as decorate the houses and tables of those M'ho have fought 
their country's battles, which afford so much honest pride, and 
which excite so much honourable emulation in the friends and 
relations of those who have won these trophies ? I have always 
observed, Mp. Editor, that it is not the massy plate to which the 
attention is drawn, but the inscription which records the deeds 
which have merited the nie.d of hoiio.ir. 

Nor can we travel far in this inland, without meeting some 
maimed seaman or marine, who is enjoying cpn^fort from th.; mu- 
nificonce of this truly patriotic society. Sir, I believe, that the 
society at Lloyd's only acts for the nation at large, and that there 



46 CORRESPnunENCe. 

is no town or hamlet that docs not add its mite towards this greai 
and benevolent undertaking. 

This society has always appeared to me to hare come forward to 
avsi.st the executive Government in a point, wherein the most 
liberal administration could not have given way to its wishes, with 
respect to the magnitude of pecuniary reward and assistance, in 
the case of death or wounds. With respect to the honorary re- 
gards which have been given by the society, they are the applauses 
of our country reduced into a form, M'hich descend to gratify 
posterity for ages to come. Where, then, arises Wtc fatal hifiU" 
encc of this society ? 

But this short sentence gives rise to another question.— What 
encouragement does the Navy receive from the Government of the 
coitntrij? Does it receive Jus'Jcc ? 

I believe, Sir, that I may assert in full confidence, that the 
honour of the 'gold chains and medals is what our Admirals an^C 
Captains look forward to in the day of battle; they wish no other, 
they can think of no higher^ This mark of their Sovereign's ap- 
probation, and the thanks of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 
are the brightest jewels in the cabiuit of a naval officer ; but these 
are only given on momentous occasions ; and they should not be 
too common. But besides these honourable marks of distiuctiorf 
for actions of high national import, Avhat are tiie encouragement^ 
shown to the Navy by the Government of the country? and there 
are actions of equal enterprise, and at least of equal danger, anci 
which merit some honourable distinction. 

A naval officer or seaman has two very powerful encourage- 
ments — one self derived, " that every man has dune his duty''' — ? 
the other is the apidause of his country ; and I have never esteem- 
ed the gifts of ihe patriotic society but as visible and durable testi- 
monies of ihat applause. 

If ad so just a man as I esteem Lord IL to bo, remained longer 
at the head of the Atlmiralty, he might have been more able to 
have appreciated this subject, and to see the difficulties and dis- 
couragements which attend the naval service. But, unfortunately, 
before any man has been long enough at the head of the Admiralty 
to form, much less execute, any plan for the advantage of the ser- 
vice,, he is -dismissed, or removed to some ot!\er office. 

If his Lordship ever wishes to befriend (he Navy, let him in- 
quire of the naval agents respecting the delays and difficulties 
attending the receiving the pay of officers, particularly Captains. 
Let him inquire into the ruinous injustice which has taken place 



eORUESPOXDENCl. 47 

yftspecting prize appeals. Let him inquire liow many officers, after 
having clone their duty in the most heroic maimer, liave never re- 
ceived the most slight or distant token of approbation, but perhaps 
have met with checks respecting trifling inforn;alities, which might 
have been spared at any time. Let him observe how heavily the 
promotions, after even the great victory of Trafalgar, were drag- 
ged out of of&ce. Let him observe how almost all promotions for 
cmin* nt services have been wrung /ro»« the Guvernment of /he 
Coimtry. 

But 1 trespass beyond proper bounds. Should this meet the eye 
of Lord ii. I have no doubt but that the subject will attract his 
attention. I approve rather o! re nesting you to in-ert this letter, 
instead of addressing m) self at once to his Lordship, in the hope 
pi its attracting the atteniion of many besides, who may judge of 
the merits of the case, astd yield essential benefit to the naval ser- 
vice, and of course to the nation at large, by due regard to its 
jp'ontents. 

I rcrriain, Sir, &c. &c. 



* P. S. In common v.ith many of your readers, I am anxious to 
hear particulars oi the nature of the inquiries of ihc iioard of ile- 
vision, and of their jirogress. 

I should tliink you might so much curtail some of the reports of 
the Board of Inquiry, as to give us some prospect of seeing the 
Gild. The results oi many of their inquiries are sufficient. 



"IIT^XTRACT of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. , on 

■^-^ board one of His Majesty's ships off Rochfort. 

Quibi'ron Buij, M'edncsdaji, December 'iTlh, 1805, 
Last Thursday I sent you word that we had arrived on our cruis- 
iHg ground off Kohfort. On account of a severe gale, which we 
experienced during the two following days, the chief part of Com- 
modore Keate's squadron put into this bay on Sunday. The Dra- 
gon came in the next day, but had suilercd a good deal. She 
grounded upon a shoal in entering the bay, and remaiiied upon it 
five minutes; and before this she was very near going iipoii the 
rocks of Bellcisle, from the difficulty she had in weathering them. 
The Kent has not appeared yet, and we are in some anxiety about 
hiix and the gun-bri^. We found the Renown, Captain Durham, 



4S COItRESFONDEXCR. 

here, with two frigates, the Blanche and Niobc. His station is oi? 
rOrient, but he has been here nearly a fortnight, on account of 
the tempestuous weather. The Montague is one of our squadron j 
I mentioned the Spartiatc in her stead. The Revenge is expected 
to return home directly. 

This is a noble bay, and large enough to contain all the Navy 
of England. The French, I dare say, are very angry that they 
cannot prevent our using it thus freely. Our anchorage is about 
ten miles distant from the main land, where there is a large town, 
with a handsome church, very perceivable, and a signal tower, 
w^hich is often at work. You will see by the map, that tiie two 
great rivers that flow from Vannes and Nantes are no great dis- 
tance from our present situation : but there seems a cassation of 
all traffic ; we have only seen two American merchant brigs sinc« 
we have been here. 

There arc tv/o islands, Hedic and Houat, very near us. They 
■were once fortifie:!, but in 1795 Sir J. B. Warren came hither with 
his squadron of frigates, took possession of them, and they have 
been since used by us for watering our own ships. I landed upoa 
Hedic yesterday with the watering party. This island does not 
seem more than two miles round ; it contains a small village, and, 
J should think, at most 100 inhabitants. Their chief subsistence 
arises from fishing ; but they grow some corn, and they may hava 
200 head of cattle : they have a good market for these from our 
ships, though they are extremely small ; but they do not ask mora^ 
than about three pounds a pii ce for them. The money this brings 
them, and what they get for their vegetables, they take over to 
the Continent, and bring back whatever necessaries they stand ia 
need of. They all wear wooden shoes, and their dress and figures 
are exactly what I have seen in old French pictures. There is a 
chapel in the island, but in no very good state, and a Priest. I 
was very sorry that I missed seeing the latter ; from my ignorance- 
of their language I could not discover where he lived, and all their 
houses appeared equally insignificant. The Priest of course is 
acquainted with Latin, and then perhaps I could have made my- 
self understood. I picked up a few shells, but none very valuable ; 
in one place the soil is covered with them. I probably may go 
again from the ship before we leave \his bay ; our boats go every 
day. 

Ilouat seems a larger island, and better inhabited ; but as it is 
farther off, it has not yet been visited. We shall most likely 
continue here as long as the wind keeps westerly ; for it prevents 



CORRESPOKDENcr. 49 

tlie French putting to sea ; and if it blew strong when we 
were away from hence, we might again feel the danger of a lee 
shore. 

The 25th, —I wish you all a merry Christmas. On the day 
after I last Avrote, the Fame came into Qiiibcron Bay. Ever since 
"WC parted company with her she had been endeavouring to join 
Captain Ke^teS' squadron, and during the gale I have mentioned 
before, she found herself, aboutten at night, close to the isle 
d'Icn : she was so near, that she could distinguish the lights 
in the houses above her on the rocks. 

On the 19th inst, the R.enown, with the small craft, sailed out 
of the Bay, to endeavour to intercept a number of French sloops 
that were trying to get round Celieislc, but they did not succeed in 
the attempt. It was highly diverting to see the Frenchmen sepa- 
rating on viewing our intent, and running in all haste to their own 
shores for safety. 

On the 20th, signal was made for our sailing, but almost imme- 
diately as we were under weigh Ave were ordered to anchor again ; 
and it was perhaps lucky for us we did so, as a hard gale from 
N. W. continued blowing during that and the two following 
days. 

On the 23d the wind was more moderate, and we got fairly out ; 
but about two P. M. we sprung our fore-top-mast, which occa- 
sioned the whole of us to put back. On anchoring in our old 
situation the Commodore sent word that Ave should fit a new one 
directly, and be ready for sailing the next day at six A. M., Avhen 
we Avere again under Avcigh, and w. have since kept our station 
remarkably Avell. The Avind still continues in its old quarter, 
N. W., Avhich has obliged us to tack very frequently ; but avc 
have now obtained a very tolerable offing, as avc are about fifteen 
miles S. W. of Belleisle. The RenoAvn came out Avith us yester- 
day, but she Avill not probably be long away from Quiberon Bay, 
as it lies convenient for her station ; but we, most likely, shiill 
not see it again, as Captain Keatcs has had strict orders from (he 
Admiralty to keep at sea as much as possible. On this account 
he Avas very anxious to get aAvay from thence. AV'e left the Dra- 
gon in the bay ; she is ordered home Avhen she has supplied the 
Penelope frigate Avith some of her stores. The Revenge sailed for 
England on the 23d. I sent no letter by her, for thc^ reason 1 have 
before mentioned, but I shall send you this by the next opportu- 
nity that oflcrs. The Fame has not been in sight since yesterday 

/53n. Qrt?ron. (HoI.XVII. ii 



56 ?LATE ccxxiir. 

evening ; all the other ships are good sailers ; the Superb is super- 
excellent in every respect. 

Sunday, Dec. 28th. — Since I last wrote v,e hare had delightful 
•weather ; in my cabin the thermometer has generally stood at 60°, 
and was hardly ever below that in Quibcron Bay. I suppose you 
have had frost and snow, and hard weather. The Kent and Fame 
joined us yesterday, so we are now quite ready for the llochfort 
squadron whenever it may choose to make its appearar.ee. We 
hear of their being at single anchor. 

Jan. 7th, 1807. — Wc have been at our present anchorage ever 
since the 1st instant. The wind coming easterly, we stood towards 
the land the day before ; and at noon, when wc tacked, ^\e were 
about eight miles from Sables d'Ollonc, w hich appeared to bo a large 
town with a handsome light house near it. We found the Blanche 
off there. She had just driven a French cutter ashore, and her 
boats were out to try to destroy her ; but as the cutter was within 
the range of a large battery, they were obliged to return on board 
without eifecting their purpose. 



PLATE CCXXIIL 

fTOlIE village of Walmer — probably so called, quasi vuUum 
JjL maris ^ that is, the w"ali, or foriilicafion made against the sea 

is situated about a mile to the southward of Deal, and about 

Jialf a mile from the sea-shore. 

Walmer Castle is one of the thro-- cas{ks (Walmer, Deal, and 
Sandown,) built by King Henry the Vllitb, in the year 1539, for 
the defence of the coast j and, by Act 32 of the same Sovereign, 
it w as placed under the government of the Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports. This castle has four round lunettes of very thick 
stone arched work, with many large port-holes. In the middle is 
a great round tower, with a cistern at the top, and underneath 
an arched cavem, bombproof: the whole is encompassed by a 
fo.ssc, over which is a draw-bridge. • 

Before the three castles were bnilf, there were, between the 
sites of Deal and Walmer Castles, two eminences of earth, called 
the Great and Little Bulicark ; and another between the north 
end of Deal and Sandown Castle (all of which are now remaining) ; 
and there was probably one about the middle of the town, and 
others oa the spots where the castles now stand. They had era- 



PLATE CCXXfTt. £1 

Erasures for guns ; and together formed a defensive line of bat- 
teries along that part of the coast, when there was deep water, 
and where ships of war could approach the shore, to cover the 
debarkation of an enemy's army. 

Walmer Castle occupies a remarkably pleasant situation, close 
to the shore, having an uninterrupted view of the Dow ns, and the 
adjoining channel, as far as the coast of France, The apartments 
towards the sea, having been modernized, and handsomely fitted 
up, have been used some years by thp Constable and Lord Warden 
of Dover Castle, for his residence in that part of the country. 
The truly great Mr. Pitt, the late Lord Warden, resided there 
whenever his public duties would permit his absence from the 
capital. 

The history of the Cinque Ports is detailed by Hams in his 
History of Kent, page 46G ; by old Lambard, in his Perambula- 
tion of that county ; and latterly by Ilalstead. 

The first Cinque Ports were Hastings, Dover, Hithe, Romney, 
and Sandwich, and so they are still. But this was not always the 
order of naming thera. Winehelsea and Rye were very soon 
added to them, as the two ancient towns, as were afterwards many 
other places, which therefore were called Members or Limbs of 
the Ports. 

The Navy of the Cinque Ports was anciently called the King^'s 
Navy, for he had no other, properly speaking, for many hun- 
dreds of years together. And though, as Harris adds, " Their 
first design, Lambard and some others make to have been, for the. 
honourable transportation and safe conduct of the King's own 
person, or his army, over the narrow seas ; yet the Ports have 
not only most diligently performed that service, but they have 
most valiantly behaved themselves against the enemies of their 
country, from time to time, as occasiQn ofTered itself, or the ne- 
cessity of the realm required." 

The first charter was granted to the Cinque Ports in 1077 by 
William. That king also appointed a Constable of Dover Castle, 
who is now called Lord Warden of the Cinqup Ports, and is in- 
vested with the. command of them. 

The present Constable, who sufceeded the Rif^hi Hob, Williaip 
^;tt, is LorcJ Hawkesbury. 



52 



CORRECT RELATION OF. SHIPWRECKS. 

[Continued from page 4l3.] 

ii^o. XV. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, andthe drown'd. 

Falconer, 

NARUATRT OF THE WRECK 

OF 

HIS MxVJESTY'S SHIP PORPOISE, 

LIEUTENANT ROBERT FOWLER, COMMANDER, 

ON A REEF OF CORAL IN' THE PACIFIC OCEAN, AUGUST 17tI1, 1803, 

And the subsequent Proceedings till the Arrival of the Creio at 
Canton ; x^ith a little extraneous Mutter relative to the Coloni^ 

oj' Neio South Wales. 

BY ONE OF THE CREW. 

Ille salutiferam porrexit ab pethere dcxtrara, 
Et nie de rapidis per euntem sustulit uudis. 

A PSALMIS ETJCII^K. 

■(■■ 

THE whole tribe of vvootl-hewers should be employefl in cut- 
ting down timber for n);ists, -which, when seasoned, should be 
made into proper sizes, for gun-brigs, sloops, and twenty gun- 
ships ; by which, tonnage and labour would be saved, and their 
importation rendered as profitable as possible. But as there raust 
of necessity be more worlimen than are requisite to furnish this 
article of consumption, the rest might prepare timber for house- 
l)uilding, enclosures, or even in building small vessels, to transport 
corn from settlement to settlement; which, if not wanted by 
Government, might be disposed of to private individuals, in 
exchange for produce, or money, if their circumstances permitted. 
As the strength, security, riches, and prosperity of the colony, 
will consist, lUce the mother country, in ships and trade, rearing 
up sailors is of the fir-,t consequence ; and I would encourage 
always a maritime spirit in the youth. The Seal fishery should 
meet v. itii my warmest patronage ; and to individuals among the 
settlers, entering into such a speculation, I Avould give them a due 
proportion of Govci:nment men, with one or two boys in every 
vessel, who should be victualled by the colony. I would aho 



CORfirCT KELATION OF SUIPWUFXKS. 53 

employ vessels in bringing coral, for the purposes of building, and 
manure; and the Norfolk j pine, from the harbours we before 
spoke of: which should be carried on in colonial vessels, with a 
large proportion of men, to diffuse nautical knowledge as -widely 
as could be admitted, without prejudice to agriculture. 

With respect to tiie settlers, very little more than what has 
already been hinted, needs to be said. The enfranchised should 
he admitted to all the privileges of those Avho had voluntarily emi- 
grated. Industry, fair dealing, and correctness of behaviour, 
should never want encouragement; and, to promote their lia])pi- 
ness, and prevent monopoly, they should have, in exchange for 
their corn, bacon, kc. from the general store, what articles of 
clothing, and necessaries of life, were v.anting to make their life 
easy and comfortable. That prostitution, and illegitimate sexual 
intercourse, might be ])artly abolished, I would hold out rewards to 
the parents of such children as were lawfully begotten, by adding a 
few acres to his farm for every child his wife brought him : or, if he 
•were a mechanic, by something equivalent in tlic way of his pro- 
fession. In an infant state, monopoly can only be prevented bj 
the immediate interference of Government; — which renders it 
necessary for Government, itself, to act the merchant for the 
public weal. There should be therefore every article of traffic ia 
their store-houses, which ought to be sold at a reasonable profit ; 
and every person turning merchant, prohibited from selling his 
goods at a higher rate. To prevent imposition, tables of the 
prices of articles might be affixed in the public places, signed by 
the Commissary. 

As for the children, I would siipcrintend their education with a 
truly parental solicitude; and endeavour, from the moment of 
their birth, to train them up in the principles of truth, honestv, 
and integrity. Those children belonging to convicts, I would 
have under my immediate tuition ; and, as soon as suckled, they 
should be removed from the mother into a school. VVhilc the 
children wxrc nursing, I would have them, at a certain hour every 
day, be presented in a body by their mothers, for inspection, to 
see that they were kept clean; and, from the time of their wean- 
ing, to the age of three years, they should be u;ider the manage- 
ment of nurses, appropriated for the })nrpose : they should then 
be sent out to schools, boys and girls indiscriminately ; and 
taught to read, write, and ligure, till they had reached their tenth 
or twelfth year, when they should be separated ; the males learning 
some trade, and the females the quaHiications necessary for making 



ifi CORRECT RELATION OF blllPWIlECKS. 

them good housewives. To interest the different parts of the 
colony, as much as possible, in each other's welfare, and to infuse 
a maritime spirit among the males, I would send all the boys of 
IS'ew South Wales to be educated with the girls of Van Diemau's 
Land ; and, vice verm ; allowing each of them once a year to visit 
their relations ; by which means they would make a small vojage 
annually, and be connected to each other, by all the ties of 
friendship, and the tendercst affection. They would thus be 
familiarized *to a sea life, without neglect of education, and grow 
sailors insensibly. To such of the settlers as chose, I would re- 
commend a plan exacdy similar; or that they should adopt each 
fithcrs boys, in the diUcrcnt settlements ; to which, on both 
sides, I should pledge myself to see justice done ; and they should 
Reeducated v\ith the Government children, in the public school. 
I will no longer miilii;>ly words, in describing minutely every cir- 
cumstance, as you may easily comprehend the rest, from the out- 
line I have drawn. Suffice it to sa)', that all my institutions 
should tend to make them hardy, enterprising, industrious, 
generous, and disinterested to each other; which, in the execution, 
conld not fail to make them love and esteem their mother country. 
i would always have in viev.- that law of Solon, which absolved 
buslards from paying any deference or respect to their parents; 
aiul prevent them, under colour of that pretext, from shaking off 
their connexion with the mother country. Lest it might give too 
great a predilection for a sea life, to the prejudice of agriculture, 
T would keep at home one ; or, if the family were numerous, two, 
to Inherit the trade and property of tiie father. 

Let us next take a view of the means most proper for accom^ 
plishing all these measures. — The practice of hiring transports, for 
the ronveyance of prisoners to New South Wales, I would abolish 
<nfiiely, from the many unpleasant accidents that have actually 
jiiippencd, and may ahvays be dreaded, in vessels of that descrip- 
tion. Many ]Ma«ters of convict ships have conducted themselves 
with a humanity that does them honour; but others again have, 
from pusillanimify, and fear, had recourse to such harsh and 
arbitrary measures, as to stir up their prisoners to mutiny, or to 
•bring on disease by consequence of confinement, and breathing an 
impure air. Examples directly in point, we had experience of, iu 
the Coromandol, Hercules, and Atlas transports; all of which 
arrived in Sydney Cove, when we happened to be there in 1802. 
One of them did not lose a soul during the voyage, but brought 
till her cargo out in a state of unexampled good health : another 



CORRECT RELATION OF SIIIPWIlErKS. .'5.1 

had mutiny to an alarmin* degree; in consequence of which, not 
less than a dozen of the poor miscreants Mcre either killed, or 
desperately Avounded; and, to wind up the fcene of misery, scurvy 
and fever found their way into the ship. But, in the third ship, 
though there was no butchery, there was still distress enough to 
beggar all description ; for a malignant fever, and scurvy con- 
joined, carried off a number ; and, I have b.^en credibly informed, 
several died in confinement; and, shocking to relate, with irons on 
their legs. The shooting of a man, of the name of Pendergrass, 
was attended v/ith circumstances of a disgraceful nature. He was 
suspected, and generally believed, to have been a principal riug- 
leader in the mutiny, and was brought on the quarter-deck after 
the mutiny had been quelled ; where, after half an hour's inter- 
rogation, and solicitation to confess his having been accessary to 
the affair, he, notwithstanding his pleading innocence to the last, 
was deliberately shot. • 

You may very likely think I have amplified and esag^grated 

~ this picture ; but I do assure you, it is neither more nor less, than 

the evidence of a number of w itncsscs, who v ere present on thn- 

occasion, and who made their depositions to this eflcct, in the 

Vice-Adm.iralty Court at Sydney. 

In the Glatton, and Calcutta, there was no such work ; and it 
will never happen, where order, regularity, and discipline, are en- 
forced. I hope in God, for the sake of humanity, that King's 
ships will in future be employed in the convict service ; and that a 
ship may be appropriated for that service alone. C>ue 44 guiu 
^liip, a rmee enjluie, devoted entirely for the transi)orting thos«^ 
depraved wretches, who, by their misdeeds, have forfeited all 
right and claim to the protection of the laws of their country, 
would, I am persuaded, save a number of lives; and she would 
take back any masts, and logs of pine, which might be ready to 
ship, without delay : so that her voyage would be performed in a 
year. As in our dock-yards a quantity of coarse oil is also 
required, that quantity might be procured through this chaunrl ; 
which would all tend to defray the expenses to (he country, and 
be of incalculable service to the colony. In the ship bringing cut^ 
the stores for the colony, 1 would have the raw materials alone 
brought out of such articles as could be manufactured there. 
Hides, oil, and wool, they have in abundance ; the first of which, 
they are unable to tan, from want of bark ; and the second, which 
is, in reality, the staple commodity of the colony, if well followed 
ap, would require a few vesseli of considerable burthen^ to hare 



55 eonRECT HELATION OF SIllPWRECKS, 

the privilege of going backwards and forwards to Britain, i& 
market. The oak would grow in perfection in Van Dieman'S 
Land ; and ought, by all means, to he planted there, for the pur- 
poses of tanning, as well as ihip-building. The skin of the fur 
seal is a marketable article in China, and would fetch valuable 
returns of tea, sugar, spice, kc. From the increase of the breed 
of sheep, there will soon be wool sufficient to clothe the whole. 
Artificers of every description, are much wanted to instruct the 
youth. Liberal salaries, to invite men of abilities to teach the 
different arts, is more wanted for that colony, than any other 
thing. I would have academies for instructing the youth, not only 
ill reading, writing, and ciphering, but in all the mechanical 
professions ; which, as soon as there is a proper circulation of 
trade, would turn to good account. 

There is already laid the foundation of a great power, which, 
in process of time, will extend itself to the farthest limits of the 
coast; and, if the saying of Lord Bacon is true, "that know- 
ledge is power," the dissemination of knowledge is certainly of the 
lirst importance, whether considered in a moral or politicrd view, 
for rendering that foundation solid and lasting, and raising a 
heantifiil superstructure so much sooner to maturity and per- 
fection. It is high time to dismiss the subject, and advert to our 
passage from the reef to China, and from thence to England. 

The two colonial vessels, Frances and Cumberland, came, as I 
have already said, with the lloUa ; and the following were the 
arrangements that had fakqn place : — The Rolla v,as to receive the 
officers and crew of t!ic Porpoise, with which she was to proceed 
to Canton ; where they were to be distributed among such of the 
East India Company's ships, as their servants in that part of the 
world might think proper. The Frances was to take on board 
such stores saved from the wreck, as she cculd conveniently and 
safely carry, with any of the officers or. people that had a desire 
to return, and proceed with them forthwith to Port Jackson. Mr. 
Denis Lacy, one of the Master's Mates of the luvesJigator, with 
half a dozen volunteers, returned also, in our schooner, the 
Resource. Poor Lacy having served his time as a Midshipman, 
was anxious to get home ; and thought that by going back, and 
meeting ti:c Calcutta, he would accomplish his design more 
expeditiously, and anticipate us in our arrival by the round 
about way of China. He embarked in a small brig from Port 
Jackson to the Mauritius, and avc arc yet unacquainted with his 
^^stiny. As the sti-iclcst habits of intimacy subsisted betwixt us, 



CORiltCT RELATION OF SHIPWKECKS. 57 

I feel particularly interested in his behalf, and rogret much, thiit 
my remonstrances a'^ainst the step he took, were ineflFectuaL 
Upon our favourite parade, on the iiiorning of parting.', I urged 
the matter afresh, but his inflexible rcsolntion was not to be 
shaken ; and he has paid full dearly for his unfortunate opU 
Dion. I never, in the whole conrse of my life, knew a young 
mail, who followed up with such application and perseverance, 
atiy scheme he had projected. Neither labour, iiuliistry, nor 
patience, were spared ; and by his unremitting assiduity, he gene- 
rally succeeded in whatever he had undertaken. When he 
joined us at the Cape of Good Hope, his knowledge in navigation 
did not much exceed the boundaries of a day's work; but he 
never rested a moment afterwards, till he had acquired a pro- 
ficiency in all the branches of the art, and understood perfectly its 
principles. Ills fate, whatever it may be, will be lamented by all 
his messmates ; and I Avill never cease to cherish, with alfcctionate 
regard, the recollection of his warmth of friendship, 
['J'o be conUiiut.-d.] 



Farihcr rariicidars oj the SJu'pzcrcck of ih<i Alhenieiuw, as given 
/ 'u/. X V [, page 493. 

nP'HE following liitcrestlng particulars of the loss of His 
Majesty's ship Alheniennc^ are given by one of the 
Officers who belonged to her : — 

r^ilcrnio Bui', on board His Majcstij's Ship Intrepid, 
October 27, 1806. 
^\'hcn I left you, I little th.ought of the misfortunes that awaited 
me. The 4th day after sailing from the Rock we passed Sardinia, 
and were all in high sj)iii(s, not doubting but we should arrive at 
Malta the next day; but, dreadful to relate, that very night (the 
'20th), at about a quarter before ten, when going fully nine knots 
an hour, the Athenienne struck on the rocks known by the name 
of the Skirkes, or Quills ; they were completely under water, and 
at least sixty miles from any shore. The shock was terrible, 
and the dreadful consternation into Mhich the crew were thrown, 
was beyond any thing you can possibly conceive. The most awful 
painting or description of shipwreck was a mere nothing to it. 
Every soul was instantly upon deck, most of them naked, and in 
such a state of despair, as to be perfectly unable to make the 
smallest exertion. Some went below and gave themscives up to 

/5a\). €'f)ron. etoI.XVIT. i 



58 COURrCT UEL.A'ilOX OF SHIl'SrRtrKS- 

their faic : others took possession of the poop, being highest oi\i 

of the Avatcr (for in a very few minutes the lee side of the quarter 

was covered with water) ; otliers, who had more presence of mind, 

took to the boats ; three of w hich, containing twenty-seven men, 

got olffrom the ship very early, about a quarter of an hour after 

she stniclv. At this time all (he masts went overboard. Two 

other boats, in endeavouring to escape, Avere swamped, and all the 

people in them ijcrished. I fortunately failed in an attempt to get 

into one of them. There now remained only two boflts ; one I 

found, upon inquiry, had her side knocked in, from the falling of 

the foremast: the other (the launch) I regarded as the only 

possible remaining chance ; the odds against which were very 

great, for she was still nearly in her station, a-midships, and 

crowded with people, so that it was imj)ossib!e to use the least 

power to set her atloat. I however leapt into her, and was soon 

followed by General Campbell, who is now along with me. I 

made several efiorts to get the men out of her, so as to make an 

attempt to shove her oil", but all in vain. Though I leapt out 

myself, as an example, very few followed me, 1 therefore again 

took my place in her, and after remaining there full half an hour, 

expecting every moment that her bottom would be knocked out, 

by the sea dashing her against the spars upon which she rested, a 

fortunate wave washed us out of the wreck. We had oars all 

ready, and immediately pulled from her ; but thinking wc could 

take in a few more men, although we had already an hundred on 

board, we rowed under the stern with that intention, but so great 

was the anxiety of those upon tlic poop to join iis, that we were 

in the most imminent danger of benig overwhelmed by numbers 

jumping into her. The general cry in the boat was, " Pull offy'" 

which we did, after having taken in only tvf^o ofiicers, who jumped 

overboard. 

It was now nearly an hour and a half from the time the sl'.ip had 
struck. The anxiety of our minds was dreadful : but the momcjit 
that we pulled off from (he wreck, for the last time {Xol- I forgot 
to tell you that we returned tliree times), leaving poor Raynsford, 
with 350 men, without, I may say, the most distant hope, has left 
an impression upon R.y mind much more powerful than all that I 
suffered before tliat time. We immediately pulled towards the 
Inland of Maritimo, which (with the assistance of a miserable sail, 
made out of the men's shirts) we got sight of at day-light the 
morning of the 21st. ^Ve at the same time boarded a Daniyh 
vessel, (hat gave us a sail, broad and watcr^ and a little ]>r;v!idy. 



< 

COUUtXT ItELATlOX OF SlilfV.UECKS. -59 

We put two oiTicers and twenty me-.i oi» board (.f her, who nctifc 
to look out for the wreck ; but {he wind blew so fresh they coii'd 
make nothing of it, and have put into this po.-t. Sir SiJniy Smith 
has seat oiF from this place the Eagle and a transport; but it has 
blown Ycry hard ever since ; I fear, if they even reached the spot 
th(;y could be of no service, as we havo every reason to suppose that 
the wreck went to pieces soon after we leit lior. 

After leavln*::; the Dasic, we sfood towards .Mariiimo, which we 
reached about four o'clock in the evening, after huvisig been six- 
teen hours in the boats. Two of the boats which first escaped 
from the sliip were in sight when we boarded the Dane, and 
followed us to Maritimo, where we remained all night, and ne:-;t 
night we arrived at Trcpani, where we slept. The following 
morning, the 23d, General Campbell and myself set oit for 
Palermo by land, which we reached i;; tlie evening of the '2 jth. 

Sir Sidney Smith waited upon lis, and procured us a jia^sage to 
Messina, oti board of a Ncap^jlitan frigate. We (iincd on board 
of thj Inirepid the '25th, and were to have sailed in the evening, 
i):it it has blown so fresh ever since, that wc have been detained 
here, and cannot even go on shore. As you may suppose, I have 
lost Gvcvy thing; the moment the siiip struck I pulled oif my 
boots, put on slippers, and did not put even a cob in my j^ocket, 
for fear I should be under th.e nece.-<^iiy of swimming; b'.itas i 
had made up my mind to lose my Hie, th.c saving of t!i;it uutkes my 
other los-jes very light, although they exceeded 101)0/. 

No entreaties could prevail on Cap'ain Haynsford to quit his 
ship. From the first moment of her striking to the launch's la.'t 
quitting her, he conducted himself in a manner thu most heroic — 
his presence of mind never forsook him, and his whole faculties 
■were employed in the moans of saving h^s people. 

ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF L'AlMABLr. MAIUHF, OX TTiE 
COAST OF WALES, IN THt; YEAR l/S'). 

'"IpHE Aillowing a'fcount of the Shipwreck of M. Durariil, 
formerly Govcniov of Isle St [iOui^Jj is extracted from that 
gentleman's '' Viujaga to Senei);al.'' We have much pleasure 
in presenting it to our readorit, us it contains some hiterestinj^ 
anecdotes of tlie humane, hospitable, and generous conduct of 
our gallant couuirvinuu. Sir Henry Trollope : — 

I left tile Senegal for llavie, says I>.L Durand, on the 24th of 
July, 17SGj on board the b;igaiitstie I'Aimable JNiarthc] the crew 



60 CORlinCT RFI.ATION OF SUIIMT, £(. Ki. 

consisted of (iio Captain, -wliose name mms Dore, a Lieutenant, w 
Carpenter, a Mate, and three sailors. Th.; passengers v.ere 
INTcssrs. Gourg, Naval Commissioners at Senegal, Loncer, Captain 
of a frigate, Bernard, my Cook, a young negro, and myself. 

After an uncommonly long and dangerous passage, we were of 
opinion, on the 12th September, in the morning, that we should 
arrive in the course of the night at Havre ; and we in consequence 
gave ourselves up to that pleasure which travellers always expe- 
rience at the end of a long voyage; when I perceJA'ed that the 
Captain was out in his reckoning, and that we w"ere in the British 
Channel. I informed him of this circumstance, and his surprise 
v.;is equal to my own. The weather was stormy, the sea ran high, 
and the rapid g ists of wind indicated an approaching tempest. 

At tiiree o'clock we were in sight of Sundy Island, and Littempted 
to take refuge in it ; but our etForts were unavailing ; and we 
then directed our course for the Bay of Tnmby, which we 
entered, though here our hopes of finding shelter also proved 
abortive; and we coidd not withstand the violence of the wind 
and tide. We were however near enough to the shore to observe 
the inhai;i'ants collecting upon it, a:ul expressing their regret that 
they could not afford us any assistance. We had dropped our 
bower anchor, but wc were under the ntccssity of cutting the 
cable, and then our loss seemed inevitable. VVe nevertheless 
attempted to reach the Isle of Caldy ; and for tins purpose we 
kept tacking the whole of the night, during which the weather 
was dreadful. The wind was W.S.W., and blew so strong, that 
we could only let out the main and mizcn-sail. We were then in 
tliree fathoms water; l)iit, after tacking on diOeront points, we 
found ourselves at two o'clock in Langhorn Bay, in only two 
fathoms Mater : the sea was furious, and every instant covered 
our vessel, v,hile the rain was violent in the extreme, so that it 
soon became impossible to work the ship ; she therefore ran 
aground. Avith three violent shocks, which laid her open, un- 
shipped the rudder, and decided our fate. 

^V e now found ourselves complctcl) wrecked : and, in order 
to li"^hten the vessel, wc cut away the masts, when we found that 
she remained fixed in six fevt \iat;.'r, but was every instant covered 
with Avav:'s of an enormous size, which secme^l ready to swallow 
her up. In this dreadful crisis some fell to making rafts, others 
sciztd on pieces of wood, and all endeavoured to avoid that death 
which seemed to be prepared for them. At this period, it is re- 
markable that some of our little crew Avere concerned about 



cor.RicT i:r,i,AxioN or iiiiPWRFXKS. CI 

fnfiiritj ^'' ; and one of Ihem being verj anxious respecting the 
fate of the Negro boy, who had never been christened, baptized 
him in my presence with some fresh water, and then held hi^i 
fast by the arms, with a view that they might die and arrive to- 
gether in the otlier world. 

About three o'clock Vac storm besjan to subside, and the %vaves 
broke with less violence against our vessel. We then perceived 
that it was low water ; but the darkness of the night prevented i;? 
from distinguishing Avhere we were, or ascertaining the place of 
our shipwreck ; nevertheless, without knowing what distance wa 
Averc from land, we thought it probable that we might get to i(, 
and resolved to make the attempt. A small canoe was therefore 
let down, and I was the first who got into it : JiOnger and the 
Lieutenant follov.ed me, but we did not find sufficient water to 
work the boat; we therefore got out of it, and walked for about 
an hour in the sea, preceded by two sailors, Avho sounded at every 
step, and served as guides. After passing through ditfercnt depths 
of water, but not sufficient to stop us, we at length landed, and 
sent back the two sailors to inform ot:r companions that we were 
safe, and invite them to follow the route we had taken. 

On quitting the vessel Ave left all our clothes, which might have 
prevented us from swimming, if necessary : f had nothing on but 
a pair of trowscrs, in one of the ))ockets of which I put a letter, 
with my address, in order that my family might be informed of my 
fate, if I should be drowned, and cast on shore. 'J'his was the 
only precaution which I thought it neccs.iary to take. We at 
length found ourselves in an unknown spot, four in number, al- 
most naked, and without the means of subsistence. 

The night continued to be very dark, and the rain poured down 
in torrents. We, however, continued to walk for two hours, 
wifhout knowing whither we were proceeding: at length we 
reached a mansion, which we walked round several times, but 
could not fmd any door open, or a place that w^e could obtain 
shelter I'l, though we made noise enough to be heard, if the inha- 
bitants had not been in a sound sleep. At length, after much 
trouble, I discovered a little gate, v.hich led into the court. I 
raised the latch, the gate opened, and we found ourselves, with 
inexpressible pleasure, in a large walk, which led to the vestibule 

* We are not surprised tliat this should appear extraordinary to a 
Frenchman ; but in an English ship it would noi h;.ve been thought at ail 
fxtraordinary. — Editor. 



6'2 CORHECT RELATION Of SniIMVK.!:CK.S. 

of the mansion. I knocked at the door with all my strength, and 
we heard the barking of dogs inside ; we also found that thf 
domestics were stiri iug : they appeared to be running to the 
chamber of their master, doubtless to inform him that the house 
was infested by banditti, as they only spoke to us through a 
garret window. They asked us lirst in English, and then in bad 
French, for Avhat reason we had entered the park at such an hour? 
I answered in a feeble voice, and lamentable accent, that we were 
unfortunate Frenchmen, whose ship had been wrecked, and that 
^ we requested an asylum. 

If that be the case, answered the person who first spoke, } ou 
may be ea^y ; 1 will order my doors to be open, and you shall 
receive all the assistance that you may be in w.ant of. 

Soon afterwards the doors were throv.n open, and ww. saw in the 
hall all the servants of the chateau, aimed with muskets and 
sables : it seems they had taken tills precaution, lest we had 
deceived (hem by our story ; but when they saw us naked, almost 
frozen, and objects of pity rather than f;.ar, they put down their 
arms, and paid us every attenlion. 

Wc AT ere at first conducted into the kitchen, where, before a 
large fire, we v/armcd our frost-bitten limbs. Soon afterwards the 
mistress of the house, and all her female domestics, came and 
brought ns linen, and'othcr apparel, which we divided amongst 
each other as well as we could. A tal)le was then laid out, and 
v/e were supplied with victnalj and drink ; which we devo'ircd 
with great eagerness, being almost famished. 

After t!ic repast, 1 was shown to a chamber; while my com^ 
panions and the masttr of tlio house went down to the shoie, to 
endeavour to save something from the wreck. On his return, I 
learnt that the vessel had gone entirely to pieces at three o'clock. 

All the cr^w were saved ; but most of them had taken another 
direction; ray Cook and boy lost themselves, and three days 
elapsed before they found me. 

About noon the lady of the mansion sent to know if I would 
take some tea : I begged to be served with it in my apartment, 
but she insisted that I should come down stairs, and take it with 
her. I had much difficulty to bring myself to accept this compli- 
ment, as I was still in a most deplorable condition, and not fit tu 
be seen. About five in the afternoon, the gentleman returned 
with several of his neighbours, and some of the crew. They had 
saved very f-j^w things from the wreck ; but they restored to me a 
bag, with about jOO dollars, and a box containing my papers. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SIII f V.'UECICS. 0.3 

ivliich I got dried in llie oven. My boy John also s:ivcd a bag 
■with neaily 1200 livres ; a packet of virgin gold, from Senegal, 
which I sold in London ibr about 100 subicas; an ape, a ycllow 
parroquet, and some ostriches' eggs. The loss, however,' which I 
sustained by this wreck I shall ever regret, on account of the 
useful knowledge which it has prevented me from comraunifating 
to my country. I lo'^t a choice collection of plants, unknoun in 
Kurope; several bottles of distilled palm wine ; some wafer taken 
from th^' Senegal, at Isle St. Louis and Podor ; several tons of the' 
earth from the gold mines at Galam and Banibouk; a collection of 
the scarcest reptiles, birds, and fishes ; and drawings of the cos- 
tumes, arms, equipages, &c. of all the Jiordcs in this part of 
Africa. 

At six o'clock we sat down to an excellent dinner, and remained 
a long time at table. The repast terminated in the Knglijih 
manner; that is, we swallowed bumpers of wine till wo were all 
drunk. The next day our host conducted me to Carmarthen, 
where I purchased a new wardrobe, and equipped mj'Stlf from 
head to foot. 

This day we received an express from the Merchants of London ; 
who, having heard of our shipwreck, sent to offer us their ser- 
vices. We were grateful for their attention; but, situated as we 
were, we could only thank them, and answer that we wanted for 
nothing. I shall always regret that 1 lost the letter from these 
obliging Merchants, m horn we afterwards saw at London, where 
they treated u9 in a magnificent style. I should have had the 
greatest pleasure in making known to my countrymen the names 
of these liberal gentlemen, so respectable for their humanity and 
the nobleness of their sentiments ; but being deprived of the means, 
I must content myself Avith speaking of their countryman, whose 
care saved me from misery and death. 

The name of this generous Engli!^hman was Henry Trolhpc ; 
he "vvas a native of Norwich ; was then 30 years of age, and was a. 
Captain in the Navy. His Lady was Iiand.>onie, modest, and of 
the gentlest manner ; was a Jiative of London, whose maiden name 
was Fanny Best ; she was tlien about ^'2 years old. They had no 
cliildren ; a circumstance whicli they felt severely, as they were 
both very anxious to have a young family. 1 hope for the hajipi- 
ness of themselves, and of the human race, that their wishes iiavc 
been fuUilled. Mrs. Trollcpe, when a girl, had been educated at 
Brussels, so that she, as well as her husband, spoke French 
sufliciently well to be uiidcrstood. I mu'-t here add, th«t the 



6i CORRECT RELATIOri OE SHIPWRECKS. 

atiachment of this amiable woman towards her husband^ had 
induced her to accompany him in all his voyages. 

They iiihabited VV'estmead Castle, about three miles from Lang* 
horu, in Wales, the place of our shipwreck. It stands in » 
delightful situation, is well built, and its architecture possesses a 
noble simplicity. Its internal arrangements are well adapted ; the 
park is large and well planted, and the gardens are judiciously 
laid out. At the time I was wrecked Captain Trollope had taken 
a lease of it from Lord Montalt, of which three years bud 
expired. 

During our stay at the Castle, the liberal inhabitants incessantly 
endeavoured to dispel from our minds the remembrance of our 
misfortune ; and every day was distinguished by some new 
festivity : hunting, fishing, gaming, and feasting, succeeded each 
other without interruption ; and the only care seemed to be how 
fresh pleasure could be procured. Oh ! Mrs. Trollope, worthy 
and affectionate Avife of the most humane of men, I feel the most 
lively emotion In thus bearing testimony to the gratitude which I 
owe you, and which will never be effaced from my heart! 

On the 24th of September, in the afternoon, Captain Trollope 
proposed to me a hunting party ; but I preferred keeping com- 
pany with his wife, and he left me alone with her. We Avere 
walking in the park, when we observed at a distance a huntsman 
riding at full gallop ] he passed by us without stopping at the 
Castle. 

^Irs. Trollope was alarmed, and said to me, " some accident 
has happened to my husband." We soon learned that his horse 
had fallen, and rolled on him, by which he was dangerously 
hurt; and the messenger who passed us, was riding to fetch a 
Surgeon. It is impossible to describe the distraction of his Lady, 
and our own consternation, Avhen we saw Captain Trollope 
brought home upon a lit!,er : he was taken to his chamber, 
followed by his w ii'e, who made the most pitiable lamentations : 
he, however, turned towards her, and said, with much unconcern, 
•■' Fanny, be quiet, wipe away your tears, and cease crying." 

On the arrival of the Surgeon, our fears were dispelled, as he 
assured us that (he accident would not be attended with any bad 
consequences. In short, by proper medical attention, the Captain 
was in a few days restored, and we were enabled to resume our 
ordinar)' exercises and amusements. 

After passing eighteen days in this delightful abode, without 
boing suffered to incur the least cxpeesc, wc embarked for Brii- 



NAVAL LITERATCRE. 65 

tol, at the very place of our shipwreck. Our separation cost tears 
on both sides ; I left my ape with Mrs. Troliope, together Avith 
■whatever I had iaved from the wreck, that was worth her accep- 
tance. My paroquet was unique of its kind ; it spoke well, and 
•was the only one of a yellow colour that I ever saw even at 
Senegal, -where I obtained it. It came to a miserable end, having 
been caught and devoured by the cats. Mrs. Troliope was incon- 
solable at the event, and spoke of it every day. 

The generous Captain was not satisfied with the kind reception 
that ho had given us at his mansion, but wished to serve us after 
our separation. He therefore gave lis letters of recommendation 
to Bristol, Bath, and London ; in consequence of which we were 
every where received with the highest respect. 



NAVx\L LITERATURE. 

A VoTjage to Senegal; or,IIi-forical, Philosophical, a?i(l Poli~ 
iical Memoirs, relative to the Discoveries, Establishments, and 
Commerce of Europeans in the Atlantic Ocean, from Cape 
Blanco to the River of Sierrc Leone. To zi'hich is added, an 
Account of a Joumeif from Lie St. L^oiiis to Gulam. llif 
J. P. L. Dl'rani), forvierlij Governor of Lie St. Louis. 
Translated from the French, and embellished zcith numerous 
Engravings. 1 vol. 8vo. 1806. 

A LTHCUGH this work has not long been published, some 
of the occurrences which it records took plucc as far back 
as the year 1786. IVom the Preface, we learn that its author, 
M. Durand, was formerly employed in the naval department of 
the French Government ; that he was appointed, by the Mar- 
shal de Castrecs, princiiuil director of the Company at Isle St. 
Louis; aud that he arrived at his destinatltm in A])ril 178(i, 
where he rensamtd several years. His reuturks, as mav be 
inferred from the title-page of his book, relate more to com- 
nierciiil, and political, than to nautical aftairs. From the po>t 
which he held, every species of iiiformation, of this nature, was, 
of course, within his grasp ; and, consequently, his performance 
exhibits a considerable portion of useful intelligence, rehitlve to 
the topics on which he treats. But, as his tranihuor justiy 
f5ali. (JTfjrom (aoi;X\JI. k. 



ffS NAVAL LITF.RATURE* 

observes, his spirit and motives are throngliout sufficiently 
evident : bis objccjt is to promote tbe ambitious views of his 
countrymenj at t?Te expense of every other nation. 

The most vakiable pieee of nautical information, which this 
vohune contains, is the following account of the bar of the 
Senegal, and of the mode of passing it : — 

The bar of the Senegal, says M. Durand, is situated in about 
lb° bo' lat., and 18° 51' 30" long. ; it is a bank of moving sand, 
formed at tbe month of (he rirer, by the mud and sand which it 
conveys in its course (o the Si'a, and Avhich the latter repels 
incessantly towards the coast. The river, in consequence of its 
mass of water, and X\\\i violence of its current, has made outlets 
here, vrhich are c*a!led Hie jjasses of the bar, and are distinguished 
bv the appellation of Great and Small. To enter them is very 
difficult, and even dangerous. 

The great pass is generally about a hundred fathoms wide, and 
eight or nine feet deep ; and at all times the only shi])s that can 
pass itj are those that draw seven or eight feet of water. The 
waves are so short and strong, that they breaic with a terrible 
violence ; and this passage often proves an end to the most 
favourable navigation. The small pass is so narrow and shallow, 
that none but canoes or small boats can 'get through it. 

The large opening cannot be passed without an expert Pilot, 
who is in the habit oi" visiting it every day, to know exactly its 
state and depth; both of which arc iuiCirtain, as they vary 
according to circumstances All, therefore, that is known, is the 
extent and rapitlity of the iloods ; but the sudden variations in 
qucsti&n must doubtless be attributed to the double action of the 
river and the sea. 

l"he Pilot who is eng.i-ged to conduct ships over the bar has a 
large boat with a deck, and a crew of negroes, who have no 
cloatiiing but a baud of lii>eu, about six inches broad, which passes 
between their thighs : they are all strongly made people, and 
excellent swimmers. Dnt notwithstanding their knowledge and 
activity, the boat and its crew often perish : tliey, however, more 
frecpiently escape the destruction wliich threatens them, and often 
exert themselves for the safety of strangers. Ibit woe be to the 
rash seamen who migiit dare to attempt without their assistance 
the passage of the bar, ;.; they would infallibly perish. Fortu- 
nately- this passage docs not last longer than a quar'er of an hour ; 



NATAT. LITrnATrRE. 6f 

but it inspires so much dread, that the length of lime sooius 
insupportable. The fust por>ons who passwl tliis bar niuht have 
ibocn intrepid sailors. 

When this passage is cfu'cted, its horrors are snccei-vlod hy a 
calm, as the course of the river- -Jicn becomes as smooth and 
gentle, as its entrance was shocking and dithcnlt. 

It is from twenty to twciity-fivc feet deep, and of a considerable 
Hvidth. The exhausted rowers Ihan take breath, drink brar.dy, 
and dance and rejoice at their success: they of course always 
receive a recompcnee. When I entered, I gave them a louis d'or, 
with which they w«rc so highly satisfied, that they were a long 
time singing my generosity, aiiu afterwards did me great iionour in 
the colony. 

In a foriBcr part of ojir Chronicle*, we reviewed the woik of 
M. Oiolberry, another French aiiti'.or; who, for the purpose of 
acquiring information respecting the interior of the western 
continent of AlVica, accompanied M. Boufflers, the Governor 
of the Senegal, through the whole extent of tliat district. From 
M. Golberry's book, we extracted some higlily uselul j)as3ages, 
relative to the road, the bar, and the mouth of the Senegal ; 
together with a plan for the construction of a boat, for passing 
the bar with comparative safety. IM. Golberry was in these 
parts much about the same time as M. Durand; his means of 
obtaining knowledge wt*e in most cases equally good; and, 
upon the whole, we have no hesitation in saying, that the pub- 
lication of the former ranks much higher than that of ihH 
litter. 



'I'hc heart's remote recesses to explore. 

And touch its Springs, \^lieu Prose avail'd no more, 

iALCONEn. 



ODE FOR THE NEW YEAR, 1807. 

Bij Hlnhy Jami:s Pvr, Esq, Poet Laurent. 

II E\ loud and drear tiio tempests roar, 
\-\'hin high the billowy mountains rise, 
And headlong 'gamst tiic rocky shore, 

Driven by the blast, the giddy vessel flics ; 

* Vide iSiAVAL Chronicle, VoJ. X, jMge 227, et scq. 



08 NAVAL ror.TRY. 

Unguided, by the wild waves borne, 

Her rudder broke, her tackling torn ; 

Say, does the seaman's daring mind 
Shrink from the angry frown of fate; 

Does he, to abject fear resign'd, 

Th' impending stroke in silence wait? 

No — wliile he pours the fervent prayer 

To Him whose will can punish or can spare^ 

Cool and intrepid 'mid the sound 

Of w inds and waves that rage around, 

The powers that skill and strength impart, 

The nervous arm, th' undaunted heart, 
Collecting — firm he fronts the threat'ning storm, 
And braves, with fearless breast, fell Death's terrific form 

So, though around our sca-cncircled rcignj 
The dreadful tempest seems to lower; 

Dismay 'd do Britain's hardy train, 
Await in doubt the threafning hour ? 

Lo ! to his sons, w ith cheering voice, 

Albion's bold Genius calls around : 

Around him valiant myriads crowd, 

Or death or victory their choice: 

From ev'ry port astonish'd Europe sees 

Britannia's white sails swelling with the breeze ; 

Not her imperial barks alone 

Awe the proud foe on ev'ry side. 

Commerce her vessels launches on the tide. 

And her indignant sons awhile 

Seceding from their wonted toil, 

Turn from the arts of peace their care, 

Hurl from each deck the bolts of war, 
To sweep th' injurious boasters from the main. 
Who dare to circumscribe Britannia's naval reign. 

And see with emulative zeal 

Our hosts congenial ardour feel ! 

The ardent spirit, that of yore 

Flara'd high on Gallia's vanquish'd shore ; 
Or burn'd by Danube's distant flood ; 
When flow'd his current ting'd with Gallic blood; 
Or shone on Lincelle's later fight ; 
Or fir'd by Acre's tow'rs the Christian's Knight : 



NAVAL POETRY. 6ft 

Or tauglit on Maidii's funds the Gaul to feel, 

Urg'd by the Briton's arm, the Britiih steel ; 
Now in each breast with heat redoubled glows, 
And gleams dismay and death on Europe's ruthless foes 

Not to Ambition's specious charm, 

Not to th' ensanguin'd despot's hand, 
Is conquest bound — a mightier Arm 

Than Earth's proud tyrants can withstand. 
The balance holds of human fale, 
Raises the low, and siaks the great. 
Exerting then in Europe's cause, 
Each energy of arm and mind. 
All that from force or skill the warrior draAVSj 

Yet to th' Almighty Pow'r rcsign'd. 
Whose high behest all Nature's movements guide?, 
Controls the battle's, and the ocean's tides ; 
Britain still hopes that Heav'n her vows will hear. 
While Mercy rears her shield, and Justice points her spear. 



Mxiract from an Ode on B.vmborough Castlk, from Poems bjf 
the Jier. George Richards. 1S04. 

A T solemn midnight, when the bark shall ride, 
■■^^ With streaming pendants o'er the peaceful tide ; 
When trembling moon-beam<! play along the brine, 
And Stars round all the glowing Welkin shine; 
When, silettt borne along, the whitening sails 
Swell with the summer's gently-breathing gales; 
The Pilot, listening to the wave belo^V, 
Which hoarsely breaks against the passing prow. 
Shall thoughtful turn, where dimly to his eyes 
Through the pale night these mcllow'd Turrets rise; 
And as he muses on some friend most dear, 
Rais'd by thy mercy * from a watery bier. 
Swelling at heart, shall o'er the tranquil wave 
Give thee a sigh, and bless thy hallow'd grave. 



* For an account of this charilaMe Institution for Shipwrecked !\Iariners, sue 
Naval Chronicle, and Clarke's Kaufra^'ut,6r HUtorical Memoirs of Shipwrcch^ 
lately published. 



CimOXOLOClCAL SKETCH 

OF THE 

MOST REMARKADLE NAVAL EVENTS 

OF THE YEAR 1806. 

JANUARY. 

9. ^HE remains of Lord Nelson, which were on the 8th removed from 
Greenwich College by water to the Admiralty, were tiiis d 'y con- 
veyed in grand funeral prucessiun to St. Pauls Cathedral, and there so- 
lemnly interred. 

13. Accounts received of the loss of the Orquiso sloop of war, on the 7th 
of November, off Port Antonio, having on board 1S6 persons, of whom 101 
perished. 

15. In consequence of the changes which took place in administration 
after the death of Mr. Pitt, the lion. C. Gray, now Lord Ilowick, succeed- 
ed Lord Barham, as first Lord of the Admiralty. 

FEBRUARY. 

6. Admiral Duclvworth captured and destroyed five French sail of the 
line in the Bay of St. Domingo ; an 84 pun ship, and two 74's taken — a 
three decker and 74 driven on shore, and burnt. 

27. Advices received at the Admiralty of the arrival of the expedition 
under Sir Home Popham and Sir David Baird at the Cape of Good IIopo, 
and of the surrender of Cape Town, on the lOth of January. 

INLVRCIL 

4. The Volontaire French fiigate taken at the Cape of Good Hope, Into 
v.'hich she put, supposins: the j>lace to he in the possession of the Dutch.— 
This frigate was supposed to belong to the squadron of Admiral Guillaumez 
jind Jerome Buonaparte, which had sailed from Brest in December. 

13. Capture of the Marengo, of 80 guns, Rear- Admiral Linois, and the 
Belle Poule, of 40 guns, on tlieir return from India, (where they had com- 
mitted great depredations,) by the squadron under the command of Sir 
John Borlase Warren. 

27. The Revanche, le Guerricr, and la Syrene, three French frigates, 
escaped from I'Orient, intending, it was said, to cruise on the coast of 
Africa, aqd afterwards to run down to tlie \^'est Indies. 

AI'RIL. 

5. A rupture with Prussia announced in the Gazette of this day, by an 
order of Council, laving aii embargo on Prussian vessels, in consequence 
of his Prussian Majesty having taken possession of the Electorate of Han- 
over, &c. 

16. General Miranda (who had sailed from New York) about this time 
arrived on the Spanish Main, with a small squadron, mann(?d by volunteers, 
who accompanied him tor tlie purpose of emancipating tiie Caraccas from 
the Spanish yoke. He desi:;ned first to land in the province of Coro, but 
en approaching the shore tuo of his schooners were captured by the Sprv- 
r.iards, and this first attempt failed. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF NAVAL EVEXTS. 71 

^1. Message from His Majesty to Parliament, announcing tlie recall of 
Lis Miuiater from Berlin, and ihe adoption of measures of rctalliation 
against the navigation and com raerce of Prussia. 

25. His Swedish Majesty laid <tn embargo on all Prussian ships in the 
harbours of his dominions, and ordered the blockade of the Prussian ports 
by Snedibh frigates. 

— A shot fired from His Majesty's ship Leander, stationed off Sandy 
Hook, killed a man on board an American \\ooi), called '.he Richard. This 
afTair caused great clamour in the United Scit^s against the liritish Com- 
manders on that coast. The Grand Jury of <ew York fomid a bill for 
niurder against C'ai)ta'n Wlntby, of tlie Leander; and the Prcaident, Mr. 
Jeft'erson, issued a [jroclamation for his apijrehension. 

' 23. The Proceedings on the Impeachment of Lord Melville coininenccd 
before the High Court of Parliament in Westminster Hall. 

MAY. 

12. A message from His Majesty to the House of Commons recommend- 
ed, that provision be made for securing an annuity of oOOOl. to the present- 
Earl Nelson, and to those to whom the title may descend ; and to provide 
the sum oi 120,0001. for the purchase of a house and lands, to be aiuicxed 
to the said dignity. 

— The ialand of Capri taken by Sir Sidney Smith. At the same time 
debarkations were made from the ships under hi- command, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Gaeta, to co-operate with the forces from that garrison, so 
bravely defciidcd by the Prince of Hesse Philiipsthal. 

14. In the House of Commons, Mr. JetTery of Poole brought forward 
several ciiargcs against Earl St. Vincent, which were rejected, by the itso- 
lutions grounded thereon beinsi negatived without a division. Mr. To.x. 
then moved a resolution, apprcn ing the conduct of the Noble Earl, which, 
after some discussion, was carried. 

JUNE. 

10. On the motion of Mr. Fox, a resolution to the following elTect wa=; 
adopted by the House of Commons, viz. " That this House, conceiv n^ the 
African Slave 'I'rade to be contrary to the principles of justice, iiu.ianirv, 
and sound policy, will, with all expedition, take effoctnal measures for 
ab(;lisliin2; the said trade, in such manner, and at such period, as may be 
deemed most practicable. 

12, Lord Melville's trial terminated, his Lordship being acquitted iiv 
the Peers of the several Articles of Impeachment exhibited against him by 
the Connnons. 

21. On the motion of Lord Grcnville, the House of Peers concurred in 
the resolution of the Commons, moved by Mr. Fo.x, for the Abolition of the 
Slave Trade. 

29. The French squadron, commanded by Admiral Ouillauinez, includ- 
ing Buonaparte's ship tiie \eteran, arrived m divisions at Martinique, on 
four dilTercut days preceding this date. 

JULY. 

1. The French squadron, to which Jerome Buonaparte belonged, sailed 
from Martinique. Un the Cith, Admiral Cochrane came in biglit <jf the ene- 
my, olf St, Thomas's, but the enemy stood to the westward^ and the very in. 



72 CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF NAVAL ETF.NT3, 

ferior force of Admiral Cochrane not permitting him to pursue them, no 
action took place. 

13. Surrender of Gaeta to the French army, the Prince of Hesse Philips- 
thai having been previously wounded, and carried on board a British frigate. 

19. Le Guerrier French frigate, of 50 gunS, and 3J7 men, captured by 
the Blanche frigate off the Ferroe Islands, after an action of 45 minutes. 

28. Surrender of Buenos Ayres and its dependencies to His Majesty's 
forces under the command of Major-General Bercbford and Sir Home 
Pop ham. 

— Le Rhin, French frigate, captured by the Mars, Capt. Oliver, being 
one of four frigates returning from Porto Rico to France. 

AUGUST. 

2. Departure of Lord Lauderdale for Paris, to conduct the Negotiation 
commenced with the Frencli Government. 

16. Six of the homeward-bound Quebec convoy captured by Jerome 
E:iouaparte, m the Veteran, uu his return to France. 

23. BrlUiant naval achievement by His Alajesty's ships Arethusa and 
Auson, in an attack on the enemy near Moro Castle, in the island of Cuba } 
the Spanish frigate Pomona, of 38 guns and ^47 men, being captured; 
twelve 24-pounder gun-boats destroyed, each of which had a crew of 100 
men; and the fort, mounting sixteen 36-pounders, blown up. 

25. Jerome Buonaparte having separated from Gilleaumez's squadron, 
escaped from the British crui/ers, , which pursued him, and arrived at Con- 
carneau Bay, near FOrient. 

SEPTEMBER. 

f). A tremendous hurricane at Dominica and Martinique, by which great 
damage was done to those islands, and many of the inhabitants were de- 
stroyed. 

14. Part of the French squadron, commanded by Gilleaumcz, (after 
Jerome Buonaparte's ship separated from it,) having sustained great damage 
in a gale of wind, took shelter in the Chesapeak, where I'lmpetueux, 74 
guns, was destroyed by the Bellona and Belleisle, two of Sir R. Strachan's 
Sfjuadron. 

15. Loss of the King George packet, bound from Parkgate to Dublin, 
with all the passengers and crew, amounting to 106 persons ; four seamen, 
one woman, and a child, excepted. 

So. Sir Samuel Hood, having under his command the Centaur and Mo- 
narch, fell in with a French squadron, consisting of five frigates and two 
brigs, which had just escaped from Rochfort. Sir Samuel lost his right 
arm in the action, and four of the frigates were captured. 

OCTOBER. 

8. A telegraphic message, announcing the return of Lord Lauderdale, 
.sent by Lord Ilowick to the Lord Mayor, and by the latter to Lloyd's CotFce- 
house, where the intelligence was received with three cheers. 

— Amongst the changes in Administration which took place in conse- 
quence of the death of Mr. Fox, Lord Howick was appointed Secretary of 
State f(ir Foreign Affairs, and Mr. T. Grcuville succeeded his Lordship at 
tile Admiralty. 



CIIROVOI.OOICAL SKF.TCIf OI" N'AVAL rvr.MTS. 73 

12. Lord T/uifk-rdulc Inndod at Deal, on his return from Ta-is, in con- 
■scqiiciice ot'the rupture of tlie Nciiociiition Inr I'eace. 

14. Loss of His Majcstv's frigate Constance, Captain i>urro\vrs, ofTSf. 
jNIalocs, in consorpuj'.u.e of a j;al'ant C(iler[)ri/.c. 'iliu I oii'^Lancf hii\ uig 
j)urSMcd tlie Irench t'rii:;ato Sulamauder under tlie I'rcncli Ijaticrics, luaiii- 
taincfl a Jons; and viconnis ac-ti<jn witli tliem, tlie ciieiny''» i?lii|)S, and gun- 
beats. Tlic Salamander wasiriptured, and bronwlit olf, hut sunk after talk- 
ing out licr crew ; aftr'r wliicli the Constanee drifted oii sliori', luid \.as 
taken posbessiou of bj tlu; enemy. Captain Jjuriuwes and a sj^reat part uf 
the 'Crevv kiiled. 

20. Loss of His IMajcstv's shij) lljo Atlionieiuie, with Captain llajn'-ford, 
and 1517 of tlic crew, on a ridL;c of locks in the .MedinTr.iiicaii. 

Q'i. IIis Alajcsty's Declaration on the ruptiu'e ol' ilic NegoLJatinn ujth. 
IVance, puhlisiicd in the J^mdon <ia/( ttr. 

.11. General Miranda arrived at l^arhndoc^, havin:; left the small foicc 
with uhich he hiid made an inisnece'^ful a'tia-.i'i on ilie (.ai areas at .Ariiba, 
^vhenrc his troops afterwards reino\eil to [V iiidad. 

— Aliont this time, faccordins to iTports in tie American Papi'rs,) a 
revolution took place in the (iovermn;»iit of llnvii, or St. Domingo, the hlnck 
EmjuM'or D/:s:5alines bciiij; kilk-J., and Christopii!: elected to supply Lis place. 

nove:.iber. 

1'3. General Crauford sailed from Falmnnth on an important expedition, 
Lavinir under his ctmimand a military force of hctwten 5 and (iOOO men. 
Destination supp(jscd to he South America. 

1?. An Armistice concluded hetween the French and rrussian armies, 
and sii^ned by Duroc on tl)e one part, and i\l, J.ucciic-im and (ieneral 
Zastrovv on the other. This Armisticv his T'rvs>iau iMajesty afterwards 
refused to ratify, and no cassation of liostilitjes took place. 

19. Comnjodorc Sir Samuel Hood was Returned, a> one of the Meuihers 
of Parliament for Westminster. 

— Hamburi^h occupied by a detachment of French troops, under the 
coiriiaand of General iMortier; all the En<i;lish property found there conlis- 
catcfJ, and the Dritish merchants put under arr^^sf. 

21. Lord Hut-hinson embarked at Yarmouth for the Continent, in order 
to proceed on a mission to the head-rpiarters of the united Prussian and 
Knssian army. 

— A frantic Decree published by Puonapiu-tt', from the hca;! quarters 
of his army at Hta-lin, declarinj; t!ie Uritis!) Isles in u siate of blockade, 
prohibiting all trade :jnd connuimication with this country, i.Vc, 

DFCF'JCFPv. 

2. A Decree i'^sncd by Kins: Louis, in Ifol'and. for enibrcin^; Ijiiona- 
parle's pri'tended lilockade of the I'uitisli i>lcs, throughout all the <ountiics 
uccupied by the Onlcli troops. 

2'^. The !'a|)crs iclative to the late Xe'j;nii;uion with France |)re^enlcJ to 
the lloi'.st of l.ordi by Lord (irenville, and to the House oi' <, 'jui.ijoua by 
Lo)-d llowick. 



74 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1806-7. 
(December — January. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

npHE recapture of Buenos Ayres, after the repeated reports that have pre- 
■^ vailed, and been contradicted, prove at last to be true. It however 
seems probable thai it may again revert into our hands. For the par- 
ticulars, we refer our Headers to the official account, which we have 
given in our Let Zeis on Senitce. 

The very interestinL^ Letter which we have received respecting the 
proceedin2;s of Connriodorc Keates' squadron off Rochhirt, is given in a 
preceding page. Commodore Keates.is one of tlic first officers in our ser- 
vice^ and was considered as such by our immortal Nelson. 

Respecting the force cf the enemy in Bourdeaux, an ofi^cer of His 
I\Iajesly's ship Imperieusc, Lord Cochrane, in a letter dated December 31, 
&ays, " There are ti\ c sail of the line (one three-decker), three frigates, and 
three brig=, ready for sea. Wliere the sliip cannot go, our boats do : so that 
w'c are sometimes amused by going within half a mile of the French squad- 
ron, and ai-e chased off by their boats." 

The di.>trcss under which the British seamen suffer in France is excCisive. 
The scanty pittance allowed each man daily consisted of a small square 
piece of bullock's liver, a slice of black bread, and a glass of new brandy- 
Had it not been for the relief they received from the Patriotic Fund, for^ 
wardfcd to them through a private channel, many of them must have 
perished from want. The object of the French, in treating our seamen 
with sucl) inhumanity in this respect, was with the viev/ of making them 
dissatisfied with their Government, by inducing a belief that they were 
neglected by it, and in order to tempt them to enter into the French service. 
IVumerous were the offers made to them for that purpose, which, to the 
lionour of our brave, but unfortunate tars, were rejected with contempt and 
indignation. They resolved to perish, rather than prove traitors to their 
country. 

The Revenge of 74 gnns, Sir J. Gore came into Portsmouth harbour on 
the 8th of January, from off Rochfort, where she had been five months. 

There was lately driven into the bay of Donbcg, in the county of Clare, 
the deck of a large vessel, to wliicli were fastened by ropes five dead bodies. 
It is supposed the unfortunate ssiilors had lashed themselves to the rings of 
the deck, during one of the late tremendous storms, and the ship encoun- 
tering a very heavy sea, was dashed to pieces. 

The Directors of the East India Company have presented Captain Lar- 
kins with the sum of 500 guineas, for the purcha'.e of a piece of plate, as a 
riistinguishing mark of their approbation, for his defence of the Vv'arreu 
Hastings. 'The ofiicers and crew of that ship are iikeviiscj for their mcri- 



^fAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESrXT YEAR, 1807. 75 

torious coiulacf, to have (?000 guineas distributed among tlicrn, according 
to their rank. 

Among the many calamitous occurrences wliich happened on the 
25th ult. we have to mention the loss of three boiits, with all their crews, 
GOnsi-ting of eighteen men, and three bovs, belonging to Stotfield, near 
T.Wiu. By this unfortunate calamity, eighteen widows, and about fifty 
children, are left destitute. 



%ttm!S on ^rrticr, 

Copied verbatim from the Los cos Gazette. 

[Continued fruui \o\. XVI, page 510. j 

ADMIRALTY OmCE, JAX. 3, 1807. 

Copy of a Jitter from the JlioJif Honourable Lord Keith, ii. R., Admiral of 
the White, &r., to William Marsden, Esq.; dated at liumR^ale, ^ist 
December lad. 

SI&, 

I TRANSMIT, for tlieir Lordships' information, a copy of a letter which 
[ have received from Commodore Owen, and of the incdosure to which 
it refers, reporting the capture of the Deux Freres, Fiench privateer, and 
the recapture of an iMiglish trader, by lieutenant Parry, at present acting 
in ihe command of His Majesty's blnop the Spitfire. 

I have the honour to be, &c. KEITH. 

His Mojcstys Ship C'yde, Walmer Road, 
Mv LORD, 30//! December, 1806. 

I have the honour to enclose a letter from Lieutenant Parry, the acting 
Commander of His Majesty's >loop the Spitlir-,-, reporting the capture of the 
Frencli lugger nrivatcer, whicli .he intercepted on iier return from Beaciiy 
Head, havingjust before recaptured the Friendship, English brig from iNIo- 
gadore, which had been taken by this privateer, in company with another 
vessel of the same description. 

I have had nequer.t reason to commend the vigilance of Lieutenant Parry 
since he was intrusted with the command of this sloop, as well as his per- 
severance in r'.-inaimng on his station during tlie t. inpesliious weather we 
liuve lately experienced; aiid I should do liiui g. at injustice, were I not 
to avail myself of this occasion to inform yuur Lordship of the merit he has 
uniformly siiovvn. 

I have, ^c. 

E. W. C. R. OWEX. 

Admiral Lord Keith, K.B., £)C. 

Hia ALiie^tfi/'s Shop Spi'fre, Do-j:ns, 
SIR, '<29t}> December, 1306. 

T beg leave to acquaint vou, for the inf )rmatiou of tlie Commander in 
Chief, that I had scarce dispatched the Friendship (recaptured brii';) for the 
Downs, of which I hail informed you by letter, but Uiat I disco. ered a sail 



76- NAVAL HISTOHY OF THL r-RKSCNT YEAR, lSOf<. 

in the E.X.l',., beiii^; tlicn on our Ice- beam, to wliiuli I ir.iiiieiliatfly gave- 
dia-e, and am Isappy to acquaint you that by lialt' jjast live A. M. 1 \^ot up. 
with hur; but, in co;iscqnoiic«' uf her tcmcritv and perscverancf, sliu wonkl 
uotbiin^ to till nearly mulcr the niu/.zk* of (jiir gun.'-^, by \^hich her Captain 
and third olHccr were killed, and tour men severely winindcd; one of \\li()Ui 
has had hi^ arm amputated by our Surgeon. She proves to be tiie Deux 
I'rcres Iuj;t:,er psivateer, of 14 guns, four of which oa\y were uK/unted,. the 
I'cst in the 1)1)1(1, and with fift^' five )))en. She was at the taking of the 
T'rieiulship yesterday, in company with TEspoir, another lug<;er; and which, 
I am sorry to say, has escaped, as she had the Piaster and (_')ew of the 
I'r.endship on board. lla\ing so many |jrisoners, 1 thought it necessary 
to bear up wit!) the lugger lor the l)o\\ns, of which 1 hope von will appryve^ 
Tlie otlicers and crew beliu\ed v\ith every alacrity during the chase. 

1 have, cS:c. ' 11.. i'ARUY. 

Co»ii/ivJoic E. W. C. }\. Ouejiy C/i/dc^ 

j.vx. JO. 

Copy i>f a Letter f,om Adniind Young, Coniminider in Chief of Hh RIa]csl)/'s 
^/ujis and /'twtVi' at Flj///iout/i, to Wiiliuiu 2Iuridni, A'iq.j dated t/i'j 
5th litslanl. 

sin, 

I enclose, for the infoi-ination of the Lords fommissioncrs of the Arl- 
luii'alty, a letter I have received from ],ieuteuant Calhiuay, Commaiulcr of 
]lis Waje3ty''s scho(jncr the Pickle, giving an account of tlie capture of the 
rrench cutter pri\ atccr la Tavourilc. 

I Liue tlx! honour to be. &e. 

W. YOUNG. 

SIR, His MLJcsf'/s ScJiDivic?- Pielde, Pb.nioufh, btit Jan. 1807. 

I beg leave to aci|uaiMt you, that, on the moioing of the 3d instant, tlie 
].izard bearing N. live leagues, I saw a cutter in the S. Iv steering to the 
westward, under |)ress of sail,and a brig in chase of her, which proved to be 
Mis Majesty's lirig .Scorpion : all sail was iu)mediately made to close with 
the cutter, which was ell'ccted about ten o'clock. \V"e exchanged a few 
broadsides. Finding he was pushing hard to get to leeward of us, I laid 
hiin on btjard; and, in a few minutes, was in possession of la Favorite 
riiench cutter privateer^ 1'.. J. Bouiruche, Commander, of 14 guns, with a 
conipk'.iufut of seventy men, one of whom was killed, and two \\()unded. 
She let't Cherbourg on the l>t ijistaiit; has )nadc no capture; is well found, 
•and only two ujouths oft tlii^ stucks. 1 am sorry to add, that IVIr. Ceorge 
AK'Cy, acting Mastei', and one ieaman, are badly, and ISIr. (JIuulcs 
Hawkins, Sub-Lieutenant, slightly, wijundcd in boarding. The damages 
we ha\e otherwise leeeived, are trilling. The otlicers and seamen under u)y 
comnjund merit n)y warmest praise, for their cool and steady conduct, fc 
lake the liberty of recomi))endiiig to tiieir Loid-hijjs' notice i\lr. liaukiiis, 
.Sub-Lieutenant, to whom 1 an) jducIi indelrted for his activity and exertions 
in boardii g, and afterwards getting the ))ri/.c clea)'. Captain Caricret, on 
coming u|.', lujk the prisoners on board the Scorpion, to land thtm 
at ralmoulh. 

I have the honour to i)C. &:c. 

DAN. CALLAWAY, 

Admiral Young. Commander in ChlQf\ Ac. 



NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 77 

Copj/ nfaiiollier Lcl'rr J'rom Adiidrul Young, to V.'iUium Marsdcn, Esq.; 
du'cd ut I'l^jinuuth, i/i-clith InUtint. 

sin, 
I herewith transmit, for tlie infornntio:i of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiraliv, a letter from Captain Hr.)vvn, the Commander of His Ma- 
jp-5tv's Sloop the Plover, giving an account of his having captured I'EUze 
French cutter privateer, of St. iMalo. 

I have the l:onoar to be, Sec. 

W. YOL'XG, 

His Majesty'' s Sloop Plover, at Sea, January 1, 
SIR, 1807, Scilly, A.?>Mr. 12 Leagues. 

I beji, to make known to yon, IIis ?.Iajesc\'s sloop under my command tliis 
day capt'ared tlie French cutter privateer TElize, of 14 gun-, with sixty-six 
men, seven days from St. JNlalo, and has not made any captiue. 

I Live the honour to be, Sec. 

PillLTP BROWX. 
William Young, Esq., Admiral L^f I he Blue, 
c^r. Flyinoutti. 

Extract of a Letter from Vice-Admiral Douglas, to William Marsdcn, Esq. ; 
du'ed at Yainioutli, the Zth instant. 
sin, 

I enclose a letter from Captain Stoddart, of the Crnizer, which has this 
moment arrived wjdi a rrencli privateer, le Jeua, of IG gusn, which she 
took on the (3th iuitant, otV the Galloper. 

Hk Mujesty'^s Sloop Cruizer, Yarmouth Roads, 
MY LORD, January S, 1807. 

On the 6th instant, at ei^ht A.M., beint; eiiiht leaiiues south of the Gal- 
loper, we observed a suspicions iussier S. K. s^f^ering for tlie Plemish coast 
under a press of sail ; chased, and in four hours came up with, and cap- 
tured le Jena French privateer, of IG guns, three and four-pounders, (two 
of whicli were thrown overboard duriuu the chase,) commanded by Mon- 
sieur Morel. She iwd taken thi-cc F.n^.dish vessels on the 1st and 2d in- 
stant, about seven leagues from Flambro' Head ; they were part of the 
Haltic convoy separa'L-d in a gale of wnul, viz. tlie Felicity, of Yarmouth r 
Neptune, of Sunderland ; and Bre, of Kirbddy. I am happy to add, that 
tlie ?.I asters and crews wcie on hoard the privateer; and their vessels arc 
likely to be reca]}turcd, having sh.iocd a course for Goree, and were next 
(Jay fulKnved by tlie privateer, who endeavoured to enter tliat port, when 
she wai chased oif by a friiiatc and cuitcr, and the day after fell into our 
hands. Fc .lena was only fourteen dnys off the stocks when taken. She is 
well found in every thiny:, and sails remarkably fast. 

Ihavc,&c.' P. STODDART. 

The Right Hon. Lord Ktith, Syc. 

JAN. 13. 

Copy of a J^etler from Vice-Admiral J^rd Collingrcood, Commander in Chi^^ 
of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to William 
Marsden, E<q. ; dated on board the Ocean, off Cadiz, the 20th of 
December, 18U6. 

sin, 

I enclose to yon, to be laid before the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 



fS NAVAL niSTOUY OF TUL PnESF.NT YtAR, 1807. 

Iniralt}', the copy of a letter from Captain Pearse, Commander of His M.J- 
jcstv's sloop the Halcyon, informing me of his having fallen in with a shi|:, 
a brii;, and zeheck, of the enemy's cruisers, on the loth instant, off Cape St* 
Martin's; and after an action, highly creditable to tins officer, and his 
sliip's company, succeeded in capturing the Spanish sliip the Neptuno dios 
de los JNIares, of 14 guns, and seventy-two men, the brig and zebeck making 
their escape after their fire was silenced. 

I am glad of this opportunity of giving to their Lordsliips my testimony of 
the spirited and skilful conduct of Captain Pearse, in all the duties on 
which he is employed. The present instance of his having attacked and 
succeeded against an enemy so very superior, demonstrates what his abihty 
is when there is opportunity to exhibit it. 

I am, &c. COLLINGWOOD. 

His JSIdjcstifa Ship Halc^/oii, Gibraltar Baj/, 
MV LORD, December V6, 1800. 

I beg leave to niform your Lordship, that on the 13th instant, at ei'^ht in 
the mcnnme, Cape St. Martin's S. S. W. six leagues, 1 perceived three sail 
standing out from the land towards me; being on contrary tacks, we 
closed fast: when within four or five miles, I discovered they were vessels 
of war, (a ship, a brig, and a zebeck,) and shortly after steered directly for 
me. Seeing they were superior, and five settees seen from the tops coming 
from the same quarter, I judged it prudent (as they seemed determined to 
brin" mo to action) to close with them as soon as possible, and decide the 
contest before any assistance could be given from the other five. At iialf 
past ten, (being nearly within muskct-sliot,) they hoisted Spanish colours, 
and connnenced action. As soon as I got abreast of the second vessel, 
I got on the other tack, and brought them to closer action, vijhich lasted till 
twelve o'clock, when their fire slackened. At half past, being nearly a 
calm, the brig and zebeck h;iulcd away to the southward, assisted by their 
boats and sweeps; the ship then nearest us endeavouring to do the same to 
the nortiuvard: we swept after her, and in an htjur got close alongside, when 
elie struck her coloui'S. She proved to be a Spanish polacre ship (privateer), 
the Neptuno dios de los Mares, of 14 guns, and seventy-two men, from 
Denia, going on a cruise between Minorca and the Coast of Africa, with 
the otiier t"0 in company; who, I am sorry to say, made their escape, but 
not before their fire had been silenced. 'J"hc five settees, when within three 
miles, seein^i; the ship deserted, returned to the shore, and went into tlie 
port of Denia. Tliough extraordinary, I am happy to say wc had none 
killed, and only tlu-ee wounded: Lieutenant Briggs, my first, by a splinter, 
in the arm, whom 1 beg leave to recommend to your Lordship's notice j 
Lieutenant Pearse, who has been acting three years and a half in this 
vessel; and one seaman. The loss of the enemy must be great. Thu 
wounded from the ship are doing well, nine in all. I give your Lordship 
tiie full particulars of this event, and trust my attacking so very superior a 
force (seeing they were resolutely detcnnineii to bring n)e to action) will 
meet your Lordship's approbation, knowing I could depend upon my offi- 
cers and ship's company, whose cool, brave, and steady conduct on this, as 
on former occasions, almost insured me success before the action com- 
menced. Tliey merit my warmest acknowledgments. 

I cannot omit mentioning my having fi)ur passengers. Captain Sullivan, 
of the fSlst regiment, who c<)mniandcd the small arms; Messrs. Purvis, 
Crokat, and a Neapolitan messenger, were all of great service, as we were- 
sixteen shoit of complement. The object of the enemy's fire was mostly 
directed ai oMr masts and rigj^iuLj ; iu which, I am sorry to say, we have 
suffered very i»'.'.terially. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE TRKSENT YEAH, 1807. 79 

The force opposed to the Halcyon was, Nf ptiino clios dc los Mures, four- 
teen tui'ive pi) !iiders,iiiid . oveiity-two men; la Vergin di Sulidad, fourteen 
twelve and ei^iit poiinders, and seveaty-ciglit ineu; cl Vivcs, twelve eight 
and oix pounders, and aixty-fivc men. 

I have the lionour to be, &c. 

II. W. PEARSE. 
The rdiihl H m. C. Lord Cul/in^'cooiL 

Copi/ of a Let I cr from the Right Hon. Lord Gardner, Adniimt of the Whltr^ 
lyc. to Williim JSlursdcn, E'S'j. ; dated Trent, Cork Ha/ boar, iit/i i)f 
Jduiturij, laOT, 

SIK, 

I have the honour to transmit herewitli, for the information of the Lords 
CovDi.iissi .i;!,TS of the Aduiiralty, copy of a letier from Captain James BrJs- 
Lnne, of the Alcmeae, iriviu;^ an account of the capture, hy tlint >hip, on the 
-ith iii-taiit, In lat, 50 deg. i\., long. 11 deg. W., of le Courier i-'rencli cutter 
privateer, of .St. Maloes. 

I have the iionour to be, i«i;c. 

GARDNER. 

iiY LOi'.D, Alonrne, at Sea, Jan. 6, 1807. 

I have the honoiu- to acquaint your Lordship, that His M;yesty's shin 
under my command, on the 4th in- taut, in latitude 60 deg. N., longitude Jl 
deg. VV., fell in with, and captured Is Courier, French cutter privateer, 
(formerly His iVIajfsty's hired armed cutter Alert,) pierced for fourteen 
guns, hut now mounting seven, of diilerent calibres, forty-two and twenty- 
four poiuul brass carro-iades, and seventy men : four days from Morlaix, 
witJiout makin.. a capture. 

Ihave, &c. JAMES BRISBANE. 

The llight Hon. Adm, Lord Gardner, i^,-c. 



DOWNING STKEET, JAN. 'It. 

D'K'HifcJica, of rohlch the fo/ lore Ins "re Co;ni->i, hnrc been rerrmd hy the 
Ri:j.l>'. Hon. ]Villl(titi Windham, One of His ALijestj/\<i Frincifal Secretariis 
vf Slate, f.'Oin Lieuienunt-Cotonel Backhoasv, coniwanding a DeLaehmeht 
^f His M(ijcsit/s Land Forces in the River dc la Plata. 

Royal Charlotte (Ti-ansport ) , off" Monte Video, 
srit, ' October 13, 130G. 

Understanding that a vessel is to sail immediately for England, I do m'- 
self tlie honour to transmit to you a copy of a letter, addres>ed to Liei.- 
tcnaut-Gcneial Sir David Eaird, in obedience to whose orders I sailed on 
tiie 'iOrii of August last, with 1st battalion 47th regiment, for the purpose of 
joining Major-vjcneral Beresford, in South America. 

Roi/al Charlotte (Transport), off Monte Video, 
SIR, ' OJober V^, U>0<j. 

I have the honour to acquaint your Exrellency, that, on my arrival here, 
I had ihe mortiiication to find the city of Buenos Ayrcs recaptured; and 
that Major-Genei-al Beresford, with the forces under his command, (after a 
most able and g:dlant defence,) had been made prisoners of war, so far 
joark as vlic ICth of August la t. 
■ iiavi:ijg arri\ed last njuht, I am not, at this u^omcnt, suffipleutl^' ac^- 



80 NAVAL IIISTOHV OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1 807. 

quainted with the particulars to enable nic to detail them, thongli T pre- 
sume due and full information of this unfortuuiile and important cvcnt,- 
must have been transmitted to you soon after its oecurrence. 

You arc aware, .'^;;r, th;it the command of lii' Maje^^tj's land forces, at 
present in this river, dcnlvcs upon ine; with which, in co-operation with 
the squadron under Sir Home Popham, it is my intention to occupy a 
favourable po-ition, until a reinforcement shail arrive, or I may be honoured 
with your liirther instructinns; and trust tiiat, by an early opportunity, I 
sliall be able to afford you a satisfactory report of my arrangements 
and operations in carrying your designs into execution. And am, tkc. &c. 

To Licntcnant-General Sir D. Baird, i^-c. 

The immediate departure of the ship for Endand, and the situation in 
which 1 find myself unexpf'Cedly placed^ prevent any further communi- 
cation than what is contained in tiie preceding; letter. 

1 have the honour to he, See. 

T. .]. IJACKIIOUSE, 
Colonel coinniandiug 47th llegimcut. 
"The Right Hon. Wm. Windham, S^c. 

Copji of a Diapatch from JJcutenanf-Coloiipl Backhouse, 1o the Right. Ho- 
nourable Wit'iit " Windiuuii, dated JSIoldunado, on the River de la Plata, 
Slsf October, 180G. 

SIR, 

In my letter of the loth instant, T had the hononr to transmit a copy of 
mv letter, of the same date, to His Excellency Lieutcnaut-Geucrnl Sir ])a- 
vid B-.iird, apprising him of my urrivtjl in the river Plata, and of my inten- 
tion to occupy a position on sliorc, to await his further orders. 

I, in consequence, immediately reconnoitred, from one of the frigates, whicli 
carried me sufficiently close in shore for tlic purpose, the works of tlie jilace, 
and the positions and defences in the vicinity of jMonte \')deo, from which 
I formed, as the most eligible mode of attack, the idea of being able to carry 
the town and citadel by assault, on the south face edging on the waler, in 
co-operation with the ships of the squadron, under Commodore Sir Home 
Popham, which were to silence the batteries on that face, so as to enable 
the troops to land and enter. The attempt was accordingly commenced on 
the 2oth, by the Navj' ; but the water pioving too sb.allow to admit of the 
ships coming sufiiciently near to cannonade it with effect, a further effort 
■was necessarily given up. 

Upon tliis 1 deemed it advisable, with the co-operative concurrence of Sir 
Home Popham, to take possession of the town of Moldonado, as a favour- 
able position for the purpose of refreshing the troops, mounting my ca\alry, 
anrl carrying on such other arrangements as might thereafucr appear 
most necissary. 

Not a moiucnt was lost; and, accordingly, on the evening of the 29th I 
landed with about -100 men, composed principally of a part of the 3oth 
regiment, under Colonel Vassal, and advanced against the town, which 
seemed to be occupied by about 600 reguUn-s and militia, mostly mounted 
with one howitzer, and one lon^ four poundei- iield piece, botii brass. 

Notwithstanding we were witliout ;iny artillery, the enemy were soon dis- 
persed, with the loss of tlieir guns, m d aliout fifty men killed ami wonnded. 
The loss on our side was two kille.l and four wounded, of His Majesty's 
UCJth regiment. 

To the cool intrepidity of oiu- litrlo column on tl)is occasion, much ])r:i)-c 
is dac, as it advanced with the utmost steadincse and alacrity, and wi.tiwut 



KAVAL HISTORY OF TJIE PRESENT TEAR, 1807. SI 

firing a sliot, until sufScientIv ncnr to make a certainty of carrying both the 
puns and the town, which was principally dune by the btiyonet, liotwjth- 
standing the advance was made under heavy discharges ot' grape and 
musketry. 

To the well known gallantry and ability o£ Colonel Vassal, I feel myself 
much indebted; and the conduct of every other otiicer in the field lias com- 
manded my thanks. 

At day-break yesterday morning I detached Colonel Vassal to take pos- 
session of the heavy batteries on the beach of the harbour, and on tiie 
peninsula, vvhich precluded any communication for the enemy between the 
main land and the scrong island and poit of Gorretti, situated in, and much 
commaiiding the Bay of Maldonado; and which, in c )nse!juence, i '. the 
course of the day surrendered at discretion to a summons sent fnjm Sir 
Home Popham, and thereby pre\ented t!ie necessity of carrying it by 
storm, and the consequent blood hed that might have e 'sued. J^uring yes- 
terday and this morning, the chief part of the remainder of the troops liave 
been landed ; and I have already contrived to mount nearly one half of my 
cavalry. 

The Wellington transport being directed to sail immediately to England, 
I have taken the liberty of addressing this s'ijrc account of mv proco"ding:i 
directly to you, Sir Home Poplram iiaving r'^jrc^ented to me iiis mabdity to 
dispatch a vessel atthis time to tuo Cape of Good Hope, piecluding me the 
power of making my report through the regular channel of Lieuienant-Ge- 
ceral Sir David Eaird. 

I ought not to omit to mention the very steady and praise-worthy con- 
duct of a small party of marines and armed seamen, sent on shore by Sir 
Home Popham, who joined and composed part of our column on its wav 
into the town, and occupied such positions as were allotted to them during 
the night, in such a correct manner, as to reflect the greatest credi'., both 
on the officers that commanded them, and their own zenl and discipline. 

I should also be wanting in justice to my own feelings, if I closed my 
dispatch without acknowledging the services I have received from L:cutc- 
nant-Colonel Brovvnrigg, Deputy Quarter-Master-General, and Major 
Trotter, of the 83d regiment, acting Deputy Adjutant-General to the 
forces at present under my command. And I also beg leave to acknowledge 
the assistance aftbrtled me by Ttlajor Tucker, of the 72d regiment; who, by 
permission of Lieutenant-Gcnerat Sir David Baird, is with me on this 
occasion, and acting in the capacity of Military Secretary. 

I herewith have the honour to enclose the return of such ordnance, am- 
munition, and stores, as have yet been discovered. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

J. T. BACKHOUSE, 
Lieut. Col. 47th Regiment. 

Keturn of the killed and wounded of the Troops under the Comma id of 
Licutenant-Colonc! Backhouse, in the Attack of Maldonado, on the %Oth of 
Octol'cr, 1806. 
38th regiment. — 2 rank and file killed, 4 rank and file woimded. 

W. R. TllOlTER, 
Major 83d Reg. Acting Dep. Adj. Gen. 

Rcfuryi of Ordnance, Ammunition, and Stores, SjC. taken from the Enemy in 
the Town and Vicinity of Maldonado, and Island of Oorrclti, on the U9t/i 
tf October, 1806. 

Brass Ordnance. 
1 six inch howitzer, with ten rounds of ammunition; 1 six pounder, with 
ten rounds of diilo. 

Iron Ordnance. 
Twelve twenty-six-pounders, on sea batteries; twenty twenty-four-pound* 

il9atj. dfjton. ©oUXVII. m 



S^ VAvAt insTouY OP Tiir. pur.srxT year, 1SG7. 

cr<, on tlie Inland of Corrctti; seven liundrcd muskcfs ; fwo luiiidred pis- 
tols; three hundred swurds; and one hundred and eight barrets of powder. 

A. WAISON, 
Capt. I?. :M. Artillery. 
N.B, Tiie above is the most correct return I have vet been alile to collect. 

W.R. IRCriTKi;, 
Actinj^Dep. Adj. Gen. 

;»T>MIT!AL1V OrnCE, JANfARY 27, 1807. 

Dispatcher, of uh'tch ike foVmtivfi a>e Copies, fiarc hccn recr'rccd at t/iis 

dft'icc pom Ciinonodorc Sir Heine rophirm, addrt'fstd to WiUitim 2TaJS' 

din, Ei^q. 

His Majcslys Ship Dindem, Hio dc la Platu^ 
ME, August 25, 18C)C. 

r \Vlien the events of •n-ar cease to be favourable to any armament, I consider 
It the duty of Cnmmaiidhig Olhccrs to state all the circumstances under their 
knowledge or information with clearness and perspicuity, \\hiLii, either 
progressively or suddenly, led to a reverse of fortune.^ 

]n pin-suing this course, I feel confident I shall be able to satisfy tlie 
Lords C'onnnissioners of the Admiralty, that the liberal and Ixncficeirt 
princij'les upon which the Governnunt of General Beresford was conducted 
do more honour to His ^NJajesty's arms, and the character of Great Britain, 
than if he iiad resorted to c>ij)edicnts completely within his power, wiiich 
would have etlectually annihilated all the efforts of the-; enemy, and wrested, 
probably for ever, these countries from the crown of Spain. 

Pueridon, one of the numit ipaiity, appears to have been the greatcJ^t 
organ of the revolution. He apjilicd himself with groat art and address in 
pre.paring the people for a general insurrection. 

'1 he arms in the town were secreted, ready for the moment of action j 
the discontented assembled everv night, and attended to his instructions; and 
he raised all the rabble of the country by the ample supplies of money 
with which lie was furnished on the north side of the river. Colonel JJnicrs, 
a I'rench olVicer in the Spanish scnicc. and on his parole, successfully era- 
ploved himself in collecting people at Colonia. 

Terror was established, and every person who refused to contribute his 
assistance to this conspiracy was threatened with immediate death. 

I have traced this from very unquestionable authority; and so rapid was 
the pro;:ress of the revolution, when it first sliowcd itself, that it was not till 
the 31st Julv that I learnt by a dispatch from the General, which reached 
nie at Ensenada, on my return from Woiite Video, that he was apjjrchensive, 
liom the information he received, an insurrection would shortly be made. 

1 heard at the same time, from Captain Tlioinson, that seventeen of the 
enemy's vessels had just arrived at Colonia; and as it was reported that 
I''orcc was still to be increased from INIonte \'ideo, I sent orders t'or the 
Diomede to be brought to Ensenada, and for Captain King of tiie Diadem 
to come up with the remaining few marines, the two Com})anies of Blue-, 
and as many otiier men as could in any degree be spared from the ships, 
for the purpose of arming some vessels to attack the Eiieiny at Colonia, as 
it was impossible to prevent his crossing from the north shore whene\cr 
the w ind was fair. 

On the 1st of August, in the afternoon, the I.eda anchored otT Buenos 
A vies, about twelve miles distant; and on my landing on the 2d, which I did 
as soon as the weather w(juld admit of a boat getting on shore, J found the 
General had just made a very successful attack on about fifteen liiindred 
Spaniards under rueridon, five leagues from the town, with five hundred 
men, in which he took all the enemy's cannon (I think nine pieces) ami 

i(- r 'iI--SM||crS. 

On the 3d I attempted to return to the Lcda, in the Encounter, which 
Captain llunyrnun brought wittiin a. few iniles ot the shore for thi;< purpOM.', 



NAVAL inSTOUV OF THE PRESENT YEAU, 1807. 83 

as It birw very Strong ; Ijiit the wind trcbliened so considerably from tlie 
eastward, that \vc rould not j:ct to uiiidwiird. 

On the -Jth, in the moriiinir, it was very thick weather, and the gale 
increased so much that it was impossible to wci^li. 

About noon Captain Kin;j; arrived in a f^alivat, with one hundred and 
fittv men I'rom the Diadem, I'ur the purpose of arming and conuoaiidini; 
the tew small vessels we had collected in the harbiiur ; but he was not able 
to L'Ct there till the followin-; day. 

(Ja the oth, in the morning, it moderated, ami I reached the Lcda, ulicii I 
received a report (Vom (':ii)tain Thomson, that in the gaie of the precedini^ 
dav the enemy hatl crossed from Colona totally unobserved by any of onr 
>hips, except the schouner under the connnand of JJeutenant Ilerrick, who 
^vas Ivini; in the farrow gut leading to Conchas and St. l^idro, but the 
easterly wind had thrown so much water in the river, that the enemy were 
enabled to cross over any ])art of the Fatmas ijank witliont the ueccbsity of 
luakirif; a greater detour by going ijighcr up the river. 

On the 6th and 7th it blew a hurricane; the Ix'da was lying in four 
fathoms, with two anchors down, ai)d her yards and tupmasts struck. 

On the 8th I heard from Captain King that five of our gun-boats iiad 
fmndered at their anchors ; that the Walker had lost her rudder, and that 
the launches and large cutters of the Diadem and Leda were lost. 

The torrents of rain that fell during the (Jtii, 7th, and tith, had rendered 
the roads totally impracticable for any thing but cavalry, and consecpiently 
(j'enerLd IJercrford was most seriously di-appointed in his determination, 
to attack the enemy at a distance tVom the town: in which, had it taken 
place, I (Mitcrtain no doubt that jiis army would have added another trait of 
its iiuincible spirit under his dispositions. 

Tlie enemy, however, by liis inexhaustible supply of horses, suffered little 
inconvenience from the state of tlie x'oads, ami lie u as thereture en^d)|ed to 
approach the town by several directions, widiuut giving the liritish arinv any 
opportunity to attack him. 

On the lUth, in the evening, the castle was summoned, and on the foilowv 
ing day 1 landed, while our remaining vessels were tiring on the Spanisli 
posts, and I learned tint, I'xciusivc of the ."^paniijh army, which was divided 
into many columns, occupying the various avenues of thp town, the inha- 
bitants w ere all armed, and sheltered on the tops of the houses and churches, 
widi a design of tiarryin-i on a war of aiabush. 

Under these circunjstances, and the manit'e.-t dispositicjn of the eneniv 
to prevent an cngagenjent, it was determined to eud^ark the wounded that 
night, and cross the liio Chello, t'or the purpov; of moving towards 
]-'.nsenuda; but this mea-nre was in a great d; grec frustratc4 bv the 
'.veailier, which bccaiue very violent during the night, and consequently 
retarded the progress of embarkation, though the enemy added a coiis.- 
«leral)le niunber of men to the houses and cliurdies near the castle, and 
advanced by all the streets nut under the iijUuence of its fire : in slunt, 
Sir, his object was to avoid by every means a general action, and to place 
his men in such a situation thi-.t tiiey could lire at our troops while they 
remained in perfect security themsfUes. 

On the 1 '2th, at day-liglit, I understand a smart lire began from tlic 
rnemy's advanced po<ts, but was soon returned with great elVect fruia our 
artillery, which was planted towards the principal streets leading to the 
great square, and for a short tunc the enemy by his immense uuniberii 
showed a greater degree of iirinness llian on any other occasion, and 
rushed tbrward with three pieces of artillery ; which Colonel Pack of the 
7!>-tS')on ciiaiged and took from him. During this time, however, re- 
inforcements crowded the tups of all the luKiMS cominaiiding the gre-t 
sijuare from the back street'', and our troops were soon con»iderablv 
;.iuiu)yed by people I hey could not get at. The enemv commaaded t!ie 
castle in tlic aume way, witli the additional advantage vi' a luu on the top 



S4 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

of one of the churches, whicii I consider an indelible stigma against the 
character of the TiJiop, not only from his situaiiun, but tlie profctbions 
he made. 

I can easily conceive how the feelings of General Beresford must, at 
this moment, have been on the rack; disappointed in his last efforts to 
invlure the enemy to a general engagemeuL in the great square, his gallant 
little army falling fast by shots from invisible persons; and the only 
alttniative "hxh co''ld present itself to save the useless effusion of so 
much valuable blood was a flag of truce, which was hoisted at the castle 
about oijL «/clock. 

In an instaiu there were near ten thousand men in the great square, 
pressing toiward in the most outrautious manner to get nito the fort, and 
evtn firiiig at our men on the ramparts; so miich so/ that it was with 
extreme difficulty the British troops were prevented re\'enging this insult : 
indeed the General w.is obliged to tell the Spanish otikers, if their men 
did not retire iti tiie course of one minute, he must, as the only measure 
ofsa:ety, haul down the flag of truce, and recoinmence hostilities: this 
firmness had the desired eHect, and he then sent his conditions to the 
Spanish Genera], ai.d they uere instantly acceded to. 

I enclose a copy of the capitulation; and I trust the high and indepen- 
dent language in which it is couched, and the terms dictated by General 
Beresford to an officer at the head of myriads of people, will do him 
infinite honour in England, and obtain for him liis Majesty's most 
grvicious approbation ot lis Ciihduct. 

i have rec^'ived, and annex a leturn of the killed, wounded, and 
missmg; by whicii it appears, that there are two officers, two Sergeants, 
one Drummer, forty-thiee rank and llle, killed; eight officers, seven Ser- 
geants, ninety-two rank and file, wounded; and nine, missing; making a 
total of one hundred and si.\ty-five; and scarce any of those misfortunes 
were occasioned, except from the inhabitants on the' tops of the houses 
and the cnurchi s. 

The tnemy confoses to have lost about seven lumdrcd killed and wound- 
ed, in tiie short conflici in the streets; and if it had not been for the m- 
habitaiils, 1 have lit'.le doubt that the Spanish troops would have been 
r.'juipktely defeated, alinough seven times tiic number of the British 
forces. 

Kothing is more difficult than to give their Lordships an idea of the 
nuuiLerof men iii :;:-ms; but f'nrn th^ btst accounts we can obtain, it is 
thought Puerid'K;, and the othc-: principal pe-jio engaged in this } lot, 
haa collf'ffed fVoni eight to ten thoi.^and ir.ei; la rlie country; that Lcuiers 
inay have i-. ougiit o\ f r from eight hur.dred to a thousand ; and the town 
furnisijed, though ;:rir>ed in various ways, about ten thousand, under the 
Secret nrrangeiae;;( of the Ivia-istrates. 

When every vc^:-el that could c.-ciipe from Buenos Ayrcs had joined, I 
proce- Jed towards luiscnada, to retire the detachment of_mar:ues> Lieute- 
nant Groves, of the Duidein, was obliged to quit the'L-elem schooner, its she 
■would not work out; ore giin-b. at and :. settee, a prize, were also left iii 
the harbour, \. ith the Justina, a small Fnglish n'.crcliiint ship that had fol- 
lowed the expedition from S:. Jtjrlena. (/apt^dn Thomson, of the Nc ptune, 
who was in the castle, wo^ made a prisoner j a;;d Lieuienant Burgh, of the 
Raisonahie, with Mr. Ramsay, a Midshipman, and seven men, who were in 
the sttLec, as her boats could no; hold them. Lieutenant Herrick, in the 
Do!, res, the other armed scIido; t r, worked out in a mainier which, coupled 
with !. ^ o»Mi conduct on rhe whole of this liui-incss, docs him great credit. 

On the IC'h, in tic mornii,.-, the detaclimtnt of marines, under the com- 
mand of Litu'cnaiit Svw.ile, was embarked iVom Ensenada, and his two 
Spanish fie.d p.ece-; spiked anr! tK;-o\vn into tiie river. 

On ihe I^th I sailed 'or this anciioragc where I arrived the t'ollowing 
day, and immediately addressed the Governor of Monte \''idco on the sub- 
ject of our troops. 



NAVAL HISTOaiY OF THE PRESEVT YEATl, 1807. 85 

On the ICth, in consequence of receiving, by Colonel Liniers' Aid-de- 
Canip, a letter tVoin Generiil lieresfurd, I dispatclied t vo of the transpoits 
to Buenos Avres, vvlicre one arrived ou the J7 th; hut frjni the prevarication 
of the Governor of Monte Video in '.he i'irst iublauct, and his subsequent 
dishonourable conduct, iio troops nu.\- ; ^-t been embarked. 

Whilst I iiad the iionour of being on board the Lcda, I had every reason 
to be satisfied with the z.ealous attention of Captain iionyraan, iiis otliCers 
and s'lip's company; and I cannot but express my extreme approbation of 
the conduct of all the i>Qiccrs a:.d seHmcn, wlio were coriitantly employed iu 
tlie small ves-nls and loat'i, under alaiosc every privation, in the very severe 
and trying weather whicii v\e experienced ilie last ten days. 

I most sincerely rej;ri :. however, that my situation has imposed on me the 
painful H.ity of mailing i!;'s report, to their i, jrdships, ejjpe -ially us it is done 
principally by materials colncteil from different people, which they probably 
in many instances dc.iuced from vaj^ue and uncertain conclusions: it how- 
ever it shoula hereafter appear that 1 have failed in any instance to do ample 
justice to the conduct, energy, ar;-.! prowess of General Berciford, and the 
officers and sold.ers under his command, it has been owing to the limited 
scale of mv commumcdtions since tlie i'Zih, froM the extreme jealousy of the 
enemy, and not from any indisposition to appreciate their merits in the most 
liberal manner; a sentuncnt vvhich f have held on every occasion, and pubr 
lickly marked it in all my foi-mer dispatches. 

I have the honour to be, &c. ilOIME POPIIAM. 

Fiiri Biicnox Ayrts, Auguat 12, 1805. 

The iBritish General having no further object for remaining in Buenos 
Ayres, and to avoid »n unnecessary clfusioaof blood, as also the destructiiyu 
of the property of the inhabitants of tliis city, consents to deliver up t!ie 
fort of Buenos Ayres to the Commander of His Catholic Majesty's forces oa 
the following conditions ; 

Art. I. The British troops to march out with all the honours of war, t9 
he considered as prisoners of war, but to be embarked as soon as possible oa 
board the Britisii transports now m the river, to be conveyed to England, oc 
the stations where they came from. 

II. The British, on their entrance into this place, made many Spanish 
prisoners of war, which rem.ained on their parole; and as the number of 
olficers is much greater on one side, and of men on the other, it is agreed 
that the wliolc shall be exclianged for the whole, the English trm.sports re- 
liirning to the place of their destination as cartels, and to be guaranteed as 
such by the Spanish gcivernraent from capture on the voyage. 

III. Provisions will be furnished for the passage of tlie English troops, 
according to the usual custom in like cases. 

IV. .Such wounderl of the Biinsli troops as cannot be removed on board 
of sliip, shall remain in the hospitals at Buenos Ayres, either under charge ot 
the Spanish or British Surgeons, at the option of the British General, aui 
shall be furnished with every thing necessary; and, on their recovery, sent 
lo Great Britain, 

V. 'I'he property of all English subjects in Buenos Ayres to be ron 
spected. 

(Signed) W. C. BERESFORD, Maj. Gen. 

(Considido) SANTIACiO LINIERS. 
Il£turn qfKUltd, Wounded, and Mhwiii, of the T oops under the Cornand 
ofJfajor-GcaeraL BeresJordJ'rom the 10th to tht I2th of Avgust, at Buenos 
Ai/rts. 

Royal Engineers— 1 Captain, killed. 

Koyal Artillery— 3 rank and tile, killed ; 1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, Q. rank 
and file, wounded. 
St. Helena Artillery— 9 rank and flip, killed; 1 SerjcJuit, 13 rank aad file, 

■VOUi}Jl:d. 



86 XATAL HISTORY OF IME PRESENT YKAR, 1807*. 

Drivers — 1 rank and file, wounded. 

71st reg. — 1 Lieutenant, 1 herjeant, 1 Drummer, 24 rank and file,killed; 
1 Colonel, 1 Lieutenant, 2 Ensigns, 5 Serjeants, 67 rank and file, wounded; 
1 Serjeant, missing. 

Royal Marines — 6 rank and file, killed; i Captain, I Serjeant, 5 ranlc 
and file, wounded ; 8 rank and file, missing. 

St. Helena Reg. — 1 Serjeant, 1 rank and file, killed; 1 Lieutenant, 4 rank 
and file, wounded; 1 rank and file, missing. 

Total. — 1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, 2 Serjeants, 1 Drummer, 43 rank and 
fdc, killed; 1 Colonel, 2 Captains, 3 Lieutenants, 2 Ensigns, 7 Serjeants, 
92 rank and file, wounded; 1 Serjeant, ? rank and file, missing. — 144. 

N. B. 5 men of the 71st, three men of the companies of .Artiller}', 1 Roval 
Marine, 1 of the St. Helena Regiment. — Total 1 0— dead since going int« 
the hospital. 

Officers Killed. 

Hoyal Engineers — Captain Kennett. 

71st Reginient — Lieutenant \V. Mitchell. 

Officers Wonmled, 

Royal Artillery — Captain Ogilvic ancii Lieutenant M'Donald. 

7 1st Reg. — Lieutenant-Colonel Pack ; Lieutenant Murray ; Ensigns CouseJ 
and Lucas, (since dead.) 

Royal Marines — Captain IMackenzie. 

St. Helena Reg.— Lieutenant Sampson. 

ALEX. FORBES, r!rigadc-:Maior. 
SIR, Diadem, liio dc la Plata, Oct. 9, 1806. 

On the 5th instant, off Lobes, we fell in with the Rollo, having a detacli-i 
ment of the SSth on board ; she sailed frcnn the Cape in company with the 
Melantho, which was to the westward of her. I took tlic troops out of the 
Roilo, and sent her to Rio Grande, for the purpose of purchasing any tlour 
or biscuit, and ascertaining whether any quantity of the latter could be baked 
there. 

On the 6th we returned to this anchorage, where we foimd tlie Protector, 
with the Adamant and Columbine transj.'orts, having on board detachments 
of the SSth, and the Diadem victualler, 1 lost no time in ordering all the 
men of war to coinpiete their provisions to three months, for fear of any ac- 
cident happening to the victualler. 

On the 7th, in the evening, the Medusa joined, with four of the Lancas- 
ter's convoy ; and Captain Bouverie reported, that the Lancaster was to the 
eastward with the remaining two ships, haviiig the preceding night parted 
their cables. The Leda joined the same evening, and Captain Hoiiyinaii 
reported, that he had detained a Danislj ship bound to Monte \ ideo, having 
on board the Governor of Valdivia. 

I intended to have dispatched the Wellington th.is evening, but Colonel 
Vassal particularly requested I would detain her till the arrival of the Lan- 
caster, as Colonel Backhouse was a ^nior Lieutenant-Colonel to himself, 
and, succeeding adventitiously to the command of the army, he would na- 
turally be desirous of making; a report to the Duke of York of the state of 
his force, and the arrangements he had made. 

The weather was so hazy, and the current so strong to the southward, 
that the Lancaster did not join till the 12th, in the evening, on the following 
day; as it appeared to me, tiiat the commanding otticer of the troops in- 
tended to make his first attempt on INlonte \'ideo, and was anxious to see 
that place, I directed Captain Rowlev to take all the transports to Llores 
Bay, and proceeded on the 14th ot^" Monte \'ideo, and then to Flores, w here 
■vve arrived on the 15th, in the morning. 

From the 1.5th to the 27th, it blew so hard, that nothing could he at- 
tempted. On the 2Sth, in the morning, the wind was easterly, ami 
every circumstance as favaurable as possible to try tjie experiment ; and 
as the Pilots assured us a flat ruu off from the rocks of the town lor ;; 



NAVAL mSTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 87 

jrinile, makins^ precisely the. same Avater alonosidc of them as at that dis- 
tance, I ordered Captaiu I'dnionds, who a cry handsomely rci|uestcd to 
remain till the experiment was tried, ancfto command the leadinc;; trans- 
)»ort, not to attend to the ostensible orders of leading do^vn in three 
fathom, bnt to haul in (ill lie had small (jiiarter less tiuee, to ascertain 
■whether the flat really run otV as described, or not. Captain Kdmonds 
will explain the circunistauce fully to their J<ordships : he borrowed as 
near the shore as he could, lor the safely of the frij^ales, and then was 
only within random shot, and therefore 1 would not let the Lcda '^o 
down a second time; for unless the ships could have tjot well witliiti 
point blank shot, there w as no chance of making- a breach for the armv 
to land in the town. Although the enemy fired for more than an hour 
on our ships, in consequence of there bein;;- but little wind, 1 am happy 
to inform you that only one man Mas wounded. 

As I now saw it was impossible to get close enough in to make any 
breach in the south Mall with the men of war, 1 proposed to Colonel, 
Uackhousc to take Maldonado, which I should have attempted early iu 
the winter, if the marines had not been left at Buenos Avres. 

Maldonado is an excellent harbour, where the fleet can water, and get 
bullocks, which now really become very necessary to recruit our men. 

The island Gorrctti, which forms the harbour of Maldonado, is venr 
strong ; and after the troops are landed to take the village, and the bat- 
teries on the sea coast in re\erse, 1 shall propose to take the island by 
the Navy, provided it docs not surrtnider to my sununons. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

HOME POFIIAM. 
D'uidcm, Mahhnaih) Harlmir, Rio de lu Plata, 
SIR, Ocloicr 30, lij()6. 

I considered it right to take possession of the harbour of Maldonado, 
as a safe anchorage for the ships now iu the river, and those expected to 
arrive, independent of the supplies which that district could so abun- 
dantly furnish us with. 

1, therefore, request that you will inform my Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, that the moment I satisfied Ijrigadier-lieneral Backhouse 
of the expediency of the measure, no time was lost in moving part of the 
38th regiment to the Lcda and Medusa, when they accompanied the 
Diadem to this place. 

'J'he frigates anchored about five oclock yesterday evening, to the 
westward of the westernmost battery; and Captain Honeyman informed 
Tne by telegraph, that the beach was smooth, and that the debarkation 
could be easily covered. 

At six, the troops from the Diadem assembled alonjiside tiiR Lcda, and 
a landing was immediately etlccted, without any opposition ; but, as I tliought 
it possible that the enemy might have a greater force than he sliowcd on tlve 
iiills, and its the nearest transport was yet some distance from the road?, I 
ordered the marines of the Medusa, and a conipuny of blues, from each 
sliip, to be landed, to support the army, who enteied, and took possession of 
tiie village of Maldonado betbre eight o'clock. 

This morning I sent a summons to the fortified Island of Gorrctti, which 
forms this harbour; and I enclose, for tlieir Lordships' information, a copy 
(jf it, with liicCorauKUidant's answer, and my reply, which wasaccoiuj-anitd 
by an assin-anee, tliroui^h Lieutenant Wiseman, of iht Diadem, who was 
cinpluycd on triis service, that I would not hoUl any further comumiiication 
with hill), until Ilis iMajcbty's colours, wliicii I sent tur that purpose, were 
hoisted on the fort. 

This proposition was acceded to, and the Spanish pr'S(jners were inune- 
dialciy emljarkcd; eoiislsiing of one Captain, two Lieutenants, one Ensign, 
and one hundied and four men. 

Gorrctti is a very strong position, defended by twentv twcnfy-ftu'r- 
pounders in four batteries, so placed, as to command the roudstead, the 



Sg WAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YF.AR, 1807. 

*?astcrn passage between it, and the peninsula; and the only two practical 
beaches I'or landing. 

The troops were disemharked as they arrived, and the transports or- 
dered to be watered as fust as possible, and held in readiness for any 
other service. 

It is impossible for me to conclude this dispatch without assuring their 
lordships, that I continue to receive the most cordial assistance from every 
©fficer and n.an in the squadron under my command: nor could I observe 
the least abatement of their zeal, under niatiy considerable privations which 
they experienced during the whole of this winter. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

HOME POPHAM. 
Jlet'tryy of Ordnance taken in the Island of Go7retti. 
Twenty twenty-four- pounders, mounted on field carriages, side-arms, and 
ammunition, complete; four twenty-four pounders, not mounted; two 
hundred stand of arms; and various otlier small articles. 

HOME POPHAM. • 

His Britannic Majesty's Ship Diadem^ 

STR^ Rio de la Plata, October S0,.1806. 

His Britannic Majesty's forces are in possession of Maldonado, and witli 

n view to save time, as the General is on shore, I summon you to surrender 

the Island of Gorretti. 

Any oppoition on your part, to such a force as is now in this bay, must 
1)6 fruitless; and if you do not allow the ofticer who is charged with this 
letter to hoist His Majesty's colo'irs at the fort, and trust to tiie known libe- 
ralit}' of the British nation, you will have to answer for all tiie serious and 
inevitable consequences of an attack, whenever the General and myself 
think it expedient to make one. 

HOME POPHAM. 
To the Commandant of the Island of Gorretti. 

His Majesty's Ship Dicdem, Rio de la Platdf 
SIR, October 30, 1806. 

The Island must surrender immediately. 

The British nation always treats its prisoners with honour and liberality. 
Private property is held sacred by British officers. 

The Spanish officers and men at Gorretti shall immediately join the pri« 
soners already taken. 

HOME POPHA^I. 
To the Commandaid of the Island of Gorretti. 

TRANSLATION. 

SIR, 

The honour of the Spanish arms not permitting me to surrender at dis- 
cretion, as you desire by your letter which you sent me, dated the 30th 
instant, I trust you will grant me the terms which accompany this, to 
vindicate my honour with my superiors. Our Lord preserve you many 
years. 

Island of Gorretti, 30th October, 1806. 
Terms made in the Island of Gorretti, the 30th October, 1806. 

I. The garrison to march out with all military honours, keeping their 
arms, and the officers, Serjeants, and corporals, their swords. 

II. All their effects to be embarked, and carried to the main by the Bri- 
tlsli boats, there not being any in the Island. 

III. The garrison to be permitted to proceed to Monte Video, on con- 
dition of not bearing arms until exchanged. 

I\^ The remains of artillery and stores shall faithfully be delivered up. 
V. No person to be permitted to enter the Island before it is evacuated 
except those intended to take possession, 

AUGUSTIN DE LERGS, 
To the General of Great Britain, 




CALBER BAjRT 



iUlMktd Feb-' ^.S^'WOJ, hJGoUil03. Sh>eLan£.FUet Street. 



BIOGBAPIIICAL MEMOIR Of 

SIR ROBERT CALDER, JJart. 

VICE-ADMIUAL OF THK MllITE SQUADUON. 



" Now I behold thexliiefs, in the pride of their former deeds ! Their souls 
are kindled at the battles of old, and the actions of other times." — O^sian. 

TTN attempting to trace the professional life of Sir Robert 
-^ Calder^ we again tind ourselves acting under the pressure 
of circumstances rather delicate than pleasurable. It has eviT 
been our wish to regard the Naval Chkonicle as a depo- 
sitory of factS;, as a register of honourable and heroic transac- 
jions. Without any bias to, or aversion from,, political parties, 
our unremitting endeavonrs have been, to " speak the plain and 
simple truth/' to bestow the pahn where it may have been 
deserved, and to render justice to the professional merits of all 
Mien. Our opinion strictly accords w ith tlie sentiment so oi'tcn 
expressed, and inculcated by the late gallant Lord Rodney, 
*' that our naval officers have nothing to do with parties or 
politics, being simply bound to carry their instructions into 
execjLition, to the best of their abilities, without deliberating 
about men and measures, which forms no part of tlipir duty, and 
for which they are in no degree responsible.-' I nder the 
indtience of this opinion, it matters not to us, whether tui 
officer be a whig or a tory, an adherent to the ministry or to the 
opposition ; provided he perforni his duty, to his own, and to 
his country's honour, 

Had it not been for the rccordhig pages of our Chronicle, 
jnauy a briliiunt achievement, condemned 

" To dull forgelfainess a prey," 

would hvivc been suffered to glide down the Ptrcam of oblivion. 
In conducting this work, it has been onr undeviatiug a'ni, 
rather to display excellence^, than to search for defects ; to 
preserve the memory of an heroic exploit, atid to clear it from 
the obscuring rubbish by which it might be sturoundtd^ than 



90 uiOGnArTiicAt- jiemoik of 

to toil in the exposure of a casual lapse of judgment, to wliirh 
all men are liable, or to assist in casting a veil over the efforts 
of genuine merit. 

^ From the satisfaction which such a mode of proceeding has 
given, we are encouraged to advance in our labours ; and, 
without meaning to oftend anif, Ave would willingly afford 
satisfaction to ad; — but not at the expense of our integrity. 

These preliminary remarks have been elicited, from a know-' 
ledge that, while many consider the sentence of a late Court- 
Martial upon Sir Robert Caldcr, as a lenient infliction of justice, 
others regard that officer, not merely as innocent, but as 

" A great man struijgling with tlie storms of fate," 

and meriting the warmest eulogiums from his country. 

When we come to that part of Sir Robert Calder's life here 
alluded to, we shall make no effort to glo^s over the business ; 
nor, considering how recently they have been before the public, 
shall we much enlarge upon the facts. Some points, however, 
in addition to those which have already appeared in our 
Ghronicle, remain to be stated; but, in noticing them, we 
shall most studiously refrain from obtruding any opinion of our 
own. To the old law maxim, audi alteram partem, we shall 
as studiously adhere. 

The Calders, of ISIuirtown, in the County of Moray, fiom 
whom the subject of this memoir is descended, have been 
settled, for several centuries, in the northern division of our 
island. Tradition states, that, being much in favour with King 
James the lid, while Duke of York, and possessing great 
wealth, they advanced a large sum of money to His Royal 
Highness, which he embarked in commercial speculations; the 
whole of which, to the irreparable loss of the Calders, were 
overthrown by the subsequent revolution. The only rclick, we 
believe, of iheir family possessions in that quarter, is a house 
now standing on the north side of the High, or Middle Street, 
at Klgin. Of this house it is idly related, that it was built soon 
after the return of the crusaders from the Holy Land ; and that 
its turrets were erected in express imitation of the minarets, so 



Slk ROBERT CALUER, BART. fll 

prevalent in the East. Whcllier the Calder family possessed a 
house, occupying the site of the present, at tlie period alluded 
to, is a point which we shall leave to the determination of 
antiquaries ; but, with respect to the mansion now standing, th© 
fact is, that it was built by lliomas Calder, the great great 
grandfather of the present Baronet, in the year \66'J *. 

Sir James Calder, whose great grandfather had been created 
a Scotch Baronet in the year 1 (J8(), came over to England in 
the early part of the last century, and settled in Kent, where he 
possessed a small estate, and acted for several years as a m.igis- 
Irate. He had the good fortune to acquire the notice and 
patronage of his countryman, the Earl of Bute, through whose 
influence he was nominated one of the gentlemen ushers of the 
privy chamber to Her present Majesty ; an appointment which 
he appears to have retained from 1 701 to 1774. Long pre- 
viously to this, however. Sir James had married a daughter of 
the late Rear- Admiral Robert Hughes, by whom he had sevett 
children. 

Robert, to whose professional services the present memoir is 
devoted, was the fourth son of this marriage. He was born at 
Park Place, on the 2d of July, 1745 ; and received his educa- 
tion at the neighbouring town of Maidstone, in the inancdiate 
vicinity of his father's house. 

In fixing upon the Navy, as his future profession, it is not 
inilikely that the minds of his parents were influenced, in some 
degree, by the circumstance of his maternal grandfather f being 



* 111 the Gentlrman^i 'Maguzine, for I\I;irch, 180?, there is ;i vicu- of this 
biiildine, wliich was taken fur Sir Ruhert Calder in 1802; accompanied by 
some historical, i^enea!()i:;icai, and descriptive particulars. The h )Mse now 
forms two distinct hnhirations. The arms of Cftlder, which formerly 
appeared o\er one of the doors, were taken down sunie years ago by the 
father of the present proprietor. 

t This s^entlcnian, (the late Rear-Admira! Robert Tlnsihcs,) accordinsitw 
Churnock-, was commander of the Shark sloop in 17-14- ; and, ou the 2d of 
April, 1745, he was promoted to ^b" Kini;ston, a 50 i^un ship, to which be 
was rc-com nissioned two years afterwards. In 17-18, he was appointed to 
the Tilbury ; in 1751 to the Dcptford, of 60 ;:vins; and, inmiedi;-ttely l)ofore 
the cummeaccineiit of tliC war, in ITsci, he couamindcJ the Pwrt Mahon 



S2 BIOOnAPIllCAL MTOtOIR OF 

in tbat service. Robert w as clesiiHed for the sea at a vcrv early 
period; and, in 17o9, \\hen only fourteen ye?,rs of age, he 
commenced his nautical progress, under the command of Ci-p- 
tain, afterwards Admiral, Sawyer. This, we believe, was in the 
Chesterfield, of 40 guns^ as Captain Sawyer had been appointed 
to that ship on the G6th of December, IJJS. Captain Sawyer, 
however, was soon afterwards removed into the Active frigate, 
and ordered into the Mediterranean ; where, after the com- 
mencement of hostilities with Spain, in 1702, he fell in M-ith, 
and captured the Hermione, a Spanish register ship^ reported to 
have been one of the richest vessels ever taken. He continued 
in the ]SIediterranean during the remainder of the war ; and it is 
probable that Mr. Calder contmucd with him; but of this we 
are not certain *. 

friiiate. From the lasr-ine<itioi)ed siiip he was, in the month of April suc- 
ceedinjf, promoted to the Augusta. In June, he removed into the Berwick, 
of 70 i^uns. He continued iu that sliip till die year 1758, at the beginning 
of which he was employed on the xJeiiiterranean station, under the com- 
jnand of Admiral O-jborue. On tlie last day of February, in that year, he 
assisted in the defeat and capture of the small French squadron under the 
IMaiquis de Quesne. On his rtturn to England, some months after, he was 
appointed Commodore of a squadron, coasisthig of cigiit ships of the line,- 
and ordered to the West Indies for the purpose of reinforcing Commodore 
Moore, and enabling him to attack the (liferent islands and colonies in that 
quarter. He hoifted his broad pendant on board the Norfolk, of 74 guns, 
and sailed from S[)ithcad on the lOili of November, having a fleet of store- 
shins and traii'^ports, with six regiments of infantry on board, under ht» 
convoy. He arrived safelv at Barbac'ocs, with tlie whole squadron, on the 
Sd of January, 1750, Commodore Moore having been some time there 
waiting to receive him. {Vide Naval Ciiuomcle, Vol. Ill, page 4o9, 
et seq.) 

The object of Cnramodore Moore's expedition having been completed, 
Captain Huiihes was ordered back toEnglaiid, with the convoy of troops, 
^'c. in the month of June; and, soon after his return, he was appointed to 
the Kin^-ton, in which he ctnuinued but a very short tisce. At the latter 
end of 1763, he was. appointed to the Dorsetshire, of 70 guns, one of the 
gunrd ships stationed at Portsmouth, where he remained for the usual 
period of three years, but is not known to have enjoyed any subsequent 
command. On ilie 13th of October, 1770, he was advanced to the rank of 
Rcar-Adiairai of the Red Squadron ; and died at Bath, without experiencing 
any farther proniotion, on the 19th of January, 177-1. 

* 'i'he p-uticulaES vvLicU ate kiajv,-;s 4;eipecting the J ate Admiral Ilerb-ert 



SIR ROCF.ET CALDEK. BART. 93 

It seldom happens, that, in the gubordiiiate capacity of a 
Midshipman, a youth can have mucli opportunity of distin- 
guishing himself; notwithstanding which, the reader generally 

Sawyer, are not very numerous. He received his commission as Lieutenant 
on the 4th of March, 17.56 ; from which time, until his appointment to the 
Ciiesterfield, above mentioned, nothing is known respecting him. When 
he captured the Ilermione, tJie Favourite sloop of war, then commanded 
by tlie late Captain Pownal, was in company ; a circumstance which 
greatly reduced the amount of his prize-money, as the Favourite was 
entitled to an equal share. His good fortune also sustained a second 
diminution, by a parole agreement entered into with a brother officer, 
(Captain Mcdows, afterwards Lord Viscount Pierrepoint,) that they should 
share with each other whatever prizes were made during their continuance 
on a foreign station; an engagement which Captain Sawyer most strictly 
fulfilled. Early in the year 1777, the dispute with America having com« 
menccd, and a rupture with France appearing probable. Captain Sawyer 
was appointed to the Boyne, of 70 guns. After being employed f)r some 
time ai a cruiser on the Home Station, he was ordered to the West Indies, 
where he served with the highest reputation and credit, fir^t under Ptear- 
Admiral Barrington, and afterwards under Vice-Adiniral Byron. In ilie 
action ofFGronadn, with the French fleet under de la Motte Piquet, he was 
amongst the first who got up with the enemy ; but, notwithstanding the 
spirited manner in wliich he supported Rear-Admiral Barrington, and Cap- 
tain Gardner, in making the attack, his ship lost fewer men than that of 
either of those otiicers, having only twelve killed, antl thirty wounded. 

During the latter part of 1780, and in the succeeding year, Captuia 
Sawyer commanded the Namur, of 90 guns, one of the ships ijciungin;: to 
the Channel fleet. In ]\Iarch, 1781, he accompanied V'ice-Adiniral Dar.by 
on his expedition for the relief tif Gibraltar, and was stationed in the line as 
one of the seconds to Sir John Luckhart Ross. CaptHin Sawyer quitted tha 
Namur, when that ship was ordered to the Wfcst Indies at the end of the 
year 1781, and held no other command ti!lthe beginning of 170S, when he 
was appoiuted to the Bombay Castle. This ship was one of those reta;*ictl 
in commission, as a guard ship at Plymouth, where Captain Sawyer con- 
tinued till the end of the year 1785. After quitting the Bombay Ca-xie, 
be held no subsequent commission as a private Captain; but was soiui 
at'terw.nrds appointed Commodore and Communder in Chief on the 
Halifax station. On the 'Mth of September, 1788, while absent, he wa» 
promoted to the rank of Rcar-Admiral of the White squadron ; on tNe 
21st of September, 1790, he was made I'ear-Admiral cf the Rfd ; on 
the 1st of February, 1793, V^ce of the Blue; on the K'th of April, I79i, 
Vice of the White ; on the 4th of July folicwing, Vice of the Red ; and on 
the 1st of June^ 1795, Admiral of the I'ilue. He died at Eaiii, in tliC 
tnoiith of .Tune, 1793, not Laving held aoy cciumand during t!.v iuttcr 
jears of hi? life. 



94 felOGRAPIflCAL MEMOIR OP 

likes to be informed, as to the nature of the service in which the 
probationer for a Post Captain's commission is employed. 
Respecting Mr. Calder, the probability is, as we have just 
remarked, that he remained with Captain Sawyer till the close 
of the war ; but we hear nothing farther of him till the year 
1766, when we find him serving as Lieutenant of the Essex, of 
64 guns, then under the command of the honourable Captain 
George Faulkner. It has been stated, but we cannot vouch for 
the correctness of our authority, that, with Captain Faulkner, 
ISlr. Calder proceeded to the West Indies. Mr. Charnock 
informs us, that that gentleman was appointed to the Essex, in 
the year 1764, and ordered out to the coast of Africa. It is 
possible, indeed, that he might have returned, and that he might 
subsequently, in 17G6, sail for the West Indies; in which case 
the above statement may be authentic *. 

* We shall liere subjoin a short account of Captain Faulkner. — The fust 
of this family on record is Walter de Loncorp, whose son llanulph, being 
falconer to King William the Lion, obtained a charter of the huids of 
Luthra and Balbcgno, in the county of Kincardin. whicii, r cm his oflice, 
were named Halkerton, and the family called rulconcr, which for many 
years was honoured witli knitihthood. George Faulkner, or Falconer, the 
subject of this note, was the fifth and youngest son of Da%'id, fourth Lord 
IJalkerton, and the Lady Catherine Keith, daughter tu William, second 
Earl of Kintore. Having entered into the lloyal Navy, he was made a 
Lieutenant on the ICth of February, 1744-5 ; and Commander on tlie 10th of 
November, 1756. Between the latter period, and that of April 27, 1762, when 
he was advanced to the rank of Post Captain, he for some time commanded 
a vacht, and afterwards the Diligence sloop. lie was made Post in the 
Captain, of sixty-four guns, a ship soon afterwards ordered to be paid ofF 
and broken up. Before t!ie close of the year 1762, Captain Faulkner was 
appointed to the Juno frigate, of 32 guns. After the cessation of hostilities 
lie proceeded to Lisbon, and, returning from tiience in 1764, was promoted 
to the ]■!s^e;i, as already stated. In 1775, he was appohited to the Mars, 
of 74 guns, one of the guard-ships stationed in the Medway ; and, after tiie 
dispute had commenced with the American colonies, he was one of the oftl- 
cers ordered to cruise in the Bay of Biscay, and olf tiie coast of France, for 
the protection of Britis'i commerce, and the annoyance of that of America, 
Whilst thus occupied, the only success he is known to have met with, was 
the capture of an American merchant brig, in the month of October 1777, 
bound tium Charlestown to Bourdeaux, with a cargo of inconsideralilc 
value. It was, we believe, in the course of this year that ihe Mars was blown 
out of the Downs, and narrowly escaped foundering. The Mars was after- 



SIR ROBERT CALDER, BART. 95 

From this period, however, until the !27th of August, 1780, 
when he was made Post, we are wholly unacquainted with the 
professional services of Captain Calder. 

In the interim (May 1, 1779) he married Amelia, the only 
daughter of John Michell, of Baytichi, in Norfolk, Ksi^., late 
M. P. for Boston, in Lincolnshire*. This lady is still living ; 
but we are not aware that the marriage has been productive of 
any issue. 

The newly published Volume of Public Cliaracters says : — 
" In 178-2 we find him (Captain Calder) cotnmaudiiig the 
Diana, which served as a repeating frigate to Admiral Kenipeu- 
fclt, in 1782, at that disastrous period when Sir Charles Hardy 
deemed it prudent to withdraw widi the British, fleet from before 
the combmed squadrons of France and Spain, by hauling in 
between the Wolf Bock and die ISIain, so as to open thu 
British Channel. Oii litis occasion Captain Calder, icho 
belonged to the rear diviaion, zc'aa uitltin a mile of one of the 
tnemy\ tzoo-dcckers, and might have been sunk, if that ship 
had fired a broadside ; but, as if indignant at the event 
alluded to, lie refused to retire icitk a Kings ship, until 
expressly ordered hi/ signal" 

Passing over the extreme absurdity of the latter part of this 
paragraph, the whole is louuded in error. In the first place. 
Sir Charles Hardy died as early as the lyth of ^lay, 1780 ; and, 
consequently, could in no ways be concerned in any event 
occuning in 1782. In the next place, no circumstance of the 
nature here described happened in the year 1782 : the 
'^ disastrous period," adverted to above, must have been in 
August, 1779; when the combined fleets contrived to elude 
the observation of the British, then cruising in the Soundings, 
entered the Channel, and ostentatiously paraded two or three 
days before Plymouth. Some French frigates even anchored 



wards founrl to he so imicii out of repair, ;is to he iiiitit tor sorviee : aiul (':ip- 
tain Faulkner died hefoic another ship had hccn selected tor his oomnKind. 
Hi> death is thotmht to have taken place late in lliQ, or early iu 1 //i*. 
* Mi: Miehell died iii the vcar lUiO, 



99 EiOGRAPlIICAL BfEMOIR OT 

in Ca\\sand Bay, and captured a few coasting vessels ; and ilis 
Jirdent, of 64 guns, commanded by Captain Boteler^ ^vas cap- 
tured in sight of the harbour. The strong easterly winds which 
at length forced the hostile fleets out of the Channel, prevented 
Sir Charles Hardy's entrance; but, on the 31st of August, 
when the wind shifted to the westward, he gained the mouth of 
the Channel, in sight of the enemy, without their being able to 
oppose him. The combined fleet followed that under Sir 
Charles Hardy, until sun-set; Mhen, being a little to the 
eastward of Falmouth, they hauled to the south-west, and stood 
out of the Channel. At this '' disastrous period,^' unfortunately 
for the credit of the passage which we have just quoted. Admiral 
Kempenfelt ^^ as only Captain of the fleet, under Sir Charles 
Hardy .; Captain Calder had not received his commission ; and 
the Diana did not serve as a repeating frigate ! 

At the peace of 1783, Captain Calder commanded the 
Thalia frigate, of 36 guns, on the home station ; and from that 
time, till the period of the Spanish armament, in 1790, he was 
without a ship. He was then appointed to the Stately, of 64 
gims ; but, on a reconciliation taking place with Spain, that ship 
>vas ordered to be paid off ; and, as she was amongst those 
which v/ere fllting, it is doubtful v»helher Captain Calder ever 
actually assumed the conmiand. 

. In 1791^ he served as Vice-Admiral Roddam's Captain, iq 
the Dulse, of 98 guns, at Portsmouth ; and, in 1 793, he was 
appointed to the Theseus, of 74 guns. The latter ship formed 
part of Lord Howe's fleet, in 1 794 ; but had been dispatched, 
under Rear-Admiral JMontcigu, to escort a convoy to a certahi 
latitude, previously to the memorable battle of the 1st of 
June. 

In 1 796, when Sir John Jcrvis, now Earl St. Vincent, was 
appointed to the command In the Mediterranean, Captain Cal- 
der had the honour of being iixed upon^ l>y that distinguished 
ollicer, to serve as his iirst Captain, on board the Victory, of 
iOO guns. Tiiis selection must be regarded as a strong pre- 
sumptive proof, at least,' of the high estimation in which Cap- 
tain Caider's profc;S4iiouul talents vyere then h olden ; for^ in bu^ 



SIR ROBERT CALDER, BART. 97 

few Instances^ we believe, has the judgment of Lord St. Vincent, 
in this respect, been known to err. In the subsequent victory 
of the 14th of February, 1797, — a victory which, in no period 
pf naval history, from the battle of Salamis to the day of its 
accomplishment, had ever been exceeded — Captain Calder 
retained his honourable po^t ; and, according to the official dis- 
patch of Sir John Jervis, after the action, his able assistance had 
greatli/ contributed to the public service. 

Of this brilliant victory, which completely prevented the 
intended junction of the enemy, which enabled the iieets of 
England to ride in triumph through the ocean, and which was 
attended by the most important advantages to this country, we 
have given so circumstantial an accuant, in our memoir of Earl 
St. Vincent, as to render it unnecessary for us here to 
enlarge *. 

Captain Calder was the bearer of Sir John Jervis's dispatclics 
to Government on the occasion ; for which, and for the service 
which it had been his lot to render to his country, he received 
the honour of kr.ighthoud from His Majesty, on the 3d of 
March, 1797- He also, in ccunmun with his brotlier officers, 
received the thanks of Parliament, and was presented with a 
gold medal, emblematic of the victory in which he had par- 
ticipated. 

In the following year, the royal favour Mas still farther 
extended towards him ; as, on the 22d of August, he obtained 
a patent of baronetage, as Sir Robert Calder, of Southwick, in 
the county of Hants. 

Sir Robert, we believe, was not again employed as a private 
Captain; but, on the 14th of February, 1799, j»st two years 
after the victory off Cadiz, he was promot(;d to the rank of 
Rear Admiral of the Biue Squadron; in 1800, he hoisted his 
flag in the Prince of Wales, of 9^ guns, in the Channel fleet ; 
and on the 1st of January, 1801, he was nrade Kear-Admiral 
of the White, his flag still flying in the Prince of Wales. 

Sir Robert was at this time serving in the Channel fleet, 

* yidc jNaval CuixoiiXtLE, \'ol. IV, jJiige 34-, et accj. 

ilSatJ. erjjron. aiol.XVII. o 



98 BIOCUAPIIICAL MEMOIR OF 

under Earl St. Vincent. Towards llie latter end of January, a 
French squadron, under the command of Rear-Admiral Gan- 
theaume, found means to escape out of Brest ; a circumstance 
no sooner known, than the Rear-Admiral was detached^ with the 
following squadron, in pursuit : — ■ 

Ships. Guns. - Commanders. 

( Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Caldcr, 
Prince of Wales 98 J Rart. 

( Captain Prowse. 

Ponipee 80 Charles Stirling. 

Juste 80 • 11. Sawyer. 

Montague*., 74 Hon. R. Curzon, 

Spencci 74 R. D. E. Darby. 

Courageiix 74 J. iiowen. 

Cumberland + 74 

Diamond + 38 Ed w. Griffith. 

Thames 32 • Wm. Lukin. 

Magicienne 32 Ogilvie. 

Sir Robert Calder's pursuit, however, proved fruitless. From 
the intelligence which he had received, he imagined that Gan- 
theainne had steered for the West Indies, and he also shaped his 
course for that quarter. He arrived off Carlisle Bay on the 
25ih of March ; on the 'ZC)ih he anchored in Cape Navaire Bay, 
Martinico; whence, on the 29^1, he sailed for Jamaica; and, 
on the 13lh of Aprils anchored in Port Royal Harbour. Flere 
Sir Robert learned, that Gantheaume had entered the JMedi- 
terranean ; and, on the 21st of the month, as soon as his 
squadron had been retitted and revictualled, he left Port Royal, 
on his return to England, leaving the Cumberland to supply the 
place of the Thunderer, the latter ship being in a very bad state. 
Sir Robert rejoined the Cluiunel fleet early in June ; and, a 
cessation of hostilities soon after taking place, he had no farther 
opportimity of distinguishing himself during the last war. 

On die 23d of April, 1 804, Sir Robert was made Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue Squadron ; previously to which period, we 

* Put into Lisbon, di^:il)led. f Left in ihc W^st ladies. 

I Jletunicd to England. 



SrR ROEEUT C\r,DER, BART. 99 

believe, he had not hoisted his flag after the renewal of 
hostilities *. 

We now approach the most unportant epoch in the life of 
this officer. It is scarcely necessary to say, tliat we ulkide to his 
contest with the combined French and Spanish squadrons, on 
the 22d of July, J 805; and to the investigation of liis conduct 
which followed. On this delicate snbject, to avoid tlje charge of 
partiality, we liere copy the follow ing narrative, which appears to 
have been drawn up with considerable attention, as to the facts, 
from the life of Sir Robert Calder, in Public Characters: — 

Having been employed in the Channel [icet, says the writor ijj 
that puI;lication, he was seK-ctod Si^ an olilcer of cvperience by 
Admiral Cornwallis, then cruising o(}" Ushant, in February 1805 
to blockade the harbours of Fcrrol and Cornnr.a. AlthouTh there 
Avere then five French ships oi" the line and three frigates, together 
ivith five Spanish line of battle ships, and four frigates, ready for 
sea, besides three Spanish ships jnst come'Dut of the arsenal, and 
getting ready for service, yet lie had only seven sail allotted to 
him on (his occasion. These v>'erc afterwards increased to nine • 
but, notwithsta.'iaing the exigency of the service, he could not 
obtain two frigates and two sr.jall vessels to be placed fat the 
entrance of the harbours in quL-stion, 

With the very inadequate force that could be spared, however 
he kept his station ; and reported both to the Adiniralty.and the 
Commander in Chief all the movements of the enemy. At icnt^th, 
in the month of April, the Toulon and Cadiz fleets having effected 
a junction, and the ships in Brest evincing a disposition to put to 
sea, the situation of the squadron of observation became so dan- 
gerous, that Lord Gardner issued directions, in certain cases, to 
repair to h'.ai. The combined naval forces, however, went to the 
West l>(lios; but it bfing ex|)ected they wonld return, and 
attempt to join the fleet at Ferroi, the othcer stationed there 
received ord^Ts to be on his guard against that f^ycn*. 
■ Meanwhile intelligence had been received tiiaf ai'Vench Admiral 
■was expected daily to supei>ede the naval comi'iander at the port 
jnst nn-ntioned ; and th'<t fne ships fhcn lying Miere, consisting of 
thirteen sail of the line, besides frigates and sloops of war, had 
orders to be at Coruuna by the miduie of the nio.'.h. In conse- 

* On the 9th of November, 1805, Sir Robert Caidcr wus matie Vi«*>- 
Admira! of tlic White, 



100 BlOGKAnriCAL MEMOin OF 

quencc of a subsequent report made by Captain Prowsc, of ihc- 
Sirius, it also appeared that the enemy had erected a line of signal 
posts, so as to enable a squadron to communicate with the shore; 
and that three more large ships v/cre getting ready and beginning 
to more. On the 10th of July, Admiral Stirling, Avith Ave sail of 
the line, tht- Egyptienne frigate, and Nile luggtr, was therefore 
ordered from Rochfort, where there were five ships of the line 
ready for sea, to join Sir Robert Caldcr, Avho, according to his 
instructions, proceeded to the Avcstward, on the 15th, for the pur- 
pose of intercepting the French and Spanish squadrons from the 
■ West Indies, which Avere stated to consist of no more than sixteen 
sail. 

On the 22d, about noon, the combined fleet, consisting of no 
less than twenty sail of the line, seven frigates, and two brigs, 
came in sight, while the English force was composed of only fifteen 
ships, two frigates, a cutter, and a lugger. 

Notwithstanding the decisive superiority of the enemy iu point 
of force, coupled with the manifest advantage of being to wind- 
ward, yet they were forced into action ; and, after a short contest, 
which continued until dark, two sail of the line, the Rafael, of 84, 
and the Firme, of 74 guns, Avere both captured*. 

As Sir Robert had before considered it his duty to pursue and 
conquer, so he now deemed it equally his duty to preserve his 
ascendency, to secure his prizes, and to protect his own ships, 
many of which had received considerable damage, while the 
Windsor Castle was actually in tow t. This did not preA^eut 

* For Sir Robert Gaidar's official account of the action, vide Navai. 
CiinoNiCLE, Vol. XIV, page 163, et $eq. For " Minutes (yf'tke action,^' &c. 
also vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. XIV, page 1(J3; and, for Admiral 
V^illeneuve's dispatches to the French Government, vide page 170 of the 
same Volume. 

t An abstract of the danuiges sustained hy the ships of the squadron under 
ike command of Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Burt, on the '22d of Juli/, 
1805, ichcn in action zvith the combined French and Spanish squadrons. 

1. Hero. — The fore and main-masts, fore-yards, and main-top-mast, 
badly wounded ; the standing and running rigging very much cut ; and 
several shot between wind and water, &c. 

2. Aj(i.v. — ^Iain-yard and spanker-boom shot away ; one of the lower 
deck guns totally disabled ; the starboard bumpkin shot away ; the rigging 
and sails much cut, &c. 

3. Triumph. — The bowsprit and main-mast much wounded; the fore- 
mast sprung; and driver-boom carried away; sails and rigging much cut ; 
two of the thirty-two pouadtrs unserviceable; also four carronade 



SIR ROBERT CALDER, BART. 101 

him, however, when the enemy, who were still in sight, evinced a 
disposition to bear down, from hauling his wind, and evincing a 
readiness to engage them, which it was in their power at any time 
to have complied with, had they been so inclined. 

Nor was this, or any part ol' his behaviour, blamed by Admiral 
Cornwallis, Avho, on the contrary, as a proof of his confidence, on 
the 17th of August, dispatched him with a detachment to watch 
the motions of the enemy. The subsequent demand for an inves- 
tigation into his conduct proceeded solely from himself, and couH 
only result from a delicate sense of injured honour. 

Thus far the biographer of Sir Robert Calder, in Public 
Characters. 

Sir Robert^ learning, from different sources, that his conduct 
on the C3d of July had become very much the subject of con- 

4. Barjieur. — The foremast wounded, and the fore-yard ditto, badly, &c. 

5. Agamemnon. — Main and fore-yards badly wounded, the niain-top-masc 
ditto ; fore-top-sail-yard and mizen-top-mast shot away ; the standing, 
running rigging, and sails, much cut, &c. 

6. Windso?- Castle. — The head of the foremast badly wounded ; the fore- 
top-mast shot away; and a great part of the fore-top carried away; the 
foreyard, bowsprit, and main- yard badly wounded; all the rigging and 
sails much cut, &c. 

7. Defiance. — The main-mast, fore-yard, and dnver-boom, wounded ; 
mizen- top-sail-yard shot away; the lower rigging, stays, and sails, much 
cut, &c. 

8. Prince of Wales. — Fore-top-sail-yard shot away, mizen-top-mast 
wounded ; mizen-vard badly wounded ; the rudder shot through, about two 
feet above the water's edge; rigging and sails much cut, &c. 

9. Repuhe. — The bowsprit badly wounded, and sprung in two places ;■ 
the top-mast and other rigging very much cut, and the sails much 
shattered; the knee of the head damaged below the bob-stays, &c. 

10. Haisonable. — Cross-jack-yard damaged, and some shot in the hull, 
■&c. 

11. Glory. — Fore-yard wounded, and the rigging cut, &c. 

12. Warrior. — Spritsail-yard, forc-top-gallant-yard, and driver-boom- 
shot through ; running rigging and sails much cut, &c. 

13. T/ninderer. — Mizen-mast, fore-yard, and muin-top-sailyard, wounded ; 
a shot between wind and water ; the upper cheek of the knee of the head 
shot through, and the opposite one staited otF; the sails and rigging much 
cut, &c. 

14. Malta. — Mizen-mast wounded ; mizen-top-mast, and ditto top-sail- 
yard, shot away ; main-yard very badly wounded ;_fore-top-mast wounded ; 
standing rigging and saib much cut. 



102 mOGRAPHICAI, MEMOIR OF 

versation, in a manner extremely hurtful to his feelings, as a man", 
and to his reputation, as an officer, formed the resohition of 
demanding an mquiry into his proceedings ; and he accordinglj 
addiessed the following letter to Mr. Marsden, then Secretary 
at the Admiralty : — 

SIK, Prince of Wales, off Cadiz, Sept. SO, 1805. 

Having loamt vlth astonisliment, yesterday, by the ships 
just arrived, and by letters from my frieiuls in England, that there 
has been a most nnjust and wicked endeavour to prejudice the 
public mind against nic as an oificer, and that my conduct on the 
23d of last July, in particular, has been animadverted on, in the 
mo^t unjust and illiberal manner, for such it must be deemed, 
having been done at a iime when I Avas absent abroad, employed 
ifl the service of my King and Country. 

I must therefore request you will be pleased to move the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty to grant an inquiry into my con- 
duct on the 23d of Jvilv last, or upon the whole, or such part of 
it, (when in presence of the enemy,) as shall appear to their 
Lordships, for the good of His Majesty's service, and for the pur- 
pose of enabling me to give my reasons, publicly, for my conduct 
at that time, and to refute such unjust, illiberal, and unfounded 
assertions ; when I trust I shall make it appear, to the satisfaction 
of my King, Country, and Friends, that no part of ray conduct 
and character, as an officer, will be found deserving of those 
unfavourable impressions, which, at present, occupy the publip 
mind ; being conscious that every thing in my power, as an officer, 
■was done for the honour and welfare of my King and Country, 
after a very mature investigation of all the existing circumstances, 
and the very criLical situation I Mas placed in, with the sq[uadron 
I had the honour to command, at the time alluded to. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

W. Marsden, Esq. Admiralty. K. CALDER. 

Sir Robert Calder, in a letter of a later date than the above^ 
viz. on the 10th of November, requested that the Court might 
be empowered to inquire into the zi:hoIe of his conduct, even 
prior to his falling in ziith the enemy, ^hile in their presence, 
and subsequent thereto. The Court, however, thought it right 
to confine the inquiry to the 2Sd of July, and to Sir Robert'^ss 



SIR ROBERT CAT-DF.R, BART. 103 

subsequent conduct and proceedings, until he finally lost sight of 
the enemy's ships. " I cannot but Janient/' says the Vice- 
Admiral in his defence, '' that the inquiry is so liniiied ; as it 
prevents my giving evidence of the circumstances of the action, 
which I have no doubt I should have proved to have been such 
as ^o add to the reputation of ti)e British Navy." 

It wijl be recollected, that, in con^equeiice of Sir Roberts 
application to the Admiralty, the Court Martial, for his trial, 
assembled on board His Majesty's ship the Prince of Wales, in 
Portsmouth harbour, on the 23d of December, 1805. A» 
early as the time, and the limits of our publication would per- 
mit, we gave an account of the ensuing trial ; which account^ 
on collating it with the '' Miuiifes of the Proceedino-s/' &c. 
afterwards *^ published by authority of the Vice-Admiral," by 
Mr. Mottley, at Portsmouth, we find to be, in substance, 
correct*. In tliis place, therefore, as our readers are already 
in possession of the tiial, it is unnecessary much to enlarge upoa 
it; and, indeed, no abstract, ihat our circumscribed limits 
would permit, could render it justice. One or two points, 
however, require elucidation. The first of these relates to the 
cross-examination of Hear- Admiral Stirling, by Sir Robert 
Calder, concerning the following letter f : — 

WY DEAR SIR, Prince of Wales, at Sea, Jnhj 2-i, 1805. 

PERMIT me to return you my most heartfelt thanks for your 
unremitting attentions, and for the very gallant support you ren- 
dered me during the whole of the action on the '22d instant. Had 
the weather been favourable, and we could have seen to have made 
the necessary signals, to have availed ourselves of some of the 
mistakes of the enemy, 1 am fully coiiviuced we should hare made 
the victory much more compKte. I was obliged to stand to the 
northward thus far, in order to cover the Windsor Castle, and the 
two captured ships. I think tliey are now safe from the combined, 
as well as tlie Hociifort squadron, and I am going back to Cape 
Finisterre, in hopes of seeing Lord Nelson; if I do not, I shall 
proceed oif Cape Fca-rol,' to see il" any favourable opportunity 

* Vide Naval CiiKoxiCLe, Vol. XV, pajje 79, aud page 162, et sc<], 
t Jbjd. pa^e a'i. 



104 ilOGRAPUICAL MEMOIR OP 

should offer, ivhen I may hope to attack the enemy to advantage. 
Wishing us all possible success, 

I am, my dear Stirling, 
Ever yours, most truly and sincerely, 

llOBERT CALDER. 

The subjoined is the private letter of Rear- Admiral Stirling, 
'•' written in reply " to the above ; and that which follows it^ is 
^epubiic answer^ from the same officer : — 

MY DEAR SIR, Glory, 95th July, 1805. 

I THANK you much for your letter of yesterday, and can 
assure you, with great truth, I meant, and do mean to give you 
all the support in my power. 

I hope you made a good tale to please John Bull, for you had 
a good subject to write on ; and I think you have convinced 
Mons. Buonaparte that he cannot always get to sea and home 
again with impunity. 

Excuse haste, and believe me 

Most truly yours, 

Sir Robert Calder, Bart. ClIAS. STIRLING. 

MY DEAR SIR, Glory, 24th July, 1805. 

I CONGRATULATE you on the capture of the two Spa. 
liiards from a force so very superior to that opposed to it ; and I 
think, if the three ships, which at one time showed a disposition to 
support them, had followed" the intention, the consequences might 
have been decisive. 

The great object I had in view, was to obey your orders, by 
keeping in a compact line, whilst the signal for that purpose 
remained in force ; and therefore, as the Raisonable closed with 
you, my Captain took care that nothing could pass between her 
and this ship. 

On the surrender of the Spaniards, I directed the Warrior 
to send and assist in taking possession, and afterwards sent 
similar orders to the Thunderer, as there was no knowing, from 
the thickness of the weather, what might otherwise be the conse- 
quence, if your attention was confined to the van. I likewise 
ordered the Egyptienne, when I got sight of her, to get the 
prizes on the same tack with us, and to tow them to leeward of 
our line; which orders will, I hope, meet with }Our approbation. 
I know not why there was a separation in the night. Captaia 



SIR EOBERT CALOF.n, BART. 10^ 

Linzce went in pursuance of his instructions, and rejoined me 
before the morning. 

We had only one man killed, and'four wounded ; the fore-yard 
•was grazed, which avc have fished; arid what was other wioe hit, 
was not of any consequence. 

I have great pleasure in bearing testimony to the zeal of Captain 
Warren and his officers, and feel much confidence, from the good 
conduct of the crew belonging to the ship where my flag is flying, 
if our good fortune should again lead us against the foes of our 
country. 

Believe me, witli great esteem, dear Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

CHARLES STIRLING. 

Sir Rolen CalJer, Bart. 

The official dispatch of Sir Robert Calder, to Admiral Corn- 
wallis, as it appeared in the Gazette *, concluded with the 
following sentence : — " They (the enemy) are now in sight to 
windward ; and when I have secured the captured ships, and 
p^t the squadron to rights, I shall endeavour to avail myself of 
any opportunity that may ofier, to give you some further account 
of these combined squadrons ; " but to this should have been 
subjoined what now immediately follows : — 

At the same time it will behove me to be upon my guard 
against the combined squadrons in at Ferrol, as I am led to 
believe they have sent ofl" one or two of their crippled ships last 
night for that port, therefore possibly I may find it necessary to 
make a junction with you immediately offUshant, with the whole 
squadron. 

P. S. I am under the necessity of sending th« Windsor Castle 
to you, in consequence of the damage she sustained in the action. 

Captain Duller has acquainted me, that the prisoners on board 
the prizes assert Ferrol to be the port to which the enemy's 
squadron are bound, as you will perceive by letters enclosed with 
my original dispatch, together with other private information. 

Adverting to the omission of the above, Sir Robert Calder, 
in his defence, says : — '' Had this part of my letter been pub- 
lished, I may venture to ask, would the public have been so 

* Vide Naval Chromclk, \'o1. XIV, page 163, 



ICG BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

sanguine in their expectations of a renewal of the engagement, 
as they aj^poar to have been ? — They would perhaps liave rather 
rejoiced, as I think they had reason, that so much had been 
(lone ; and I should probably never have had occasion to give 
you this trouble." 

The subjoined letter of the Yice-Admiral, to Captain Boyles, 
of the Windsor Castle, fully developes his intentions^ on the 
twenty-jifth of July, three days after the action: — 

ST R, Piince nf Wales, 2r>th Juhj. 

YOU will proceed and get to the latitude of Ushant as fast as 
possible, or at any rafe to the northward of Belleisle, when you 
will he i)erfect!y secure from tlie combined squadrons, as well as 
the Rcchfort one, which may be expected to sail every day. — I 
shall part company with you this day, and make the best of my 
way to the rendezvous otf Cape Finisterre, in the hope of falling 
ill with Lord Nelson: if not fniding his Lordship there, in a short 
time after ray arrival, I shall then proceed in search of the com- 
bined squadrons, supposed to be gone to Ferrol ; and if any 
favourable opportunity ofl'ers of my attacking them before they 
get in, I shall certainly avail myself of it : this you may inform 
any ships you may fall in with in search of me ; and you will com- 
municate this information to the Commander in Chief on your 
joining him, I am, Sir, 

Your very humble Servant, 

ROBERT CALDER. 

Caplaia Boi/lcs, nf the Windsor Custle. 

The following communications have not hitheito been 
inserted in our Chronicle : — 

SIR, Frince of Wales, at Sea, the 26lh Jul//, 1805. 

BY tl'.e Nile lugger I have the honour to send you the quadru- 
plicate of my dispatches of the 23d inst., and 1 hope she may 
arrive in time for you to correct <he unfortunate mistake of my 
Secretary respecting the omission of Hear-Admiral Stirling's name 
in my public thanks : this, bL'licve mc. Sir, has given me very 
^rcat concern, that such an omission on my part should have 
occurred, and nothing but the ill state of my Secretary's health 
could have occasioned it ; for be assured, the Rear-Adihiral's con- 
duct has been such as to merit my fullest approbation. Lieutenant 
G. Fennel; who will have the honour of delivering this to you, 



SIR ROBTRT CALDtR, EART. 



107 



has conducted himself very much to my satu^faction since under my 
orders ; he was very acdve during the action, and, Avith Lieutenant 
Nidiolson, rendered me every possible assistauce In their power : 
the activity and zeal of the latter officer I had the honour to men- 
tion in a former dispatch to you, which enclosed a letter of his to 
jne, giving an account of vessels he had captured o(f Ferrol. 
Since my last, I have learnt from the prisoners on board the cap- 
tured ships, the exact force of the enemy on the "22(1 inst. at t!ie 
commencement of the action ; it was as follows : — 14 of the line 
(French,) 6 of the line (Spanish) 1 armed en (lute, 6 frigates, and 
3 brigs. Yesterday evening, the Malta made the signal of liaving 
sprung her fore-yard, and the Repulse the signal of having sprung 
Jier bowsprit ; this obliged me to bring-to the squadron for the 
night. This morning the Repulse made the signal of being able to 
miike sail, and I am now steering S. S. E. for Cape Finisterre, 
distant about 30 leagues. I am in great hopes I shall fall in with 
Lord Nelson, provided his intentions were to come otF Ferrol. 

I have the honour to bo. Sec. r 

ROBERT CALDER. 

The lion. Admiral CornivaMli. *- ; 

P. S. I have this moment received from Captain Griffiths, of the 
Dragon, an account of four men who Avcre wounded in the action 
of the 22d inst,, which, through mistake, were not inserted in the 
general statement. I likewise enclose the enemy's line of battle 
on that day, which was forwarded to me by Captain Rulkr, of 
the Malta, this afternoon. 

ROBERT CALDER. 



Bnemifs Line of Bailie on the 22(1 of Jul^, ISO'). 

SPANISH. 

'1 El Argonauta SO Admiral Gravina. 

2 — Terrible 74 

3 — Espania _ 64 

4 — America .. G4 

5 —Rafael (taken) 84 Bon Francis Monfes. 
^G — Firme (taken) 74 Don Rafael Viilavicencij. 



5<; 



rnic ATKS. 
L'iloriense. 
La Jiiraelie. 
La Didoii. 
La Herniione 
La Si^ciie. 
La 'I'liniiiise. 



FRrxcii. 

" 7 Le Pluton 80 

8 — Neptune 90 

^ , 9 — Mont Blanc . 74 

'^ j 10 — Bucentaur .- 84 Vice-Adm. Vil!oneu\« 

'^ I U — Atlas 74 

Ll'i — Berwick.... 74 



10$ 



BiOCRAPHICAL MEMOin •? 



BRISS. 

t/Arg\is. 
Le Furet. 



"13 Le Formirlable . 80 Rear- Admiral Dumanoir. 

14 — Intrepide... 74 

15 — Swiftsure 74 

16 — Iiidomptable 80 

17 — Scipion . 74 

18 — Aigle 74 

19 — Achille 74 

20 — Algeziras 74 Rear-Adrairal Magon. 

iSuglii'h Line of Battle. 







1 Hero .--...._. 


74 Hon. A. 11. Gardner* 




2 Ajax 


80 W.Brown. 


BjvpfienRc. 




3 Triumph 


74 H. Inman. 


. 


4 Barflenr 


98 G. Martin. 






5 Agamemnon 


64 J. Harvey. 






6 Windsor Castle . 


98 C. Boylcs. 






7 Defiance - 


74 P. C. Durham. 


FrUli cutter, 
^ik lugger. 




8 Prince of Wales . 


/ Vice-Adm.SirR.Caldrr, 
•^^ \ Barl.;W.Cumiug,Capt, 






" 9 Repulse 


74 Hon. A. K. Legge. 






10 Raisonabic 


64 J. Roviey. 






11 Dragon 


74 Edvv. Griffiths. 




h 


12 Glory 


(^ Sam. Warren, Captain. 


Sirius. 


ti 


13 Warrior 


74 S. H. Linzee. 






14 Thunderer ..... 


74 AV. Lechmcre. 




LPTU 


_15 Malta 


84 E» Buller. 


SHIPS C-f) 


RED. 




Rafael. 


84 1 


;uns. Ferrol bearing east, distant 49 leagues. 


Firme, 


74 


Cape Finiste 


rre S. 52 E. distant 39 league*. 



jTR Ville de Par'ts, of IVnant, the '29lh July, 1805. . 

I HAD the pleasure of receiving your dispatches last evening by 
the Frisk cutter, which I sent imnicdiately to England; and! 
assure you I have the greatest satisfaction in hearing of your 
s'.iccess. The Windsor Castle joined nic this morning; she is also 
gone into port, and ty her I forwarded your original account of 
the action, which had terminated so mr.ch to the disgrace of the 
enemy. I had sent fh^ Ximble brig to you yesterday morning, 
and the Niobe I directed sonae days since to join you ; I now serfd 
the iEolus, which ship hai just eome to me. I Lave only 17 ships 



SIR ROBERT CALDEH, EAUT. 109 

»f tlie line with me at present, several having been ordered to th« 
eastward within these few days. 

I have the honour to be, Sh", 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

W. CORNVVALLIS. 

tlr Bohert C alder, Bart., T'jce- 
Admiral of the "Blus. 

Th« sentence of the Court Martial, v.Iiitli tried Sir Robert 
Calder, must be well remembered. The Court declared itself 
to be of opinion, that he had not done his utmost to renew the 
engagement, and to take or destroy every ship of the enemy ; 
which neglect was attributed to an error in judgment, and he 
was adjudged to be severely reprimanded. 

There is no man, whatever his sentiments may be vith 
respect to the justice of this sentence, but must sympathize with 
the feelings of Sir Robert CaUler, an esteemed and veteran 
officer, who had devoted nearly iifty years to the service of liij 
King and Country, and who had uniformly conceived himself to 
be acting for his own, for his Sovereign's, and for his Couutiy's 
honour ! 

As no political question, says the biographer of Sir Robert 
Calder, already noticed, happened to be intermingled with this 
decision, it was received calmly and dispassionately by the whole 
nation ; and, without meaning to insinuate the slightest disrespect 
to the members, it may be fairly said that the result was not 
popular. Some extraordinary naval trials have taken place ia 
this country. In 1744, the gallant Mathews, who had plunged 
into the hottest of the fight, was declared incapable of serving in 
His Majesty's Navy ; while the cunning and undictive Lcstock 
was honourably acquitted, although he had kept aloof during the 
engagement. In 1757, in consequence of a dubious sentence, 
Admiral John Byng, was shot at Portsmouth, for cowardice ; a 
charge which his death, as well as his life, alike belied. But nei- 
ther of these had defeated a superior fleet, or captured two line of 
battle ships : nor is there a similar instance of a reprimand in 
respect to a victorious commander to be found on the records of 
the Navy. In fine, the sentence of Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Cal- 
der may be ^onaidcred as ajiofnalcus in. our service ; and the 



110 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

peculiar hardship of his case has been already mentioned in par** 
Ikinient by two noble members of the legislature*. 

Having thus exhibited as clear a view of the naval services of 
Sir Robert Calder, as our limited information would permit^ we 
shodd here close the account, were it not for a couple of letters 
%vhich have for some time lain before us. These letters, 
respecting which we have received permission to make what use 
we please, were written to a gentleman several months ago, by 
a veteran officer^ of eminent rank and merit in the profession ; 
one who has known Sir Robert Calder, in his professional 
capacity, for a number of years ; and who, from a variety of 
circumstances, possesses the means of forming a fair estimate 
of his character. The opinion of such a person must merit 
consideration ; and, for the gratification of Sir Robert Calder 's 
friends, we shall here transcribe some passages from the letters 
alluded to. The Avriter, after glancing at the earlier events of 
Sir Robert's life, proceeds as follows : — . 

I can only repeat to you, what I have, and do avoro to all the 
TVoj'ldy that the most glorious deeds of any hero, in any age, did 
not surpass that of SW Robert Calder in his command, and his 
action in the summer of 1805; when, with fifteen sail of the line, 
two frigates, one cutter, and one lugger, he beat t\vcnty sail of 
the line, seven frigatcis, and two brigs ; took two of their ships, 
one 84 guns, the other 74 ; though on the enemies' coast in a fog, 
and near to Forrol, where sixteen sail of the line were ready to 
join the above numlJcr of the combined fleet, besides the llochfort 
squadron being out, and on its way to add to the already over- 
powering strength of the enemy ; but all this, the judiciuus and 

* Tl)c two noblemen here alluded to, are, the Duke of Norfolk, and the 
Earl of Romney. The hitter, not quite a year older than Sir Robert Cal- 
der, was one of his play-fellows. The iNIoat, the family residence of the 
Marahanis, in Kent, was at but a small distance from Park Place, where 
Sir Robert was born; and, with the younger branches of the two families, 
a close intimacy took place; which, between the subject of this memoir and 
the present Earl, still sulisists in all the warmth of youtliful attacliment, 
tempered by the niaturer judgment of age. Sweet are such friendships; 
for, in tlie winter of life, they recall many a dcli^ihtful scene, which smiled 
upon the days that are past. / 



SIR ROBERT CALDIR, BART. HI 

great professional skill of Sir Robert Calder counteracted, ami he 
remained triumphant, though distressed Avith weather, disabled 
ships, &c. &c. and in doubt and uncertainty where the fleets of 
Lord Nelson and Vice-Admiral Collingwood were. Could any 
man so acting, and so situated, expect a viper had surrounded his 
native Isle, and instilled its poisonous dart into the minds of hij 
countrymen ? Had the Vice-Adn)iral in any instance acted diffcr- 
<^^^\\y from the excellent conduct he pursued, this country wotild in 
all probability now have groaned under the miserable effects of an 
invading foe, who had 20,000 men at that very time embarked iu 
Holland ready to make a landing in Great Britain ; but from this 
Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder saved us; and further, He, and 
He alone, laid the intire foundation of every subsequent victory ia 
this war; no victory off Cadiz, no victory in the West Indies, 
&c. &c. <S:c. ; no honours, or rewards, iu consequence, would ever 
have taken place buffer him; and this is the man Englishmen 
have been taught and permitted to abuse ! And here I may indeed 
make a scriptural application, for Sir Robert Calder is literally 
the Head, the Corner Stone of all the fabric of victory this coun- 
try has so greatly and justly boasted of. The excellent Lord Nelson 
knew, saw, spoke, and wrote of this ; which does more honour 
to the correctness of his judgment, sentiments, and mcinorj/, than 
all the pageantry of his funeral, &c, &cc. 



Sir Robert Calder frequently wrote to request a larger force, 
stating the critical situation in Avhich he was placed by the very- 
great inferiority to that of the enemy. See. S:c. And he also stated, 
that a drawn battle at those times v. ould be looked upon in the 
eyes of Europe as a defeat. lie implored that he might not be 
placed in such a distressing situation. Notwithstanding which, his 
force was fixed to his small number, in spite of all his remon- 
strances. The Rochfort sqiiadron, wi(h five sail of the line ani 
three frigates, was not only at sea, but very near Sir Robert Cal- 
der at the time of his engagement, and looking for the coml'ined 

fleets, as Sir Robert Calder well'knew at the time. Sir Robert 

Calder received instructions to keep himself upon his guard from 
all those diflcrcnt points ; and if he found it necessary, he was to 
make ajuncfion with the fleet oif Brcstj to prevent the invasion 
either of England or Ireland. 



11^ BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

The folIovA'ing passage is from the second letter, adverting f» 
the above : — 

What I said in that letter, Sir, I, from the highest opinion and 
unalterable conviction of Sir Robert Calder's dear^LwA unsurpass>. 
ed fame, most heartily and conscientiously again subscribe my name 
to. The eyes of the world are now open ; it was impossible, after 
the frenzy of JEALOUS malice subsided, but truth and justice 
must prevail : the former, every manly heart must acknowledge, 
and the latter I trust our excellent Sovereign Avill (by the advice 
of a well-judging administration,) bestow. So good, so excellent 
an officer must be called forth for the honour and safety of his 
country and his Royal Master : to him an old proverb may pro- 
perly be applied——'*' Many have done well ; but he excelleth 

them all ! Nor is this taking any merit from others ; they 

could not so act; for no Commander in Chief ever had so perilous^ 
so dif&cult a task ; and no Commander in Chief ever went through 
a situation so difficult, so judiciously, so valorously, and so sue- 
fcssfidli/ ; none could do more; and few (if any) would at- 
tempt to do so much. In late years. Sir, you must remember 
Lord Rodney desisted from renewing his famed action ; as did 
Lord Howe, that he was so praised for, on the first of June. 
These gentlemen both used their own discretion, without being 
even censured for an '' Error in Judg7nent ;'" though the latter at 
noon day, a calm ocean, and 7io difficulties of any kind to guard 
against, let four of the enemies' ships without masts get away. It 
was always allowed both these Admirals might have renewed their 
diiferent actions ; as might Sir George Pococke, Sir Edward 
Hughes, &c. &c., but Sir Robert's seems to have been the first, th» 
only victory that ever was found fault rcith; and upon my honour, 
Sir, it the least deserved it. He could not, he had not the power 
to renew his action; he never did, he never could say to Lieute- 
«ent Nicholson, that he mould, for he did not suppose that Lieute- 
nant was to come to England with the news ; it was an uncusto- 
mary thing ; his Messenger was only sent to Admiral Cornwallis, 
who, by usual practice, was most certainly likely to forward the ao» 

count of Sir Robert's victory by one of his own vessels. ]\Iy 

former letter names the 20 sail of the line he had so successfully 
fought; as also the 16 in Ferrol harbour, and the 5 that were so 
near to him from R,ochfort. I might also have added, that he was 
by no means secure from the 22 sail of the Brest fleet:— hcr« 



SIR ROBEUT CAL1)£R, BART. 113 

altogether were sixiy-thrce sail of the line: what a weapon of many 
points was here set against Sir Robert and liislittlt! squadron ! and 
yet over this monster did fiis skill and valour carry him in safety 1 

The good Admiral Cornwailis, under whose direction he was, 

Diost handsomely sent the Fri-ke cutter forward to Kiiijlarid Avitli 
the news: Ifc, and the Lords of the AdiiiiraUii^ n-turned the'r 
thanks to the Commander in Cliief ofl" Feirol : AVhat must Ad- 
miral Cornwailis, what must the rest of Sir l^ohert Caider's friends 
have thought, M'licn tlie newspapers tccinrd out abuse U[)on an 
officer, who is as worth v iu pri\ate life, and as sincere as a good 
Christian, as he is great iu the profession to which he does soinueii 
honour? 

We !ri}iall conclude this memoir, with the followintif passage 
from Dr. IJalloraii's Poem of The Batlle of Trafa/gar: — 

When Fraiicc and .Spahi's defeated scjuadrons fled 

1 he force, bv l)r:i\'c, biil. injm-'d t'aUlLr led, 

With terror wini^'d, to (JaA'u. purt ibcy stci-i'd, 

Ijii;lonjii:> refuy,e, from tlic Cliicf lliey tetirM I 

There Iuhj; inactive, but secure, tijcy si.iv'd; 

And ignominious, pent by close blockade, 

IJeioie tiieir port, with frustrate ras^e descry'd 

A lji'iti-)!i riect, of strength inferior, ride! 

Twice had the iMoon her various phases worn, 

Anil s ill the Toe sustain'd tlie Hriiish scorn ; 

Still, in base sloth contin'd, tlicir Fleets rcm;'.in'd, 

1'hough iir!i,\l by Hoikjup, ni^rc by Pear restrain'd ! 

'\\ hen, lo! giad signals, tho' unhop'd, txpress'd, 

(Vt Ihle pour'd new transfiort tin'o'eiich Uriton's breast,) 

'J'lie joyful tidini^s,— — ' that the hostile tbicu, 

Their Port forsaken, steer'd u soutliward course*!' 

* To tiiis passa^^e, Dr. Ilallorun has atiixcd the i'ollowing note, in wliicli 
his ojiinion appears to be very freely ex|)res.-ied : — 

" I have read without prejudice or partiality, and considerod v.ith ail tne 
attention of which I sun eafiable, the trial of Sir Robert CaUler. Certainly, 
fnnn the evidence, I euuid not possibly aiitic;j)ate the sentence. And, /«- 
juicd, I cannot liul deem iin olficer, who, tiiough of mupiestionable braverv, 
and haviii;! gained an important advantage over a superitir force, is yet 
severely ienii:,rtd for ait error iiiJi(i/i:Mi.nl ! — a sentence, which, it nnght be 
presumed, a court, composed oi' men, iliemselxes weak and fallible, vvoutd 
liave paused, and seriously iiiilced deliLi laud upon, before they thusindelibiy 
placed upon record, uliat nuii/ liircuJUr saiiclinu tttclr vicii conJiiiiiiation .' 
lor, if an error in judgment be se\crely teiisuruble, v^heI■e i^ the ni.ui, iiuw- 



114 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOia Oi' 

IIEKALDIC PARTICULARS. 

Robert Calder, of Asswanlie, in the county of Aberdeen, had 
issue, beside George, who succeeded to the lands of Asswanlie, in 
1625, another son, James, who married Margaret Gordon. 
Their son, Thomas, (Sheriff of Miln, in 1669,) married Magdalinc 
Sutherland, by whom he had issue, James, William, and Harriot. 
James, the eldest son, married Grizel, daughter of Sir Robert 
Innes, of Iiines ; and, in 1686, being at that time Laird of 
Muirtowne, was created a Baronet of the Kingdom of Scotland. 
In 1711, his eldest son, Sir 'J'homas, was married to Christian, 
daughter of Sir John Scott, of Ancrum. James, the eldest 
offspring of this marriage, married first, in 1735, Alice, daughter 
of Robert Hughes, Esq., Rear-Admiral of the Red Squadron ; 
secondly, Catherine, daughter of VVentworth Odeane, Esq., Clerk 
pf the House of Commons. By his former lady, J>e had issue, 
Thomas, lost in the Namur man of war ; Henry, of Parkhouse, 
Major-General and Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar, who died 
in 1792*'; James, who died young; Robert, the subject of the 
preceding memoir ; Aleth a, who died in 1793, the wife of 
Robert Roddam, Es ., Admiral of the Red Squadron ; and twQ 
plher daughters, who died young. 

There is a story respecting the grant of the lands of Asswanlicf 
to Hugh Calder, affer the battle of Brechin, related by Gordon, 
in his history of the family of Gordon, and thence copied, in part, 
by Nesbitt, in the Appendix to his second voiume on Heraldry. 
The story, however, is unfounded, as any way relating to the 
grant of Assv/anlie ; and it was probably invented, when the 
Duke of Gordon, somewhre about the year 1715, gave a gilt cup 
to Alexander Calder, of Asswanlie. The lands of Asswanlie were 
granted by " Sir Alexander Scton, Laird of Gordon and Strath- 
bogie, kc. &c.'to Hugh Calder, (son and heir ^f Alexander Cal- 
derj) and to his spouse, Elizabeth Gordon, &c. &:c." This grant 

ever brave, or skilful, or prudent, who, while subject to the failings inci- 
dent to our nnfure, m;iy not become obnoxious to i\ similar setitencer — 
Byijg w;is sacriiiced, aii,l Ciilder censiircrl, because tiicy weve not exempted 
from human tidlibiljty ! Were tliey not, therefore, evidently the victims, 
ratlior of popular prejudice, than of actu'.il demerits? Posterity has too late 
done justice to the memory of the one ; to the other, it is to be lioped, tlie 
general sense of the Navy, and of every iu:partial Briton, has a!re:idy proved 
a^ lenitive for his wounded feeliufis." 

* ILs ai;l_y son inlicrits the title of Baronet of Scotland. 



flIR ROBERT CALDER, BART. 113 

is dated, at EJgin, on the last day of August, 1440 ; and was con- 
firmed, by royal charter, at Edinburgh, in 1450. This original 
charter is now in the possession of Sir Robert Calder. On the 
death of Alexander Calder, of Asswanlie, at Old Aberdeen, in 
1768, the estate was finally sold to the Earl of Fife, whose rtro- 
perty it novv is. The gilt cup above mentioned is now thel 
property of Sir John Gordon, of Park ; and its size, form, orna- 
ments, &c., sufficiently contradict and confute the idle story of its 
having been Crawford's cup, brought to Iluntly after the battle 
of Brechin, fought in 1452, twelve years after the date of the 
grant of thi* lands of Asswanlie to Hugh Calder, son and heir of 
Alexander Calder. 

Arms. — Or, a buck's head, caboshed, sable, ai tired, gules. 

Crest. — A swan in a lake, with bullrushcs proper. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &«. 

NANTES IN CURGITE VASTO. 



THE LATE ADMIRAL HARRISON S MEMORIAL TO L0RI7 

ONSLO'v^. 
MY LORD, 

PURSUANT to your Lordship's request^ I have drawn out 
a Memorial of the time and manner of my service in the 
Navy. — 

I served two years a Volr.nteer oii board Ills Majesty's ships 
London and Dunkirk, in King William's war. In 1700, I served 
as Midshipman on board the Pcndcnnis, commanded by Captain 
Strickland, who took me with him into the Romney, where I 
Served as ^Master's first Mate, from June 1701, to April 1703; 
where I was made Lieutenant of the Darimouth in Helvoetsluys, 
as appears by certificate annexed. In a voyage from Archangel, 
at the utmost hazard of my own life, I was the instrument (under 
God) of preserving the Romney, and in all probability the whule 
•<hip"s company, from perishing in the White Sea. 

The next year at Elsinorc, being with the long boat on shore at 
Elseiiburg, the povernor of that province, under pretence of 
trespass committed by our peo})le cutting a little broom, seized on 
tel» of them, Vi'hom he made prisoners, (wounding two or three,) 



lie NAVAL ANLCnoTl"..-, 

and in?i?tcd on 400 ri\-dollars for the damage : Capfain Slriclc-- 
jand, vitli C'aplaiiii Tudor, Trover, ajid Watkins, bi-iufT on sliore- 
at the time, could bring liim to no other terms. I took the said 
Ciovcirnor otF from the bridge of Elsinbiirg, where there was a 
fTuaid of six soldiers and about twenty Swedes, otficersj and other 
gentlemen ; broui;lit liim on board, and obliged liim to send a 
Iclter fortl'.witli to discharge the nsen : for the trutli of this I rc'fer 
to Captains Tudor a'.id 'I'rcvor. 

la 1705 1 was m;ide Lieutenant of the Diin%'. i',-k, where I pro- 
iecied a niachi-n-e to melamorphose the said sliip into a Duteli lly 
boat; M-hich so well answered tlie design., that b) decoying, thcu» 
within pistol-shot, we took five jirisaleers ; pnt o-n shore en, Sluys- 
Beach a French man of war, of 24 gnns; and six privateers npon ' 
the Bead) of Calais: for confirmation of which I refer to Captain 
(Jliarlcs JIardy, Commander of the Carolina } acht, and Captain 
Tiiomas Graves. 

J attacked, boarded, and took a French privateer, of six gnns^ 
and 31 men, ofl' Dui./'encss, A\ith our jj^ni^ace and yanl; in Avhicb 
] Iiad bnt 19 mo;*, tiioaigh a fsfcsh g;irle of wind, ar.d the privateer 
under sail, our ship a])o\e a league from us : for which Captain 
Craves and all the ship's comjiany gave mc the property of the 
whole ])rizo. 

In 1711 I was made Captain of tho. Dun wick, preferable to 
either of the Admiral's own Lieutenants : which commission, 
though not confirmed, liOrd Torrington was of ojiinion it ought to 
have been, and three years since promised he would be my a(ho- 
cate to get me a ship : but 1 still remain on the half-pay list of 
]jieutenants. 

In 1714, by order fio n the Lords of the Admiralty, I was sent 
f.om Pl\ mouth, Comniaader of ilis ^Majesty's smack the Mary, to 
Brest, to inform mvself of all the preparations niakiug both by sea 
iind land, at that port, and places adjacent : whicli 1 performed in 
eleven davs, and gave their Lordships a particular account. The 
r )nv of which is annexed. 'J'his expedition co.^f. me more thaR 
twelve guineas, which I was never reimbursed. 

I liope their Lord-ships will be pleased to take into consldi'radon, 
and for the better s\ipport of my fa;nily, which consists of a wife 
and nin* children, runiove me from ihc list of Lieulenants. 

JMy preser\ing Ilis ^ilajes^y's ship !icmn<?y was in the manner 
iis follows : — In our p^ssagi^ from Archangel, we were, by a very 
.■^•^rong, unknown current, driven so nigh tlie island Caudernoze, that 
lU-a dark and ?lormv night »\ c w-tc cl/ligvd to come to an anchor;. 



COMMF.RrrAT, iriN'TS, UrCOLT-ECTIOXS, Scc. 117 

ihc. next morning findinif ourselves on a lee shore, and so ncaraledge 
of rocks, without castinsj (he ship to starboard she ni;.;st incvitabfy 
have been on shore, not having room to wear the ship ; the wind 
at the samp time two points or more on the starboard bow, and 
h!cw >o hard with a current and a great sea, that there was no 
possibility of lowering a boat, or standing in the head to jnit a 
spring on the cable : the messenger and viol being both broke ia 
heaving, and the hitches jammed in the hause hole, so that the 
ship rode entirely by the hause piece; with a rope reeved in a 
block at the boM sprit cjid, I swang myself from the head of the 
Lyon, so iar out as the buoy, and swam to it with a deep sea line 
in my hand ; which being fastened to the end of a hawser, I 
reeved in the strap of the buoy, and was hauled on board with 
the saine, (having been above 12 minutes in the water, the sea 
makiiig a free passage over me, and at the same time above fifty- 
tons of ice hanging about the sliip,) Avhich hawser was brought on 
the laiboard quarter to the main capstern, and with it hove up to 
bring the wind on the starboard bow, cutting the cal)Ic with some 
chisels iu the hause, and cast the ship the right way. 

-Mcmoiial of Admiral IJarvison''s long, Services. 

Was made a Lieutenant in April 1701 

A Post Captain, 28th February 1739 

A Rear-Admiral 1 756 

A Vice- Admiral of the Blue 1 758 

A Vice of the lied 1759 

Died 13th of March 1750 

rLAMBOr.OUGII LIGHT-HOUSE. 

FLAM BOROUGH I.ight-house was erected under tfit- 
direction of Mr. Wyat, llie Architect. The height of the build- 
ing, from the basis to the sumniit, is eighty-five feet ; and from 
the level of the seu, two hundred and fifty feet. 

On the 1st of December, 1806, th6 following oration 
was delivered by Benjanihi Milne, Esq., Collector of His 
Majesty's Customs at Bridlington, on the first exhibition of 
tliesi' liglit.5 : — 

Rome, in the plenitude of power, enriched with the plunder of 
conquered p.oviucos. and e!a*:cd with pride, erected stately pi'lar?,. 



lis NAVAL ANECROTES, 

ornamented with exquisite sculpture, io co'raracmorate the' 
achievements of her illustrious citizens ; but those splendid 
embellishments were the ostentatious monuments of an unbounded 
ambition, which gra'.pcd at universal dominion, and. in the career 
of victory, exk-ndcd a wide scene of ruin and desolation. Under 
the influeTice of a better principle, and for purposes infinitely more 
iij;eful, this sup^'rh edilicc, for the exhibition of lights, is erected, 
it was raised for the benevolent irttcntion of securing the propcrt}' 
of individuals, and of preserving human life from the calamities of 
shipwreck. To the honour of the Elder Brethren of the Trinity 
House, Deptford Strond, and London, it must be observed, that 
with laudable zeal Ihey have patronized the undertaking, and com- 
pleted the bniiding in a style supiM-ior to e>cry other of the samrr 
class in the L.'nited Kingdom— an eminent dis])lay of taste and 
judgment. Tiic gnm.leur of its situation on this elevated pro- 
montory is unequalled ; the sublimity of the prospect must excite 
the admiration of every beholder; the vast sweep of the northern 
ocean fills the eye with its immeasurable expanse, and exhibits a 
scene which inspires exalted ideas. Innumerable fleets, laden 
•with the produce of the coal mines, and rich trading vessels from 
Scotland, daily pass in view. Ships freighted with naval stores, 
and valuable merchandise, from Archangel, from Norway, the 
ports of the Baltic and Holland, and others from the AV'hale 
Fisheries, direct their course to this distinguished promontory. 
Scenes of this kind are characteristic of national grandeur. The^ 
bold cnterprize, and mercantile spirit of Britain, astonish the 
world. The magnitude of her commerce covers the sea with her 
tlcets ; her flag waves triumphant in every quarter of the globe ; 
the unrivalled skill, industry, honourable conduct, and opulence 
«>f the country, are the solid basis of its stability. Surely such 
important interests merit a sedulous attention to their security. 
While you view with complacency the multitude of ships floating 
on the extended ocean, should you at the same time take into 
consideration the immense value of their cargoes, and the many 
thousands of seamen by which they are navigated, you would then 
be able to form some judgment of 'the extensive advantages which 
must result from the execution of a plan so highly useful and 
beneficent. If prompted by curiosity, you have ever surveyed the 
formidable rocks which line the adjacent shore, and have observed 
the foaming waves of the stormy ocean dashing witii irresistible 
fury agiMus-t the perpendicular cliffs, (he sight alone must have 
iiiied vou witJi astonishment and dread ! Figure then to yoursnU' 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, KECOLLECTIONS, &C. 119 

the melancholy scene of some unfortunate vessel enveloped in 
midnight darkness, driven by the tempest, and suddenly stranded 
on tiie tremendous coast ; paint to your imagination the crew of 
helpless soamen sinking among the overwhelming billows, and 
raising their supplicating voices, in vain, for aid ! reflect on tha 
inexpressible agony of their tender connexions, deprived in one 
cad moment of all that is esteemed dear in life, and left, perhaps 
desolate and forlorn, in a state of helpless indigence, to mourn the 
loss of a husband, a father, or a son !— These are not visionary- 
ideas, they are scenes, alas ! 'which have too frequently beea 
realized. With such impressions on your minds, you must 
assuredly acknowledge the utility of a design, calculated, U' der 
Providence, to prevent consequences so wounding to the tender 
sensibilities of human nature. Had this building been erected at a 
more early period, the loss of His Majesty's ship the A^autilus, 
Captain Gunter, from the Baltic, and several of the vessels under 
his convoy, with many valuable lives, might, in all human pro- 
bability, have been prevented. From the exhibition of these 
brilli.int lights, innumerable wiil be the advantages to navigation. 
I will detail the most prominent : — Thesight of them wi!l dispel the 
gloom which frequently seizes the boldest and most bkiliul navi- 
gator, in a critical moment ; and direct him, when surrounded by 
the obscurity of a winter's night, to avoid the dangers of this pro- 
jecting coast. They will guide the tempest-beaten mariner to the 
JIumber, or to a safe anchorage in Bridlington Bay, famed for its 
convenience and security : ditlusing their friendly lustre afar, thev 
will shine as leading stars to enable ships in a large ofling to 
ascertain their situations with accuracy, and to take a new depar-, 
lure; and also warn others, contending with eastern gales, to keep 
at a proper distance from the dangers of a lee shore ; to the 
fishermen, who are frequently exposed to great perils on the 
unstable element, they will be eminently useful in the night : they 
will guide them to the proper fishing grounds, and direct them, oij 
their return to the shore, to a place of safety. Numerous have 
been the disasters of this industrious race of men at Flamboroughc 
I am persuaded that jnany of you, who are now present, have Avit~ 
nessed the painful scene of the whole viijage in mourning! — the 
lamentations of the disconsolate widow and mother must have 
pierced your souls: with inexpressible aiiguish, I Iiav.': scf'>2 the- 
tears of the helpless orphan flow for an imhilgent parent, mIio 
perished in the merciless wave: while [ retuiu the faculty ot 
p.ieipory, the sad infpre^siou \yill never bo erased ; and at this 



120 NATAt AMiCDOTES, 

moment it is difficult to restrain my emotions : but th.o, consideration, 
that my humble exertions have been instrumental in promoling a 
design to prevent those calamities in futare, will be a source of 
satisfaction to me to the remotest period of life. Tliis description 
of an undertalving so conducive to the security of navigation, will 
not, I trust, be deemed too highly coloured— the facts are incon. 
trovcrtible, the utility indisputable. So long as this noble edifice 
shall stand unshaken on its firm foundation, and lift its aspiring 
summit to the view of the admiring spectator, it will remain a con- 
spicuous monument of the humanity and munificence of the 
British nation, unparalleled by any otlier of (he maritime states on 
Ihe face of the globe. May the kind Providence of Almighty God 
favour this and every other effort of national utility -vvith success, 
and crown with glory the ardent courage and determined resolution 
of our matchless seamen, in the defence of their native land '. 
"While afilicled iOuropc mourns her desolated provinces and sub- 
jugated states, may this United Kingdom, iirm in loyalty, in 
patriotism, and every exalted virtue, oppose an insurmountable 
barrier to the impetuous torrent which threatens to overwhelm 
the earth ! May Britain ever continue in the envied possession of 
the Empire of the Main, and lifting her unclouded head with dis- 
tinguished lustre amid the gloom which at this awful crisis 
overshadows the world, exhibit to desponding nations a bright 
example of gloiy, iiuincible by every hostile shock, uushakeu 
as the rocks tiiat g'lard our sea-girt shore;. 

LOUIS Tilt lOURT EENTil, AND THE EPYiiTONE 
I.lGHT-llOLSE. 

LOUIS the Fourteenth being at war with England, during the 
proceeding M'it ; the Edystonc Jvight-house, a French privateer 
took the men at ^vo^■U upon the Rock, together -with their tools, 
av.d carried them to France; and the Cajitain \va- in expectation 
of a reward for th.' achievement. While the r;iptives lay in pri- 
son, the transaction reai!i?d the envs of that JMonaich ; he immedi- 
atelv ordered them to be released, and the captors to be put in 
their places; declaring, (hat though he was at war with England, 
lie was not so with mankind. lie therefore directed the men to 
be sent back to their work, with presents; obsLr\ing, that " the 
Kdystone I^ight-house was so situated, as to be of equal service 
to all nations, having occasion to navigate th- Channel between 
I'-ngland and France." After this occurrence, the workmen were 
protettcd by frigates, by order of Fiince Cieprgc of l)cuiniiriL. 



COMMEKCIAI. HINTS, RECOI.I.KCTIOXS, ScC. 121 

Copi/ of Sir Kmuaku Haddock's ^icco?//?/. given to His Royal 
Highness the Duke of J'oik, uf their Engugcuienl the USth of 
May, 1072, in the Ruj/ul James. 

SIR, 

IN obedience to your Royal Higliness's commands, I here 
humbly present to your view a brief narrative of our actions 
on board the Royal James, the '28th of May last past, as fol- 
loweth : — 

Upon signal from our scouts, of the Dntcli fleet's approach, we 
put our ships immediattd/ iiito a figl)(ing posture, and, between 
3 and 4 P. M-, wind E. by S., brought our cable to the capstan, 
and heaft a peak of our anchor; which, upon firing a gun and 
loosing fore-topsail of your Uoyal lil^'hness's sliip, we presently 
weighed, and alternards lay l<(Hlging with our head .sails at the mast, 
till our anchor was up; which done, we made sail, steered iV. E. 
by N., and stood off with our signal abroad for the squadron to 
draw into the line of battle ; which' an as done as well as the short 
time we had would permit : but fuiding myscU one of the weather- 
most siiips, I bore to leeward, till I had brought ourselves in a 
line; the Vice- Admiral*, and part of his division right a-head; the 
Rear-Admiral, and his, right a-stern : only two or three frigates to 
leeward, and so near, one of them ^^ itliin call. The Dutch squa- 
dron. Van Ghent, attacked us in the body and rear very smartly, 
let the van go a-head without engaging them, for some time, as far 
as I could perceive. We engaged about an hour and naif \ery 
smartly : when the Dutch found they could do no good on us with 
their men of war, they attacked us with two iire-ships, tlie first of 
which we fired with our shot, the secund we disai;b d by shooting 
down his yards ; before Avhich time I had sent our barge, by my 
Jvord's command, a-hcad, to Sir Joseph Jardine tj tack, and with 
his division to weather the Dutch that were upon us, and beat them 
down to leeward of us, and come to our assistance; our pinnace I 
likewise sent astern, to command our shi s to come to our assist- 
ance, which returned, but were on board several Avho endeavoured 
it, but couh! not elfe tit. About iwu hours after we engaged, Ave 
were boarded athwart hawse by one of their men of war, notwith- 
standing our endeavours to prevent them, by Avearing our ship two 
or three poinis from the Avind, to have taken him alongside. When 

* The Edgar. 

/28II. ei;ror;. (Hol.XVlI. h 



I2t NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

he had been thwart our hawse some short time, my Lord would 
have had me boarded hiin with our men and taken him;, which I 
refused to do, by giving him my reasons that it would be very dis- 
advantageous to us : first, that I must have commanded our men 
from our guns, having then 1 believe 300 men killed and wounded, 
and could not expect but to los<; 100 in taking him. Secondly ; if 
I had so done, we could not have cut him loose fiom us, by reason 
of the tidj of flood bound him fast; and, thirdly, had we plied our 
guns slowly, by taking away our men, we had then given cause to 
the enemy to believe we had been disabled, and consequently more 
of them would have boarded us, which might possibly have over- 
prest us, and would have been more dishonour to have lost her by 
that means, than being at last burnt. So that my Lord was satis- 
fied with my reasons, and resolved we should lutf it out to the last 
man, still in expectation of assistance. About tea o'clock. Van 
Ghent himself, finding those his other ilags could do no good upon 
us, nor the party with them, came up with us himself, we having 
lost the conduct of our ship. lie ranged along our side, gave us a 
smart volley of small shot, and his broadside, which we returned to 
him with our middle and lower tier, our upper guns almost all dis- 
abled, the men killed at them, lie passed a-head of us, and 
brouf^ht his ship too, to leeward; and there lay still. I was gone 
oif the deck ; some short time after. Sir Jose])h Jardiue (our barge 
having been with him, and given him my Lord's commands) past by 
us very unkindly to windward ; with how many followed of his di- 
vision I remember not ; and took no notice at all of us, which 
made me call to mind his saying to your Royal Highness, when he 
received his commission, that he would stand betwixt you and dan- 
ger, which I gave my Lord account of ; and did believe by his act- 
ing, yourself might be in view in greater danger than we ; which 
made my Lord answer me, we must do our best to defend ourselves 
alone. About 12 o'clock I was shot in the foot with a small shot, 
I supposed out of Van Ghent's main-top, which pressed me after a 
small time to go down to be drest ; I gave my Lord account of it, 
and resolved to come up again, as soon a> 1 was drcst. Jn the mean 
time, whm I went o if the deck, sent up Sir Charles and Lieutenant 
Mayo to stand by my Lord. As soon as I came down, rcmember- 
infy the llood was done, sent up to my Lord to desire him to com- 
mand the ship to anchor by the stern, which was innnediatily done; 
and.. after wo had brought up, the ship athwart our hawse fell 
away, and being entangled with our rigging, our men boarded and 
tojk her. Cut her loose from us, and at my Lord's commands re- 



COMMERCIAL HIN'TS, RECOLLECTIONS, ScC. 123 

turned all on board again: upon wliicli I, hearing the shij^ wa^ 
loose, sent up to my Lord that the cable might be cut, and the 
ship brought to sail before the wind, and loose our main-sail, 
Avhich was presently done. Then my Lord sent me his thanks for 
my advice, and withall doubted not but to save the ship : at that 
time the Surgeon was cutting ofi" fhc-saattercd flesh and tendons of 
my toe; and immediately after we were boarded by the fatal fire- 
ship tliat burnt us. 

BRAVERY OF A SERJEANT OF MARINES. 
MR. EDITOR Portsmouth, Feb. 5, 1S07. 

LOOKING over the papers of a young gentleman that for- 
merly belonged to His Majesty's ship la Desiree, when com- 
manded by Captain Whitby, on the Jamaica Station, I found tlie 
following anecdote of the Serjeant of Marines belonging to that 
^Miip. If you deem it worthy of inserting in your valuable work, 
the Naval CiiRONiCLE, you will oblige. Sir, 

Your humble Servant, 

HECTOR. 

A few days previous to an unsuccessful attack made by th« 
boats of our ship on a French privateer schooner, concealed ifl 
Rio Cresse, or Hidden Port, in the island of Cuba, James 
Mulhollaiid, Serjeant of Marines, was broke from that situation, 
and put into the ranks, for insolence to his superior officer. The 
intention of the Ca'ptain Avas, I believe, only to keep him in that 
subordinate situation until he was conscious of his error, for ha 
■was an excellent soUIicr, and otherwise a good man ; he appeared 
often much dejected, and the disgrace had apparently made a deep 
impression on his mind. When the boats were preparing to 
depart on the enterpri.'.e, he came into the Midshipmen's berth, 
and requested he might be permitted to go with one of the young 
gentlemen who was to have the charge of the launch, saying, that 
he was perfectly assured he should ne-ver return alive again to the 
ship, but that he wished to show he was a brave man, and worthy 
the situation that a few days before was taken from him. His 
request was granted, and he proved himself, by his conduct the 
whole of the time, a brave and steady fellow ; but, according ta 
his own words, he never returned, having received, just before the 
action termmated, eight or nine musket balls at ones, in his bit^ast. 



124 COmiESPONDENCE. 

while in the act of discharging the contents of his piece at the 

Frenchmen. His death was regretted by every one on board ; and 

wliat makes the circumstance the more extraordinary, is, that he 

was the only man killed. 

His Mn'estii's Ship Deslrde, 
23d Feb. laOi. 

CTKIOUS ANF.rDOTE. 

THE following anecdote took place on board one of His 
Majesty's ships lately : — 

The Boatswain being one day in want of a piece of rope, jumped 
down from the forecastle into the waist, and looking down the 
fore-hatchway, sung out to his Yeoman, (who kept his accounts, 
the Boatswain not being able to read or write,) " Veo ! ho ! there. 
Jack ; hand up that there remnant of inch." Now the Yeoman 
had for a glass of grog given it aw ay to one of the gentlemen, for 
a lashing to his hammock, and was therefore at a loss how to 
answer properly for it : he, however, returned, " It's expended, 
Sir." The Boatswain being aware that it could not be without 
his knowledge, said, harslily, " You lie, d — n you, it's not." 
*' Why," retorted the Yeoman, " I'll be d — nd if I can't show you 
it ii^black and white ;" meaning its expenditure in writing, knowing 
he could not read it. — '•' Ah ! d— n you," cried the Boatswain, 
quite hurt at his own ignorance, " there you palls me;" walking 
off, and cursing his hard fate, that he had not as much larning 
as his Yeoman. E. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

ACCOUNT OF A HURRICANE. 

MR. EDITOUj Portsmouth, Feh. 7, 180r. 

HAVE transmitted the following extracts from the journal 
of a yomig officer^ late of His Majesty's ship Centaur, 
Captain Whitby, giving an account of the situation of that ship 
in a hurricane, experienced the 29lh of July, 180.5, as I am sure 
you will be pleased to think it worthy inserting into your valu- 
able Naval Chronicle. I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

POSEIDON. 



COURESPONDEKCE, 125 

On the 10th of Juno, 1805, \vc sailed from Port Rojal, 
Jamaica, in company with His Majesty's ships St. George, Com- 
modore dc Courcy ; Kagle, Captain Colby ; Atlas, Captain Pym ; 
and Success, Captain Scott ; to join and reinforce the fleet of our 
late gallant hero Lord Nelson, uho had arrived at Barbadoes in 
search of the French squadron. At 9 the greater part of the ships 
had cleared the shoals that lay off the harbour, when we saw by 
signal that the St. George, who was the sternmost ship, had struck 
the ground ; tlic boats were immediately sent to her assistance 
from all the ships, who brought up in 10 fathoms without the 
Keys. The sea breeze came in strong about two o'clock, and sJie 
continued striking heavily until five in the afternoon, when she 
was, by the help of anchors taken out, got off. At seven we 
weighed and stood to sea, in company with the squadron. 

Nothing particular occurred until the 3d of July, when wc 
found the ship made a good deal of water, which obliged us to 
keep the hand-pumps continually working : on the 6th we cleared 
the Passages : on the loth spoke an American schooner, who 
informed us the French fleet had sailed from Martinique. 

On the 28th the wind was moderate from the E.N.K. and the 
weather cloudy ; at P.M. the breezes freshened, and the 2d 
reefs of the top-sails were taken in : at 4 in the morning it 
appeared very dark to windward, and the breeze came on in heavy 
squalls, with vivid lightning and rain ; this was a true indicatioij 
of what followed. The top-sails were lowered and close re.fed by 
the Captain's order, and the courses still kept on her. 

At 5 the larboard bumpkin gave way ; in consequence of which 
the fore-yard went in the slings, and split the fore-top-sail, which 
blew away from the yard ; all hands were immediately turned on 
deck, and the main-sail hauled up, to ease the ship, and the 
nnzeu-top-sail furled. 

The wind now increased to a perfect gale; several shrouds of 
the lower rigging giving way, it was found necessary, for the 
further security of the masts, to get the runners and tackles up ; 
the top-gallant-yards were sent down, and the fore and mizen-top- 
gallant-masts struck ; the main could not be got down, as the heel 
of the mast jammed in the trussel trees, the jib-boom was run in, 
the small sails sent down out of the tops, and every tiling made 
snug ; set the fore-stay-sail, and at seven it blew away ; at half- 
past the main-top-sail blew out of the wait-rope into a thousand 
ribands. The weather noAV had an alarming appearance, the gale 
increased to a perfect hurricanCj and it was now thought ncccisary 



126 CO RRESPONDESCfi. 

to secure the guns, as the ship began to labour and roTl 
exceedingly ; the louer deck ones, 32-pounders, were accordingly 
double breeched and cleared, and the main-deck ones, 24-pouB- 
ders, secured accordingly. It is almost impossible to conceive the 
strength of the ship's sides, in bearing the immense weight of tlie 
guns, when thrown on her beam ends by the sea every moment. 
At eleven A.M. the main-top-mast actually blew away, and shortly 
after the fore one, close to the cap. Tiie force of wind at this mo- 
ment is beyond conception, and not a soul dare show himself on the 
deck without keeping under (he lee of the weather bulwark, for 
fear of being blown overboard ; and the weather became at once 
so gloomy, that we could scarcely see the bowsprit's end ; every 
exertion was used both by officers and men to clear the wreck of 
the top-masts. The ship now laboured dreadfully, and there were 
several seas shijjped, which obliged the lower deck to be scuttled 
to admit the water to pass into the hold; the gratings and tar- 
paulins were over every hatchway, to prevent the water from 
going down that was shipped ; but, in consequence of the ship 
straining, the seams were opened, and admitted the water down. 
At twenty minutes after eleven the best bower anchor broke 
adrift, and hung suspended from the bows by the cable, which was 
never unbent : as our place of destination was not far off, this 
alarming circumstance was soon communicated to the lower deck, 
"where the cable was instantly cut ; axes being at hand, in case of 
an accident of the kind happening. This circumstance gave us 
great anxiety for the moment, as we were perfectly assured, if the 
peak of the anchor penetrated through the ship's bows, as, from her 
labouring, we had every reason to expect, she would inevitably 
have gone down. 

The Carpenter now reported the leak increasing, making from 
five to six feet per hour ; every spare hand was sent down to the 
pumps, which were kept working with great exertion by all, but 
particularly the marines, alternatt-ly taking spell and spell. The 
air was so close and putrid, having no circulation whatever, (the 
hatchways and every other part that could admit it being well 
covered, to prevent, as was said before, the water from coming 
down,) that going from the quarterdeck to the lower one, your 
breath would be instantly stopt, and it would be a few moments 
before you were able to recover yoursi-lf. It did not ad'ect the 
men who remained there; but, in consequence of the intense heat, 
they \rere obliged to strip off all but their trowscrs. A few 
minuttis before meridian the main-mast went over the side, withou' 



CORRESPONDENCE. 127 

I 

toucTutig the bulwark, with an immense crash, and very shortly 
after tho mizen-mast in three pieces, the niiddle piece falling on tJie 
poop; likewise a cutter that had been blown some way up the 
shrouds from the weather quarter. The arm and signal chests, 
V ith a siv-oared cutter, went over the side with the mizen-mast. 
The hc'ltn was put np to keep the wreck dear of the rudder, but 
the sliip would not answer her helm, the sea striking her on the 
quarter, and the force of wind on the poop kept her to : every 
man exerted himself in cutting and clearing the u reck, the Cap- 
tain's gig, with the poop lanthorn, were washed away by a sea at 
this time. 

Not a soul appeared the least dismayed at the awful scene that 
presented itself before us, but worked and exerted themselves with 
that zeal and fortitude so conspicuous in a British sailor in the 
moment of danger: about twelve we had the satisfaction to observe 
the wreck on the weather quarter, and clear of the ship. 

The wind if possible increased, and we saw with great concern 
no appearance of its clearing up. Our attention was now solely 
taken up with the pumps, and every man was sent to them from 
the quarter-deck, to relieve those poor fellows, who had, from 
their continued exertions, become quite weak and exhausted. The 
leak liad increased from six to eight feet per hour; during this 
time there was not one of the squadron seen, and it was much 
feared the St. George would founder. The wind had veered from 
E.jN'.E. to S.S, W. : our latitude, by dead reckoning, there bLii;g 
not the least appearance of the sun, was '2C° 17' N., and the longi- 
tude 57° 42' \V. The hurricane continued to blow with unabated 
fury until four o'clock in the afternoon, when it died in a small 
degree ; we attempted to set the fore-stay-'-ail, from the stump of 
the mizen-mast to the main bitts, but did not succeed, for it blew 
away the moment the sheet was attempted to be hauled aft. 

At six the hemisphere bccdme a little cleared, when we descried 
a large ship on our weather quarter, apparently scudding, which 
'we took for the St. George, At eight the hurricane appeared to 
be breaking, to our great satisfaction the clouds began to disperse, 
and we had now every hope of its concluding ; every soul appeared 
enlivened, and sensible of the Divine mercy in saving us from the 
jaws of death : the pumps were worked with double vigour. 
The ship laboixred very heavy as the wind abated, aud the leak 
increased, to our no sn)all uneasit»ess ; the pumps however were 
"worked cheerily without intermission, as the only means left to 
preserve our lives. At day-light the grtat force of wind abated, 



128 CORRESPOXDEN-CE. 

and the heavy clouds dispersed. It is impossible for those v.ho 
have not experienced a like situation, to conceive our delight, at 
hcholding, a few miles to wiiKhvard of us, the Eagle and Atlas, Uvjy 
of our consorts ; they appeared not to have received so much 
damage as ourselves. The signal ol' distress was instantly made. 
The signals -were observed and attended to ; in an hour wc 
received an ofFicer from the Eagle, stating that ship to have lest her 
top-masts, sprung her lever masts, and otherwise much damaged. 
The Atlas was dispatched to Barbadoes, and the Eagle took us ia 
tow for Halifax, where we ariivcd in seventeen days. It was 
found necessary, after examining into the defects of the ship, to 
heave a number of the guns overboard, to ease her. The Carpen- 
ter reported all the rudder ends aft started, the main-deck knees 
and water-stays giving way. Jury-masts were rigged, and sails 
set in a few hours, by the assistance of a party from the Eagle, our 
men, the greater part of them being constantly employed at the 
pumps: every officer and man of the Centaur feels indebted to 
Captain Colby, for his attention. The complement of men of the 
Centaur was not near complete, and there were at the time upwards 
of an hundred sick ; they however recovered before the ship sailed 
for England. 

The conduct of Captain Whitby during the hurricane was such 
as bespoke him an able and excellent ofiicer and seaman, and 
likewise that of every officer was deserving of the greatest praise. 
The ship was hove down at Halifax, and 14 feet of false keel was 
found off from the fore foot aft, which occasioned the leak. The 
ship's company consta tly attended Divine Service at Church, 
•while the ship remained at Halifax, to the great credit of Captain 
^Vhitby. 

PIlATE ccxxv. 

n|^HE Giant's Causeway, of which the annexed Engraving is a 
View, from a Drawing by Mr. Pocock, is a promontory 
of Ireland. It is situated in the county of Antrim, on the north 
coast, west of Bengore Head. 

The Causeway, strictly so denominated, is regarded as a great 
natural curiosity. Twiss, the celebrated tourist, thus describes 
it:— 

It consists of about thirty thousand pillars, mostly i\i a perpen- 
dicular situation ; at low water the causewa} is about sis; hundrad 



PLATE CCXXT. 1,29 

feet long, and probably runs far into the sea- It is not known 
whether the pillars are continued under ground, like a quarry ; 
they are of different dimensions, being from fifteen to thii ty-six 
feet ill height ; their figure is chiefly pentagonal or hexagonal, 
ieveral have been found \vii.h seven, and a few with three, four, 
and eight sides, of irregular sizts : every pillar consists as it were 
of joints or pieces, which are not rented by surfaces ; for on being 
forced off, one of them is concave in the middle, and the other 
convex ; many of these joints He loose upon the strand. The 
stone is of a kind of basaltes, of a close grit, and of a dusky hue; 
it is very heavy, each joint generally weighing two hundred and a 
half. It clinks like iron, melts in a forge, breaks sharp, and, by 
reason of its extreme hardness, blunts the edges of tools, and is 
thus incapable of being used for building. The pillars stand very 
close to each other ; and though the number of iheir sides difiers, 
yet their contextures are so nicely adapted, as to leave no vacancy 
between them ; and every pillar retains its own thickness, angles, 
and sides, from top to bottom. These kinds of columns are con- 
tinued, with interruptions, for near two miles along the shore, 
'i'hat parcel of them which is most conspicuous, and nearest the 
Causeway, the country people call the looms or organs. These 
pillars are just fifty in number, the tallest about forty feet in 
height, and consisting of forty-four joints ; the others gradually 
decrease in length on both sides of it, like organ-pipes. 

Tlie Giants' Causeway, specimens of the stones from which 
have been deposited in the British Museum, has been the sub- 
ject of several Papers in the Philosophkal Transactions ; and 
has also been noticed in Boate's Natural History of Ireland, 
Bush's Hibernia Curiosa, and several other publications. 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

On the Jntroiluciion of the Teak Tree into Barhadoes. By 

NatuAniel Lucas, ^sq. of Lynxjord Hall, Norfolk. 

(From Co.-niminkations to the Board cf Agrlcultnve, Vol. IV.) 

TTiV May, or June, 1799, being in Barbadocs, I received sundry 
-^ East India seeds from Langford MJIington, Esq., a member 
of that Board ; requesting me, by desire of the Board, to di-<tri. 
biite them in the island. No time v.as lost in so doing; but not a 

ftJr.t), ^^von. ©oI.XVII. s 



130 PjnT.OSOpUlCAL PAPERS. 

sii'.jTle seed of any kind vegetated, except one of the Teak Wood ; 
and that was at Sunbury, an estate belonging to Jolm Henry 
Barrow, Esq., of Hill Park, iu the county of Kent. 

The soil in whicli tliis single seed vegetated is a very rich black^^ 
mould, upon Avhitc clay, iu the orchard, north of the dwelling 
house. 

Bein"f again in the island in July 1803, I visited the tree, in 
company with Mr. Barrow, and was astonished to see Avhat pro- 
gress it had made in so short a period of time. From a memo- 
randum in writing, taken on the spot under the ti-ee itself, at that 
time, I found it upwards of twenty-five feet high, thriving most 
luxuriantly, and at least five inches in diameter, six feet from the 
ground.. Being ati^ evergreen, the leaves very large, and the 
lateral branches very numerous and extensive, it was bowed down 
very considerably by their weight, afid the force of the trade 
winds, though it was in a sheltered situation. On theso accounts^ 
Mr. Barrow was under the necessity of cutting off the lateral 
branches, to keep it more upright ; and one of these branches was 
-sent to me, and is now ofl'ered to the inspection of the Board, 
through the favour of A. B. Lawicst, Esq., V. P. L.L. to whom 
I had given it. 

The servant, to whose care its delivery to mc was entrusted, 
most unfortunately had barked it before I received it ; and being 
under the necessity of leaving the island immediately, I had not 
time to procure another specimen; 

The length of the branch was considerable ; but it was cut short 
to enable me to convey it Avith convenicncy during the voyage, 
and my subsequent journey home into Norfolk. 

The wood is very compact, small grained, and heavy, as will he 
noticed in the specimen. Its growth is very rapid, if we consider 
tlie texture of the wood : the tree had not flowered when I left 
tiip island. 

It must prove a most valuable acquisition to the AVest Indies ; 
particularly in those islands where lands are of little value, and 
can be suffered to remain encumbered with trees ; but it must be 
TaJiiaMe in all ; for being evergreen, with very large thick leaves, 
and a quirk grower, it will be planted for ornamernt. Its use in 
Ijuilding th(' small colony craft will be great indeed, for the ])ro- 
perty of this timber in resisting the worm reinlers it invaluable ; 
and its duration ia tropical countries ip far greater than any other 
ship timber with which we p.re acquainted. 

The cedar (cedula odorata of Brown, p. 158,) and the whit* 



puiLOjornicAL rvPEns. 151 

■R 00(1 (bignonia pentaphylla of Brown, p. ^G3.) bofh of wlii-h 
resist tlic worm, and now bccowin:? very scarce in Barbadocs, and 
Avere ahnost exclusively used in buikiing the sinall vessels ; even 
trees originally planted or left for ornament, ha,ve been cut 
down. 

European oak la^ts but few years indeed there ; and the 
termiles are so fond of it as food, that (hoy can hardly be kept 
from it by any precautions, if the vessels be laid ashore ; and oak 
tii'ibers laid partly in the wafer, and partly asliore, have frequcnijy 
been seen eaten by them to the very edge of the water. 



DISQUISITIONS ON SHIP BUILDING. 

THE attention of the public ])eing at present so much dircctod 
to this important subject, in conseciuence of tlie dcliates winch 
some time ago took place in the House of Commons*; and as 
various writers have also taken up the same, it may be acceptable 
to our readers to peruse some observations on the building of ships, 
which appeared in a licw of fhc Naval Force of Great Uriiitin, 
published by an anonymous + author in 1791, and also to a 
Report of the State of Timber in this Count r^^ as made to the 
House of Commons in 1771, which appeared in the same work. 

The present builders, in the dilferent dock-yards of this country, 
arc generally such as have risen from being carpenters of ships of 
•war ; and, perhaps, before that, have been in very low employ- 
ments in the dock-yards. , 

From such stations they are promoted to be master-builders in 
some of th" first yards in Europe. It is true they understand the 
practice of their art, but little of the theory; it is not likely, 
therefore, that much improvement should be derived from such a 
source, more especially when some of them arrive at the oflicc 
of Surveyor; it is a fact well known, that the finest bodies for 
ships of war have been designed by the French ; these were copied, 
and many others said to be inii)roved, built from them. But 
surely we should be among the first, and not the second, as a ma- 
ritime nation, in these arts. 

Our builders arc, without doubt, much superior to foreign 
artists, in the execution and finishing of their works ; but the 
general system of some foreign powers is far superior to ours. 



* See Navai, Ciiiioxici.?:, V'oh XI, pnges 231, iU(j. 
f Given tu Commissioner luglefiold. 



132 PIITLOIJOPIIICAL PAPEU5. 

How beneficial would it be to Naval Architecture, if tlie Unirer- 
sities of this kingdom were to nuike it a part of their studies, to 
calculate the best form of models for ships to divide -the fluid in 
tlie easiest manner ; and also to establish tables for the resistance 
of fluids, that might be of use to builders in laying down ships ! 

These would be objects of infinite consequence to this science ; 
and sorry am I to say, that the best works on these subjects have 
been written by foreigners ; especially that most excellent one of 
Professor Euler, Sur la meilleiirc Forme des Vaissea'ux : the others 
are, Ulloa's TrauslatiGn of Bougcr on the Resistatice of Fluids ; 
and Clairbois', and also Chapman's Treatise. In our own lan- 
guage, Murray's System of Ship Building ; also Sir. Stalkard's 
Naval Architecture, lately p\^blishcd. 

Two faults, • among many others which our builders commit, 
are, that they shortL'n the ship too much in its length, and that 
they place the centre of gravity too high. They have improved, 
in some degree, by carrying the bearings of a ship up to the sill of 
the lowcT-deck ports. Foreign powers consider length, if not 
carried too far, equal to breadth, according to the foice employed 
upon a body, and the resistance it meets with : the different 
advantages of this plan show, that the principal reason of tliese 
errors arises from a general want of system, that might encourage 
emulation and bring forth knowledge. The masts and yards for 
our Navy, in general, are too large ; but this may be rectified by 
p, new form of calculation, the old method having been pursued 
hince Charles the First's time. 

Perhaps it is necessary for a maritime state to have a greater 
number of ships than are actually wanted for service in store, of 
which the three following plans are worth the attention of the 
Commissioners : — 

Fir.':t, — To build a greater number than maybe wanted, in time 
of peace ; as it is supposed the timber will keep in this state better 
than if exposed to the weather, either in a ship's frame, orseparatc 
pieces. The only disadvantage that may occur from this way is, 
that otlier powers, knowing wliat is done, would always be 
tempted to do the like. 

Sccoudlij, — To build a sutficient number of ships, and leave 
them on the stocks, covering thera with a thin shed of deal, as at 
Venice. 

Thirdl^j-rr-l'o have u number of ships cut out, their timbers, 
beams, &c. marked and numbered, and to remain in separate shids to 
season, so as to be put together whenever an emergency may hap- 
pen. This method appears the best, as it depends upon the 



\ 

FHILOSOPIIICAL PAPERS. 133 

abilities of a state to have whatever number of ships they may 
judge necessary, Avithout its being known to tlieir cnemitv:. 

The Seven United Provinces, in the 2enith of their glory, had 
always ten or twenty sail of the line in this state. 

Another plan is lilievvise worthy of some consideration, and 
that is, (whenever an emergency might render it necessary,) whe- 
ther upon a number of ships being laid down, and their moulds made, 
an intendant or sub-builder might not contract, in the neighbour- 
hood of any country port, with the common sawyers and work- 
men, for the timber necessary for the construction of a ship of 
•war, to be cjit out according (o the moulds, a sufficient number of 
which might be distributed to them, and afterwards brought to the 
port ready formed, and in condition to be put together. It is 
inconceivable how much time, carriage, work, and expense, might 
be saved by this way, and the common country workmen made 
use of, whom it has been thought impossible to make any use of. 
I do not sec why such a person may not saw or cut out a ship's 
timber, beam, or knee, as well as the best man in the world, when 
he has the mould before his eya marked and numbered, with the 
breadth, thickness, and length upon it. 

A number of shipwrights, assembled at the port, under the 
direction of an intendant or builder, would soon put the frame of 
the ship together, and finish it in a shorter time than in any other 
way whatever. And, by this method, it is in the power of 
Government to make use of the timber, shipwrights, and other 
workmen, at the country ports ; when, on the other hand, it is 
impossible to remove or collect them together elsewhere. What 
numerous situations do the coasts of Wales, the north of England, 
and Scotland, offer for such purposes ! 

Chips, V, hen they are necessaiily created, should be sold weekly 
or monthly, by public sale, and the money devoted to watching 
the yards, or any other useful purpose. A great quantity of tim- 
ber is cut away by the workmen of the yards to w aste, merely to 
make up a bundle of chips for each man employed in the yard, or 
in taking away suiall pieces that they may afterwards convert into 
ship trunnels, which are often sold at so much a dozen, or hun- 
dred, to the officers of the yard, or to merchant builders. 

How much better would it be to abolish these customs, and to 
allow- sixpence per day wages in lieu thereof; especially, as upon 
a calculation, it is acknowledged, that the quansity of timber cut 
to pieces for the above piirposcs, and carried away each day, 
amounts to near!)' as much as would buiid a sloop of war ! 



134 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS, 

[Continued from page 57.] 

i;2o. XV. 

A^ain the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown 'd. 

Falconea. 

NArvHATrVT OF THE WRECK 

OF 

HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP PORPOISE, 

LIEUTENANT ROBERT FO^VLER, COMMANDER, 

ON A REtF OF CORAI, IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN, AUGUST 17x11, 1803, 

And the subsequent Proceedings till the Arrived of the Creis at 

Canton ; ~,.:iih a little extraneous Matter relative to the Colonj/ 
of iYeu) South Wales. 

BY 0^^E OF»THE CREW. 

Ille salutiferam porrexit ab a?there dextram, 
Et me de rapidis per cuiitem bustulit undis. 

A PSALMIS BUCHAN, 

j-jT^APTAIN FLINDERS, M-ith a select portion of the ship's 
^^3^ company, attcndetlby Mr. Aken, the Master, and Mr, Char- 
rington, the Boatswain of the Investigator, went on board the Cum- 
bcrland, a schooner of the very moderate burden of twenty-five or 
twenty-seven tons ; and proceeded in her to the Mauritius, by way 
of Torres Straits ; with a view, I believe, of anticipating Palmer in 
the news of the wreck, and to prevent the spreading of t\\Q. reports 
which he must necessarily raise, by way of exculpating himself for 
his unprecedented, unfeeling behaviour, and which could hardly 
fail to bring a load of grief, and sorrow, on our friends and rela- 
tions ; under Avhich some of them might sink. Such were the 
motives of Captain Flinders ; and though, frum the great start of 
the Bridgewater before the Cumberland, he could not expect to 
prevent the promulgation of our misfortunes, yd he might be in 
time enough to obviate their dangerous tendency, and hinder them 
from taking deep root in the minds of the parents and other 
relatives of the suiTerers. After his arrival at the Mauritins, he 
was, agreeable to that Machiavelian policy, which has of late 
grown into a settled system among Frenchmen, detained by the 



CORRECT HELATION OF SHIPWREfCKS, 135 

Governor, on pretence of his being a spy; becausefwhcn entering 
Port Louis, he took soundings, as a measure of precaution ; but 
which was construed into a meaning consonant to those principles 
by which his own conduct was usually regulated ; for now adays, 
in Franco, it is customary never to act honourably, but by way of 
practising deceit*. He is now closely confined, and treated with 
a rigorous severity, highly disgraceful to a nation who has any 
pretensions to civilization or good faith. 

On the 10th of October, we set sail from the reef, in corrpany 
with the Cumberland, but made little or no progress that day. In 
the afternoon of the following, a fine breeze springing up, we 
parted company, each taking their respective course- We stood 
to the north-east, Avith a fine trade wind, and on the 13th pas^(;d 
Bampton's Shoal, Avhich, according to our reckoning, was very 
correct in its position on the charts. Nothing material happened 
till the 17th, when we passed Deliverance Isles, which are 
moderately high, and well covered with wood ; this day I entered 
my 24th year, and exceeded, by two months, what I bargained for 
on the 17th of August. On the 20th we passed to the eastward 
of a small woody isle, which is not laid down in any charts ; hence 
we reckoned it as hitherto unknown; the latitude of it is some- 
where about 8* 30' south, and long. 103° 34' east, by account. 
About midnight of the 25th, we passed a small island, which we 
supposed to be what is laid down as Pleasant Isle, and soon after 
crossed the Equator. Since our leaving the Porpoise's reef there 
had been no opportunities for astronomical observation, so that we 
went in a great measure by chance, (for the dead reckoning of a 
ship is very little to be counted on.) till the 30th, when by distances 
of the moon from Alpha Pegasi, in lat. 5° 41' north, the longitude 
of 169° 2 4' east was deduced ; which was exactly 5l' to the west- 
ward of our reckoning by account. The ship at that time bore 
due west from a clustc;' of low islands, at the distance of eight or 
ten mile-: ; which we supposed might be those called Biiriug's ; 
but there are so many islands in those seas, that it is hard to 
defermine. As the day was calm, several of our gentlemen were 
invited thereby to visit them ; but on their approach to the shore, 
they found such a higli surf, as to prevent the accomplishing of 
their design, and they were obliged to come back, contented with 
a sight of them. They were very low, of a corally base, and 

• Captain Bergeret is an exception to the general rule, aad has to 
Captain Fliade.-= acted a !ii-hly honourable part. 



135 connT-'T ret.atiov or shipwrecks. 

though uninhabited, pretty perfect r.\ their formation ; for they 
were thiclvly covered -with ■wood, Mhich, to appearance, was prin- 
cipally of the palm kind, affording shelter to myriads of birds of 
the parrot species, and there were marks every where of luxuriant 
vegetation. The late discoveries in chemistry have furnished us 
with the means of ascertaining, among all other things, that coral 
is fully saturated with the chief food and nutriment of the vege- 
table world ; hence the wonder ceases, why these coral banks, 
when once reared above water, so soon acquire plants and soil. 
What we most Monder at is, that a cluster of sequestered islands, 
in the middle of the ocean, which, possibly, fifty years back were 
not above water, should produce many of the indigenous plants of 
the parallels of latitude under which they themselves are placed. 
Lunar observation on the 4th of November, indicated a strong 
current easterly : our longitude, tliisday at noon, in lat. 0° 53' N., 
was 1G9° 37' E., and 1° 37' to the eastward of that, by account.. 
On the 6th at noon, a low groupe of islands, which we had every 
reason to believe were the muskitto groupe of the Royal Admiral, 
East India ship, Captain Bond, bore iV.\\\, distant three or four 
miles. The latitude of their southern extreme, by meridional 
altitude of the sun's lower, and complementary altitude of his 
upper limb, was 7** 19' N. Wc had this day no distances of the 
sun and moon, but on the following, were fortunate enough to 
get several very good sights : which, when carried back to the 
noon of the preceding day, made the longitude of that part of the 
groupe, in conjunction with the observations of the 4th, brought 
forward, IGS*^ 36' E. These islands are excessively low, but well 
peopled ; and if we might be permitted to form a judgment from 
the plump appearance of the inhabitants, are not deficient in the 
good things of this life. The men are muscular, and well made, 
rather above, than below the middle size, of a dark copper, or 
olive colour, -with regular animated features, fine teeth, and long 
black hair. All of them were tattooed on the breast, and on the 
belly, in a fanciful way. The outline resembled a pair of cones, 
^^•hose api'jos joined at the middle of the body, tlie base of each 
being on the top of the breast and bottom of the belly. Within 
the line, there were fine checkered divisions, executed with much 
regularity and neatness. They had a piece of shell, in the shape 
of a gorget, over those places which modesty teaches us to conceal, 
and none of thorn had any beard ; but whether this was a natural 
deficiencj', or the consequence oLshaving, we could not observe. 
They came olfiii canoes, widiout any syn)ptoms of distrustj and 



con.nF.cT nEi.ATio.v of shipwkecks. 137 

exchanged, alongside, their different articles of traffick, for iron, 
with which thvy seemed perfectly acquainted, and showed a pre- 
dilection for it to every other thing. What they brought along 
with them was cliietiy a kind of mats, square in their form, neat in 
the workmanship, but not larcer than a napkin, and evidently 
made from the leaves of sotne kind of palm. They had contrived 
to dye of a black colour, the fibres forming the mirgin, which had 
a good cifect ; but from the size, we could form no notion to what 
uses they were applied. Besides these, they had a few cocoa nuts, 
and a sour, spongy, ill flavour;'d I'ruit, -vv ith a farinaceous sort of 
substance, made up in great rolls like a pine apple cheese; which 
We supposed to be the bread fruit prepared in some peculiar way ; 
but it was by no means palatable, and therefore not much pur- 
chased. 

The breeze being fresh, our interview was transitory, and served 
only to give us a glance of these islanders ; during our short in- 
tercourse among them, however, We saw nothing in the shape of 
arms. From the little we beheld, Me concluded them to be of the 
same race, and of the same mild disposition, with the people of the 
Society and Friendly Islands. Their canoes were long and nar- 
row, with a rudder at each end, a stage and out-riggers in the 
middle, as also a mast with a lugsail, so centrally placed, and sa 
conveniently rigged, that when beating to windward, they lost no 
ground in tacking. Instead of putting their vessel about, they 
carried the sheet of the sail over to windward, and hooked it down 
as a tack, hauling aft as a sheet to leeward at the same time what 
was the tack, while a hand stationed at the opposite rudder, brought 
her to the wind without loss of grouiid or time, and she set out 
forthwith in the opposite direction with great velocity. The inge- 
nuity displayed in the structure a.;,d management of their canoes, 
as well as the plump and healthy looks of the inhabitants, left us 
no room to doubt, but that the earth spontaneously produced all 
the necessaries of life, and allowed a free exercise of their talents, 
in cultivating the arts with Avhich they were acquainted, beyond 
the mere boundaries of utility. Necessity, though the mother of 
invention, seeks at nothing more than the adaptation of means for 
satisfying her »»ants. She is contented with, putting info the hands 
of the needy savage, a rude unformed club, or a wooden spear, 
•with which he makes shift to protect himself, and obtain his prey: 
but he has possibly such dilliculty in acco!n[)liihing his purpose, 
that no leisure is left him for polishing his weapons. Where nature 
is' benelicent in her gifts, and showers down on him her blessings, 

/^ati. eihron. SJoI.XVlI. x 



138 COKRECT KKMilON Oi SHITVEIXai. 

he then aims at a higher end ; and his -vveopons, besides being in- 
ti'udod for use, are ornamented, and embellished, so as to be plea- 
sing to the eye, and llatteriiig to the iancy. 

Thongli these men displayed much taste and ingenuity in their 
canoes, and mats, and personal ornaments, yet they seemed far in- 
ferior to the 'Taheiteans, in point of knowledge in the arts. They 
were entirely naked, and had nothing for market but what has 
been already mentione;!, which they barlered for iron. 

It may here admit of doubt, whether they liave the same mate- 
rials to work on, as their neighl)()nrs at the Society and Friendly 
Islands. 1 strongly suspect tiiey have neither the hog, nor the 
fowl ; for such saleable articles could hardly have failed being in 
their canoes, if the island had afforded them. Though deficient 
in these, yet they had access to the vast storehouse of the deep; 
which, with a profusion ol' fruils, and vegetables, acquired without 
the labour of husbandry, was perfectly favourable to the exertion 
of their mental faculties, whose power we saw put forth to advan- 
tage, in the structure and dexterous management of their canoes. 

Scarce any thing so far surpasses the reach of our understanding, 
as to account for the mode in which these men must have migrated 
thither, and to the other Islands in the Pacilick. The quarter from 
■whence we should naturally expect them, is America. 

By putting before the trade wind, they, without knowledge of 
navigation, might have reached some of the clusters of Islands, 
and scattered themselves, afterwards, over an extensive surface. 
So many, and such strong objections militate against this, that 
few, very fcv consider them of American origin, unless we were 
to suppcjse that conlincnt (o have contained a primitive race of 
men, w liich n.ight have been displaced by it's present inhabitants ; 
for 1 think they are, beyond the possibility of doubt, sprung from 
one root, and that, too, Asiatick. Such a perfect concurrence in 
the manners and customs over the whole confinent of America, 
and such a striking resemblance of feature to some of those tribes 
in the north east of Tartary, naturally lead to such a conclusion. 

I have been told, that a philosopher in America, who, no doubt, 
is deeply read in conim.Tcial ma'tiMS, has ventured to suggest, that 
his own country did not receive it> inhabitants from Asia, but, ou 
the contrary, that continent vvas peophd from America. 

Qui vai lure ciipit rem ]>rudigiiilitcr iinam^ De/phi/nim .^i/!vii 
appingit-Jluctibus api'iaii, 1 gready venerate this gentlen;an A>r 
his opinion, beciuse it citincivies exactly with that oi u'y n)aiJcii 
graud-aat iMargery ; au admirable womau, of immense erudition. 



CORRTXT RKL.VTION OF SIIII'WRECKS. 139 

and indefatigable research ; who, with a becoming, and inflexible 
obstinacy, maintained, in spite of reason and common sense, that 
the Ili;j,hlands of Scotland were the centre from whence all the 
Celtic nations emanated ; and, when in a merry humour, she wonld 
soin. times ])ieasantly say, "no wonder the Celts were a {^roat 
people, seeing they were so highly bred." lint while, on the one 
hand, we see the most perfect resemblance among the whole of the 
natives of America,- tiiere is not the most distant trace of lilieness 
betwixt them and the Pacilick islander. Tiiongh they may vary 
much in their manners and customs among each other, yet is there 
an aOinity of feature, and of shape, (with the cxceplion of the New 
Hebrides,) pervading the whole of the inhabitants of the Pacilick 
Ocean, that warrants the assertion, of their being of one commort 
origin; and this striking resemblance can be traced to a source 
dilficult to be reconciled with their j)osition on the g!o!)c, and as 
remote from probability as the first supposition. There is a per- 
fect likeness betwixt them and the Malays, with the exception of 
stj^ture and muscularity, in w hich the latter have the disadvantage ; 
but the same colour, shape, and countenance, are common to both; 
insomach, that if tjje trade winds were westerly, wc should not he- 
sitate in sayiag, they were of JNlalay descent. Situated as they 
are, at a great distance from any Malay island, and directly to 
■windward, this i^ absolutely inadmissible, unless we si!])po.se, that 
at some very early period, they had been intimate wiih the art of ' 
navigation, and that since their departure from the sulu/it ntUalc^ 
they have dwindled into a state of primitive simplicity. 

The subject is so intricate, and involved, that it cannot be un- 
ravelled by the most abstruse speculations of philosophy ; for on 
every side we meet with such irreconcjleable contradictions, that 
Ave are almost induced to believe, where Ciod Almighty has thought 
pro])er to form islands fftted for the rec; ption of human biings, 
there has he formed man also. This, like all other vague conjec- 
tures, is liable to the strongest objections ; and non.' more >o, sure, 
ly, than to see, besides similarity of aspect, a sameness even in the 
language of all the islands ; which it is not likely could have taken 
pbcu, but by intercourse with each other. But again, it may be 
urged, how come the natives of the New Hebrides to deviate in 
features, shape, and manners, from the other islands ? Whence do 
they derive their origin ? This brings ns back to the goal from 
whence we started, and we arc lost in amazement, when we con- 
teijiplate the variety of stamps affixed to the human frame. Many 
fiave alledgcd climate, and habitude of living, to be the cause, ngt 



14f> NATAL I-ITERAXrnE. 

only of this difference, but of the ditfcrcnce of colour. Tho^igh 
tills opinion may hold with resipect to feature, obserTation has 
proved it absurd, and erroneous, in respect to colour. According 
to thi<; theory, we should find near the equator, people of the 
darkest hue ; and in proportion as we receded north, and south, 
have the shades lighter andlightor, till our arrival nt the temperate 
zones : when all would be reducible to a commoa medium of 
fairness. 

[To Ije continued.] 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Mffnioirs of ike Rue and Progi^ess of the Roiial Navy. Bi^ 
Charles Dkkiiick, Er,q. of the Navy Ojficc. 4to. 

"^T^THEN we take up a book, it is a material point, imme- 
^ ^ diately to ascertain w hat may be the author's object and 
design. Previously to our perusal of the preface to the work 
before v.s, we expected, uotN\ ithstanding the modesty of its title, 
to be entertained with a compact history of the civil and mili- 
tary affairs of tlie Royal Navy. Nothing, however, could be 
more foreign from the plan of ]Mr. Derrick. '^ My principal 
object," says he, '^ has been to show the state of the Navy, as 
to the number, tonnage^ &LC. of the several classes of the ships 
and vessels at diiterent periods ; when the naval force was }>ro- 
moted, ueglecled — or, at least, not augmented ; and at what 
periods improvements in ship-building were introduced into it." 
We are certainly thankful to ^\r. Derrick, for the information 
which he has afforded, as it will materialiy facilitate the labour.^ 
of the future liistorian ; but^ as his " Memoirs" cuoimence 
only from the reig-i of lleniy the Vllth, we. should have been 
more gratified, had he prefixed a brief sketch of our naval pro- 
gress — if not from the period when the Britons are said to 
have accompanied tlic Cimbrians and Gauls upon an expedition 
to Greece, at leaf;t from the time uhen our Island was in the 
popsession of the Romans, or from the reign of the innnortai 
AUVed. This has indiied been c^one, by Entick, Campbell, an4 
fttijer naval historians ; yet a compressed view of the subjt.ct 



N.WAI. LXTFRATURE. Ml 

would liavc been higlily acceptable in this place, as fuinislung 
a briliiant testimony of what stupendous mouinnents luay arise 
from the luuublcst foundations. 

Without pretending, however, to censure Mr, Derrick, for tlie 
omission of .what evidently formed no part of liis plan, we sliall 
proceed to exhii>it such a summary of liis work, as ma/ 
enable the reader to form a tolerably correct estimate of its 
merit. 

First, we premise, that it is dedicated, in very handsome terms, 
" To the Ri<ynt Honourable Charles, Lord Barhaf/i,''' late First 
Lord of the Admiralty. 

Henry the Vllth built the iii'st large ship, called the Great 
ilarri/, which cu&t him about 14,000/. This ship was acci- 
dentally burnt at Woolwich, in the year 1555. liem-y the 
Vlllth, in w hose reign the sea service became a distinct and re- 
gular profession, materially increased the Royal Navy, which, at 
his death, consisted of from 10,550 to 12,455 tons. At the 
close of the short reign of Edward the Vlth, the tonnage ap- 
pears to have somewhat decreased : the total number of ^hips, 
gallies, pinnaces, and row-bargei;, at tliat period, was 53, only 
28 of which were above 80 tons. At the death of Queen 
Mary, in 1558, the number of ships and vessels was reduced to 
Cf) or 27, and the tonnage to about 7110 tons. The enter- 
prising genius of Elizabeth raised the British Navy from this 
deplorable state ; during the last iive-and-tvventy years of her 
life, she almost doubled its force; aiul, at her death, L^he leit 4'2 
ships, comprising I 7,055 tons, arid employing 834(3 men. Ju 
the reign of Queen Mary, it was computed that, after 14,000/. 
had been applied to the use of the fleet, for repairing and vic- 
tualling, 10,000/. per annum would answ er all necessary charges ; 
but, in Elizabeth's time, the expense of the navy was estimated 
at 30,000/. a year. In the peaceable reign of James the Ist, 
14 ships were added to the Royal Navy, beside fiom three to 
five tliat were rebuilt ; and the increase of tonnage, fi om iliC 
death of Elizabeth, was about 2345 tons : the nmnber of ships, 
however^ upon the whole, had decreased from 9 to 11. la the 



142 NATAL LITERATURE. 

year I5l6, King James issued a Proclamation, forbidding any 
English subject to export or import goods in any but English 
bottoms; the good eftects of which were soon experienced^ as 
it occasioned much larger ships to be built for the merchants* 
service, and also a great increase of trade. Charles the 1st 
built at least 22 ships and vessels. At the death of Cromwell, 
in 1658, there were 157 ships, carrying 4390 guns, and 21,910 
men; exclusive of guns and men for four ships which were 
building. Cromwell obtained an annual grant of 400,000/. for 
the expenses of the navy. From the year l660, to l670, the 
charge of the navy never amounted to less than 500,000/. a year. 
In 1677, the sum of 586,000/. was voted for building 30 ships ; 
i)00,000/. having been previously voted, in 1(J75, also for the 
purpose of building. Notwithstanding these grants, the navy 
greatly dechned during the reign of Charles the lid ; though, at 
the decease of that Monarch, in lG85,in consequence of the 30 
new ships which had been built, its total number of ships was 
17 D, bearing 103,558 tons. Some very effective measures were 
adopted, for the repairs of the navy, whilst James the lid occu- 
pied the throne ; nevertheless, at the period of his abdication, 
there was a decrease of six ships. In the second year of Wiiliara 
the Illd, an act was passed for building 30 more ships : 1 7^ of 
about 1100 tons each, to carry 80 guns ; 3, of 1050 tons, to 
carry 70 guns; and 10, of 9OO tons, to carry 60 guns. In the 
course of the war, which began in 1689 and ended in 1 697, 
50 ships, carrying 1112 gims, were taken by the enemy, beside 
several that were lost by accident ; yet, at the latter period, the 
King asserted, in his Speech from the Throne, that the naval 
force of the kingdom had been increased to nearly double what 
it was at his accession. The total was 323 ships ; and, at the 
dose of IG98, several vessels having been disposed of at the end 
of the war, the number was 266. This increase was in part 
owing to the number of ships which had been taken from the 
French. At the death of King William, in 1702, the number 
of ships was 272; that of tons, 159j.020; being an increase, in 
his reign, of 99 ships, and 57^128 tons. The nuaubei of ships 



NATAL LIXnUATL'RE. 143 

fluctuated in the time of Queen Anne ; and^ at her decease, there 
was a decrease of 25 ships, though an increase of 8199 tons. 
The number of ships also decreased during the reign of George 
the tst; but, in consequence of their enlarged size, the tonnage 
increased. At iiis death, there were 23o ships, bearing 170_,862 ■ 
tons. In 1730, there were 238 ships; in 1742, 271; at tlie 
end of 1744, 302; at the end of 1748, 334; at the beginning 
of 1750, 282 ; at the beginning of 1753, 291 ; at the beginning 
of 1756, 320; and, at the death of George the lid, in 17GO, 
412. Of this grand total, consisting of 321,104 tons, 127 were 
ships of the line, and 285 of 50 guns and under. Ilius, at the 
conimcncement of the present reign, our navy was in the most 
flourishing state ever known. By the latter end of 1762, the 
number of ships had increased to 432. From the yc^r 1755, 
to 1762, inclusive, 200,000/. had been annually voted for tlie 
building and repairing of ships ; but, in the preceding war, no 
money had ever been voted for those services. Twenty-six sail 
of the line, and 82 smaller ships and vessels, were built in mer- 
chants' yards in the course of the war, wliich ended in 1762, or 
were building in those yards at that time : and 24 sail of the line, 
and 12 smaller ships, were launched in the King's yards, be- 
tween the declaration of war in 1756, and the proclamation of 
peace in 1763. — After the end of the war, the navy was of 
course considerably reduced, but chict^y in the small ships and 
vessels. At the commencement of the American war, in 1775> 
we had 340 ships; in 1777, we had 396; and in 1778, 450; 
of which 131 were of the line. At the general peace, in 1783, 
we had 6l7 ships, of which 174 were of the line: their toiuiage 
was estimated at 500,781 tons. 

Having brought his tables down thus far, ]Mr. Derrick 
says : — 

It will now be proper to take notice of two regiilafions that 
were adopted, or greatly improved, by the Navy Board, after 
the war, which cannot fail of being emioently useful at all 
ti'nes. 

1st. — Respecting furniture and stores, appropriited aad laid 
apart for ships in ordinary. 



I)AVAL LITKRATUllE. 

The forrher directions on this su])ject having 'been found tod 
general, and the provisions of stores and furniture too limited, to 
answer effectually the intended purpose, the Board now laid down 
the most particular rules about the articles li)at were from that 
time to be set apart for the respective classes and descriptions of 
ships, in order (hat each individual ship, by the time she should be 
built, or put into good condition, might in future have a large 
proportion of the material parts of her furniture and stores ia 
readiness, and distinctly laid apart for her; so that the remainder 
might Jiot require more time to provide, than the necessary time 
for her equipment would very well adn^it of, however short that 
might be. Dispatch in issuing the furniture and stores, and also 
correctness, must of necessity have resulted from this improved 
plan, in addition to the other great advantages. 

2dly. — The second regulation above alluded to, was that of 
an establishment of stores, of a great variety of species, for the 
general magazines, at each of the dock-yards, and also at the se- 
Teral other naval stations, both at home and abroad. 

This was truly an original and great plan*, no idea of the kind 
having probably been ever entertained at any former period. It 
was suggested, no doubt, in some measure, by the dillicalties tlie 
Board had experienced in procuring certain articles, and the high 
prices paid for others, during the war; but the same must have 
been the case, in a: greater or less degree, in most of the preceding 
wars. These evils, it- was theret'ore highly necessary to guard 
against, as far as might be practicable, and consistent with sound 
economy, before another war should take place. In conformity 
to which plan, the said establishments consist of specific quantities 
of^ll the principal, and many inferior articles of naval stores, at 
the several dock-yards, and also at the other naval stations, so far 
as the nature of tliii service of those stations requires. The quan- 
tities o' those species of stores which are not of a perishable na- 
ture, and of tho :c which cannot be readily obtained in a time of 
emergency, are calculated to last for a considerable period, even in 
time of war; and they are kept up by means of the annual or oc- 
casional contracts. The almost -necessary result of this plan has 
been the preventing of unnecessary or improper accumulations of 
any stores in the magazines, for so long a time, as to occasion their 
receiving injury by lying too long in them, which is a matter 

* It originated enttrely with Sir Cliarles I\Iidiiifton, (now Lurd Barhaui,) 
tbeii Cotiiptrollcr of the N" uvv. 



NAVAL LITEIIATURE. 145 

■of great consequence, in such extensive concerns. Many other 
lasting good efffcts have also been produced by the measure 
in question, which it is not necessary here to notice ; neither 
could some of them be explain^^d so as to be generally com- 
prehended. 

After the peace of ITS.", all the artificers were retained in the 
<lock-yards, and employed extra time, even in the winter months, 
instead of being discharged, as had been the case at the close of 
former wars. About this time, the mode of working by job was 
also introduced, which much facilitated the operations. — By the 
]st of January, 1790, in consequence of the extraordinary exer- 
tions which had been made, the condition of our ships had 
approached nearer to a state of perfection thim at any former 
period: ihcir nuraljcrs were — of the line, 140; of 52 guns aiid 
under, including the smallest class, 332; making a total of 
478. 

At the close of I7;}2, just before ilie late war commenced, 
the stores in liund, at the respective deck-yards, were valued at 
l,812,9S2l.; a circumstance t.'nlireiy owing to the wise regula- 
tions which we liave already noticed. i\s soon as it was deter- 
mined to arm, the most vigorous measures were adopted by go- 
vernment ; and so rapidly did tiie equipment of ships proceed, 
'' that; at the end of nine months, there were 60 sail of the line 
in commission, as ships of war, and 74 of 50 guns and under, 
"exclusive of sloops and small vessels, more than at the beginning 
of that period ; a degree of dispatch almost astonishing, as no- 
thing to be compared with it hud ever been done in any former 
war." — In the comse of 1793, the navy was increased, as to fri- 
gates and smaller vessels ; and, on the 1st of September, in that 
year, the total number o.^ shi)>s was 498 ; bearing a tonnage of 
435,22(3 tons. On the 1st of January, 1795, the number of 
our ships Mas, 599; on the 1st of Jinutary, 1797, 691 ; on the 
1st of January, 1799, 803 ; and, at the signing of the prelimi- 
r.aries of peace, on the l;;t of October, 1801, the number had 
increased to 8()4. Out of these, 703 Mere in commission; con- 
sisting of 144 of the line, aijd di^v.n to J4 gun-ships, inclusive ^ 



116 » NAVAL LITKRATLRE. 

242 50 ^nd 44 gun-ships and frigates; and 317 sloopS;, Inred 
arnudMliips, &.c. At the close of the war, in October, 1801, 
we had 247 more ships, than at the close of the preceduig war 
in 1783. 

At the recommencement of hostilities, in May, 1803, we 
had 770 ships; on the 1st of January, 1805, 949; of wliich, 
on the 1st of October, in the hitter year, 6'98 were in com- 
mission. 

In perusing !Mr. Derrick's very laudable performance, we 
have thus abstracted a sort of liistorical view of the rise, pro- 
gress, and ahiiost astonishing increase of the Royal Navy, as far 
as relates to its numbers, and to the rise of its ships. Mr. 
Derrick's work, as must be evident from the abstract which we 
have presented, consists chiefly of tables, drawn up fromanthcu- 
li." documents, to which the autiior has obtained access. Many 
of these tables relate to subjects which we have not immediately 
thought it requisite to liotice ; but which, as we have already 
observed, will be found gready to facilitate the labours of the 
future historian. — x\t a future period. Me shall occasionally in- 
troduce some of his statements into the misceliaueous department 
of the Naval Chuonicle. 



The heart's rcniote recesses to explore, 

And touch its Springs, when Prose availM no more. 

I'alconi'.r. 



MIJ. EDITOH, 

TilH'j following Song and Introductory Letter, by Ricltard 
Ivovat, an Armourer's Mate, was, as I well remuinber, sent 
to the latii Admiral Lord Nelson. Yours. .Sec. 

BLRGOO. 

SIR,. Tu Captain 2[i//cr. 

I hope you will pnnlon my prcsiiniptii)n in presenting vou with the fol- 
lowing .Song, whicli I made in memory oi' the c-n^notnicut with the French 
on the 14th of Miirch. I have nothing to say in its favour; it is the j ro^ 
duction oi' a poor unpolished i'eliow, who has nothing; to rcc»iiin;end hiin te 
your favour, Lut loyulty. to iiij lii-uE, and affc^iliuu to ins Country. 

RICHARD I.O^'AT, 

v\ran(i!rtr*s j\i«ce. 



NATAL rOKTRV. 



I. 



AV> AKE my musp, assist mylvro, 
INIy feeble untuii"d tongue inspire, 

To sing a glorious Deed. 
I[ow gallant Horn AM did defeat 
The French, and made them to retreat 

AVith niiiiijie-fooled speed. 

II. 

As in Leghorn \vc quiet lay, 
Report camp in, and thus did say, 

" Hiitannia's Sons give ear! 
The French whom }oii've so often beat, 
The object of your Country's hate, 

OiY Corsica appear," 

III: 

" Then weigh your anchors Boys with care, 
And every culverin prepare, 

Proud Gallia's Sons to fight: 
Re brisk, my Lads ! make no delay, 
Your Country c^Hs I all hearts obey ; 

You fight for England's Right.'' 

IV. 

All heard, and instantly obey'd, 
Our high and lofty wings we spread, 

And steadily we stccr'd : 
For many days no fleet was seen, 
And all had sickeu'd with the spleen, 

When, lo ! the French appear'd. 



V. 



Immediate thunder roar'd arouHd, 
And soon o'er all the dread profound 

The smoky volumes rise ; 
The streaming harbinger of Death, 
The vivid liame, is seen beneath, 

As 'fore the balls it flies. 



X48 KATAL POETRT> 



VT. 

No ship attempts to mm away, 
Since all were anxious for to sta,}', 

And humble hauglity France: 
Destruction spreads on ev'ry side, 
Whilst boldly o'er the swelling tide,. 

Britannia's sons advance. 

VII. 

Stout, valiant, rpsolute, and brave,. 
Do Olficers and Men behave. 

Strangers alike to fear : 
}.t was their heart and souls' desire, 
To mins;le in the thickest fire, 
And each proud foe to near. 

VIII. 

, Th' Illustrions, and the Courageux, 
Le Ca-ira, and Censeur too, 

Four dismal wrecks display ; 
Anil British Tars witfi due renown, 
Made Frenchmen haul their colours down^ 

For they had lost the day. 

IX. 

Two wc secnr'd : and soon the beat 
Of Drums did sound* a quick retreat, 

T!)rougho(;t oi\i dasta' d foe: 
Then fill the cann, and raise the song, 
Mfi?/ Heaven our Cou-ntnf.s pozcer juoiofig^ 

And capsutd Fi ance lai) loxv. 



* I urn sensiljle to talk of soundrig a d urn is recl^oncd hud English ; l.ut 
I am of a confraiv opinion, and think it altogether as >;0')d, a^ to sav thx 
drum beats. It is the man tiut be.its. the diuru, but 'tis liie drum th-At 
sounds. " li. L. 



NAVAL POKTRY. 149 

MARY ISIARTON. 

A BALLAD. 

BY 30n\ MAYNE. 
I. 

FO Oil WiM.iAM Avas landed at bonny Dumbarton, 
Where the streams from F.ochlomond run into the sea: 
At home, in sweet Ireland, he b'ft Mary MAUTO>f, 
Witli a child at her foot, and a babe on her knee. 
The Regiment march'd off when the passage was over ; 

The route was for England, by land all the way; 
No, never to halt ; but, at llanisgate or Dover, 

Embark in the vessels that were in the Bay. ^^ 

n. 

Fond Mary, the while, in lu^r spirit quite brol;en, 

Disturb'd in her sleep, and perplex'd in her mi.id, 
No letter from William, no tidiiiijs, no token, 

Resolv'd, at all hazards, her Hero to find. 
O ! what, in this world, can deter a true Lover? 

It is not long journies by land or by sea : 
*Twecn hope and despair, in a boat without cover, ' 

She cross'd to Port Patrick from Donaghadee I 

III. 

The Irish are trua to Humanity's claims. 

And the Scots and the English are never unkind; 
Poor MAuy found friends from the Ooync to the Thames, 

As she trudg'd vvitli her babes in a wallet behind! 
Arriv'd at the Coast— by her sorrowful tale, 

Slie soften'd the Captain to let her on board ; 
Ami never, O! never, did Mariner sail 

Wilh a couple like William to Mauy restoi'j ! 

IV. 
^lVh|'n he prcss'd to his bosom his infants and wife, 

The Sdilors gave way to a tear, and no more ; 
The Soldiers danc'd round to the drum and the fife, 

And plaudits were heard from the people on shore ; 
Then away went the fleet— and, sailing with glee, 

May Giory, in battle, be ever at hand ; 
May Britons live happy , united, and free, 

Supreme on the Ocean, unconquer'd by Land! 
Sttturd^, August 23, 1806. 



1.50 



NAVAL HISTORY 01'" THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807, 

(Januarj/ — Februarij.) 

RETROSPECTIVE AND ftllSCELLANEOUS. 



Admirals, &c. in Commission, with their Sechetaries and Stations. 

Those with a * are Commanders in Chief. 

• \ DMIRAL Earl St. Vincent . , Channel Fleet, 

-^^^ *A{liniral Lord Gardner . . John Pay, Esq. Cork. 

*Admiral G. Montague, Esq. . . N. P. Rothery, Esq, Portsmouth. 

♦Admiral Lord Keith, K^B. . . . Nic. Brown, Esq. Downs. 

*Adrairal W. Young, Esq. .... W. Smith, Esq. Plymouth. 

Vicc-Admiral Sir Cha. Cotton, Bt. , Channel Fleet. 

Tice-Admiral John Holloway, Esq. , Esq. Downs. 

^ Vice-Adiniral Lord Collingwood, W. R. Cosway, Esq. Spainand Gib. 

Vice Admiral Sir J. T. Duckworth, Robert Sconce, Esq. Off Cadiz. 

*Vicc- Admiral J. R. Dacves, Esq. James Baikie, Esq. Jamaica. 

■»Vice-Admiral Hon. G. Berkeley, C. Williams, Esq. Halifax Stat. 

*Vice-Adniiral B. S. Rowley, Esq. , Esq. Nore. 

*Vicc-AdrairaI T. M. Russel, Esq. G. Guy, jun. Esq. North Sea. 

"Vice- Admiral lion. IT. E. Stanhope P. C. Le Geyt, Esq. Woolwich. 



Vicc-Admiral B. Douglas, Esq. . . 
*Rear-Admiral James Vashon, Esq. 
* Rear- Admiral Sir E. Pellew, Bart. 
K&ar-Admira! Sir Isaac Cofiia. . . 
Rear-Admiral J. C. Purvis, Esq. . 

Rear- Admiral G. Murray 

Rear-Admiral J. Sutton, Esq. 



T. Alldridge, Esq. Yarmouth Roads. 

D. K. Whytt, Leith Roads. 

E. H. Locker, East Indies. 

J. S. Hulbcrt, Esq. Portsmouth. 
G. Hayward, Esq. Ofif Cadiz. 

, Foreign Service. 

-, Plymouth. 



*Rcar-Ad.Hon. Sir A. Cochrane,Bt. J. S. Tracey, Esq. Leeward Islands. 



*Rcar-Adm. SirT. Troubridge, Bt. 
Rear-Admiral C. Stirling, Esq. . . 
Rear-Admiial Thomas Louis, Esq. 



J. C. Harvey, Esq. East-Indies. 
— Railton, Esq. Cape of G. Hop*?. 
Tho. Robertson, Esq, Mediterra- 
nean. 

« , Foreign Service, 

■ , Mediterranean. 



I?ear-A(!m. Sir R. J. Strachan, Bt. < 

K ear- Admiral Sir VV. Smith. . . . . 

Rear-Admiral E. Harvey R. Bromley. Esq. Off Cape Fin. 

Kear-Admiral Sir E. Xaglc , Guernsey Stat. 

Cairtuiodore tir Samuel Hood ... J. H. Clewlow, Esq. Secret and de- 
tached Service. 

- THE BRITISH NAVY. 

*. rrordiag to fhe last returns, there are now in commission 764 shrf»s, 
ci which 134 ai-e of the line, 13 from 50 to 44 guns, 168 frigates, 190 
«'.of;ps, and 264 brigs and lesser vessels. 

if any tiling were wanting to prove that littleness of mind which is 
^r> visible ill ail the actions of our invoJcrato enemy, the wonder workirig 
Corsican, it is the following strange and blasphemoussubterfuge, by which, 
i■^^f a sf-asoa, he keeps his wretched .^laves in ignorance of the resistance 
and \ncsc% \ic has evp**! ien'-ed in his present Campaign. Instead of rt-a- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESCNT YEAR, 1807. 151 

derino- justice to t)ici valour of his opponents, as a noble minded Soklier 
would have done, lie endeavours, by \aiii and lyintj Bulletins, to asperse 
the high spirit of the Russian forces — and then comtnands liis abject 
Priests of Paris to chant a solemn Te Dcum for his Victories. 

Paris, Jan. 22. - 
His Majesty the Emperor and Kin^, to the Bishops of the Empirc. 

" MONS. l'eVKQUE, of . 

" The new successes which our armies liave gained on tljc Banks of 
the Bu"" and the Narev/, •w'jcre, in five dnys t'ley routed the liussian 
army, took its artillrry, baggage, and a groat number of prisoners, and 
obliged it to evacuate ail the important posts in which it was intrenched, 
induce us to desire, that our people would offer up thanks to Heaven, 
in order that it may continue to be favourable to us, and that tlie God 
of Armies may second our just enterjH-izes, the object of which is to 
procure for our people a solid and lasting peace, v.hicii the genius of 
evil may not disturb. This i^etter being for no other purpose, we intreat 
God, Mons. I'Eveijne, to keep you in his lioiy protection. 

'* From our Imperial Camp at Pultusk, Dec. .'il, 1806. 

(f-igncd) *' NAPOr.F.OV. 

The Minister of Worship, " PORTALIS-"' 

jnenin2;son, to wliom the ciinnnand of the K.ii'^siiui aiiiiy ha'^ been i:i\fn, 
in couse(|uence of the advanced age of Kiuuinslvoy, is by birth a lltuio- 
verian ; but such is tiie enthusiasm for Britain in lltissui, that the jjtople 
persist in calling him an Englishman. 

The Cossacks particularly signalize ihcmsclves. Tlicir general orders 
from Kamuiskoy are, to rush, venire a lirrr, iiuu t!ie very heart (jf ilia 
French artillery. It \v;is this artillery which annoyed the Russians so 
dreadfully at Austeriitz; but we trust the Cossacks and Bashkcrs wili 
prove an overmatch for it; in which case, Kaminskoy has declnrcd he 
will answer fur the success of the war, siucc our infantry is decidedl/ 
superior. 

" BuonaparKi's Spies appear to have been as unsuccessful as his sol- 
diers. When Kanunskoy was at Grodno, one of these pretending to be 
a Prussian General, brouglit a letter, signed apparently by ILs Prussian 
Majesty, Hud requesting a contideulial CDniraunication ol' ;he irUended 
route of the Russian forces. The sagacious veteran instantly peneimted 
the fraud. Two Cossacks stripped the wretch, and, after a.hninibtering la 
him some salutary correction, Kaminskoy ordered him to return to Buu» 
napart<^, and to show bini on his back the route of the Russian army. 

We have thus deviared a little from our general plan, ia orilt r to paj 
some attention to those military proceediu!:s, whit h wili probably dcc^ae 
the f.'ite of the War. 

Of General Befiing'-'en, but little is known. He- is nbout forty yc:ir ; ■■.■X 
age; but the ability which he certninly displayed in the affair of cl*s 
2t)lh December, in repelhnsf, and eticcti.ig his retreat Uom an army of hi;. - 
rior force, commanded by rsapoleon in person, has added a lustre to his 
character that deinunds our couiidence, and offers n fa';- prospect ty fci* 
fuluro fume. 



152 NAVAL HISTORV OF THE PilESEXT YEAR, 1807. 

The force of the French army is immense, and, from the last accounts, 
may be estimated, on the. 1st of January, at 200,000 men; of uliicb 
170,000 were native Frenchmen: since that period reiaforcemeiits have 
been marching to it from all quarters, from France, Holland, Bavaria, and 
from the Confederation Coiitin<i:cnts. To suclf an extent has this beer; car- 
ried, that a body of Spanish infantry and cavalry have been actually hold in 
readiness to marcli from Spain, to garrison the adjoining sea-ports of 
France. 

The force of the er.emy is, therefore, not over-rated when we suppose him 
about to commence tlie ensuing campaign with an array of 350,000 fighting 
men, commanded by able otScers, and determined to maintain that supe- 
riority they have acquired during a long trial of seventeen years of various 
and bloody warfare. 

The force of Russia docs not amount to a regular army of 403,000 
fighting men, and she has a large frontier to defeiid, liearly the whole of 
which is threatened, from the Caspian Sea to the Baltic. 

France, on the other hand, has no frontier to !;u.ard, and she exhibits tiic 
singular spectacle to astonished Europe of the wliole army of a country com- 
mencing a campaign at a distance of 000 miles from its own boundary. 

It has been thoau,ht by some persons, and with reason,- that the second 
paragraph of Sir Home Popham's letter of the 25th of August, requires 
■some exjjlanaticn : 

" The liberal and beneficial principles upon which the Government 
of General Beresford was conducted, do more honour to Ills jNJajestyV 
arms and the chm-actcr of Great Britain, than if he hud resorted to e.rj.-c- 
■dlents complclely zr-ilhin his power, uhich would have effect aalti/ (• anihilutcM 
Kill the cff',)! ts cif' the enuny, and zcir.sled, probablj for ever, these countries 
from the Crown of Spain." 

An Editor of a morning print has made it his business to inquire into 
ihe particular meaning of ti;e passage in question; and with confidence 
fl'^iiures his readers that the following explanation of it may be dt'pended 
Tjn as correct : — 

" Prior to any liostile symptoms being manifested towards our little 
army, proposals v-cre m;v:b to Genera! [icresford, and Commodore Sir 
Jlomc Pophani, tliat if tlicy would declare the Colony indepcndait, a 
largo force was ready to join the Britisii army as (il/iex; and would render 
our Commanders every assistance to secure that independence. — Another 
proposition was also made to those officers, by the black slaves of Buenos 
Ayres, which was, that they should l>e immediately emancipated; on- which 
coiidiiion ihcy oiVered to join the British force, and ellcctaally to annihi- 
late c'. ery Spanianl in the colony. 

" Generai Bcresford and Sir Home Popham declined both these proposal >, 
Kudfor the fi>!loi\iag prudent and sfitisfactory reasons: — They were not 
inve^!ted wiih any power whatever by t'le British Government to declare 
the Colony indrpendcnt of t!ie Mother country. Having conquered it 
in the name of His Britannic Ttlajesty, they could not render themselves 
the instruments, notwithstanding the jcoparjly in which they were placed, 
of ai!ien;iting tlie conquest to iusurreeiional Chiefs. To have eraaacipateii 
li»c slavca would have hecu to lay the fo'jiiJaii.)n of massacre and bloo^- 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRF.sr.St TEAR, 1807. 15.> 

*ihcd, more shockine to humaaity tliaii the awfal sncncs wliicli Imvc lately 
jtaiiied the plains of Sr, Dominjio ; andj iu its corisequeiices, rniglit have 
proved fatal tu every one of our countrymen at Buenos Ayies."' 

A Dutch frigate, and two Dutch Indianien, richly laden, from the Eas 
Indies, have been captured by some of our ships. The Dutch frigate is 
N named the Pallas, and the other ships, the V'ictorie and Batavie. The car- 
goes of the two latter are valued at (}00,000l. sterling ; the prime cost in the 
Spice Islands 1,000,000 Spanish dollars: — they comprised the greater part' 
of the produce of the Dutch Spice Kstahlishniunts of the growth of 11505 
and will prove, 'of course, most valuable prizes. The capture was made by 
a British frigate and a brig, (the uaniCs of which are not mentioned.) The 
Dutch frigate was supported in the action by a corvette, which, it appears, 
effected her escape. The Captain and the first Lieutenant of the Pallas 
were killed the first broadside, — ^The following is the official account of the 
Dutch Governor of Batavia, found on board a Danish ship, which has been 
detained and sent into Dartinoutii by His Majesty's ship I'hito : — 

" With the severest fochugs of affliction I have to mention, that, ac- 
cording to the latest authentic intelligence here, upon the 20th of July, 
1806, in the latitude of Salayer Islands, the iJataviau frigate the Pallas, 
and the corvette the William, coming from Amboyna, and having under 
convoy the f'ictorie and the liiitavie, two very large shij)s, belon"-ino" 
to the Company, completely laden with mace, cloves, and nutmegs, had 
an engagement with an B'nglish trigate and a brig; and the unfortunate 
issue was, that the frigate was forced to surrender, and both the Com- 
pany's ships are become the prey of the enemy. — We know no further 
particulars, e.xcept that the William escaped by flight, and got to Ma- 
casser; but the fact of itself has cast an universal dejection over every 
one here, and truly not without reason, as the loss amounts to full a 
million of dollars iu specie, which the sale of the spices was to have re- 
placed, and the blow will be severely fell by the Treasury, the chest of 
which is already in so exhausted a condition."' 

The American Papers give the following account of the above cap- 
ture : — 

A letter, dated Ratavia, Sept. 14, 1806, says :—" The Dutch Spice 
Fleet, from the Moluccas, bound for this place, has been captured by 
an English country ship and frigate. This fleet is valued at three or 
four millions Spanish dollars — a loss which must be most seriously felt 
by the Coinpany at this moment." 



/5aferil Courtsf ^^artial. 

POIlTSxAIOUTII, J.VXIVUV, .SO, 180r. 

A COURT MARTIAL wa'i held on hoard ti)e Gladiator, on Jonathan 
Armstrong, alias William Anderson, beJDngiiig to IIis .Alajcsty's ship 
Leander : he being one of tlie crew of the boat wliu mutinously t'ouk U-e 

/53D. SJ>ron. lioLXVII. x 



154 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

command of her from the officer, and deserted, was found guilty and Sen- 
teticed to suflFer death ; but, in consequence of his extreme good character, 
he was recommended by the Court to mercy. 

The same day, Mr. John Hall, Boatswain of His Majesty's ship Crocodile, 
\Mis tried for absenting himself from his diitv without leave, and general bad 
conduct ; which was partly proved. He was recommended to be removed 
into a ship in ordinary, in consideration of his age and long service. Ad- 
miral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart., President. 

Ffb. 7. This morninc: a Court Martial was held on board the Gladiator, 
on Captain J. Brenton, for the loss of His Majesty's sliip la Minerve. — It 
appeared to the Court, that the loss of that ship was causer) by her having, 
in a f(jg, struck upon the western point of the Cories, off Cherbourg, being 
then in charge of the Pilot, who had, in consequence of the fog, mistaken the 
land ; and lia\ ing been taken possession of by the enemy, after the moj't 
gallant exertions had been used by Captain Brenton, his officers, and ship's 
company under a galiing-fire from the enemy on her for many hours ; and 
the Court did adjudge Captain Brenton, iiis officers, and ship's company, to 
be most honourably acquitted. Admiral Sir Isaac Cotfin, Bart., President. 

On Tuesday, 10th February, and the two succeeding days, a Court 
Martial was held on board the Gladiator, at Portsmouth, which has 
excited an uiuisual degree of interest. The following composed the 
Members of the Court: 

Rear-Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart., President. 

Xlcar-Adn>iral Sir Richard Capt. Lechmehe. 

Straiian, Bart. K.B. M. Henry Scott. 

Capt. Sir F. Lafohfy, Bt. ■ ■ ■ T. Le M. Gosseliv. 

■ Sir .ToiiN Gokf,, Knt. — — the Hon. C. Boyle. 

• John Irwin. Henry Basely. 

— — George Astle. — — Frank Warren. 

• Sir Thomas Lavie. 

The President reported to the Court, that Captains David Aitkins, and 
Zachary Mudge, were absent, on Admiralty leave. 

The Court being opened, the Admiralty Order was read, commanding 
the trial of Captain Edward Hawkins, late Commander of His Majesty's 
brig Dispatch, '' for cruelty and oppression unbecoming the character 
ofan officer, exercised by him, or caused by him to be exercised, upon 
AVdIlam Davie, late seaman of the said brig, and for negligence and 
iuattention to the said W. Davie as a sick persr)n under his conmiand on 
board the said ship," by the 33d and 3Gth Articles. The following papers 
weie then read ; 

An anonymous letter addressed to Earl Spencer, dated Nov. 23, 1806, 
accusing Captain Hawkins of " the wilful murder of a fellow creature, 
by continual acts of violence on his person, on board His Majesty's brig 
Dispatch, between the 9th of December, 1805, and the 251 h of tho 
same month." Signed — " A Seaman, a Lover of my Country and IIu- 
inanity," 

Narrative of the above aliedgcd transaction, in detail, of the same date 
as the letter, signed — " A Seaman and arimirer of Humanity." 

[Tkesc Letters were transmitted to the Jdniiralty, and hij Litem sent doun 
to this Port, and uere traced to the Prosecufor.~l 

Thomas Thompson, late Master of tlie Dispatch, appeared to prft- 
.*erute, and acknowledged and verified the anonymous Idlers as being 
written by himself. 



NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PULStNT Yr.VR, 1807. 155 

The witnesses examined for the prosecution, were, Alexander Ingram, 
First Lieutenant of ihe Dispatch; George Hugo, Master's Mate ; William 
Donald, Surgeon; .(aines JU'Leod, sail-maker ; John Bowiey, marine ; 
John Hates, Purser's .Steward ; and Tliomas Kenny, John Williams, and 
John Ward, seamen ; after which 

The Prosecutor closed his charge. The Prisoner prayed the Court, to 
permit him to ulfer his defence on the following day; '' as nut only the 
conduct of the Prosecutor, bat other circiiuistanccs he had respectfully to 
uil'iv to the Court, loudly called on him, in justice to himself, to animadvert 
tliereon." 

At the sitting of the Court on the following day, Mr. \Y. Donald, Surgeon 
of the Dispatch, was called in again. lie said, in answer to the Court, that 
he did not, at any time, when Davie was on deck, report to (/apt. Hawkins, 
that it would be dangerous to keep him there, and that he never heard the 
Captain give any order for Davie to come on deck, after he had reported 
his being under a course of mci'cury. 

The Prisoner then requested permission of trie Court for his friend to read 
his Defence, which was granted. Captain Hawkins's friend then read a 
most able and elocjuccit Defence. It commenced by stating, that the 
Prisoner was advised, he might demur to the competency ot' the Court to 
try him, on the authority of the articles under which he was tried ; but, 
resiingon his conscious innocenc«=, and the whole course of his conduct, 
which had been directly the opposite of the crime alledged against him, he 
had felt it due t-o his honour to meet the accusation with ai> open front. 
The Defence then states, that he had retired to his residence at Saltash, iu 
Cornwall, where, in cliaricter and (jpulence, he ranks with the most respect- 
able of his neighbours, and has the iioiiour to l)elong to its Corporation, being 
one of it. Aldermen, and a Magistrate. — " Basking as I then was," the 
Defence proceeds, " in the ease ot'iny retirement from service, and in the 
serene enjoyment of an uiulisturbed and happy conscience, (to which my 
prosecutor must be a stranger,) I dreamt not that any one (liend-like) was 
meditating in the dark so serious an attack upan me. It so happenc'l that 
an electioneering controversy and a borough faction existed at Saltasli, 
in wliich certainly uo one of the truly honourable and respectable Lords ot 
the Admiralty bore any part, but in which some of those who happen to 
enjoy the confidence of their Lordships, I venture to assert was principally 
engaged. To this person I was in an opposite interest ; and whilst these 
things were passing in that borough, a verbal comiuimicatioii, I received 
with astonishment, through the medium of a third person, of the charge 
tliat was raising against me, accompanied with a hint, (which three of that 
borough took o[)p()rlunities to join in, strongly persuading and soliciting 
my acquiescence,) that if I would throw my weight into the scale ut inlluence 
of their Friend, no prosecution should ever take place against ma. Con- 
scious as I was of my innocence, and roused to an honest indignation of 
the vile attempt to seduce me fr(jm those principles which are the pride 
of my life, i spurned the contaminated (/tier with the contempt it descried; 
I dehed the malice of every foe, and, sacredly jealous of my honour, I 
avowed I would meet every charge, confident that I sfiould come out vin- 
dicated, befcjre whatever tribunal it might be instituted. These circum- 
stances I assert on my honour, and am ready to verify on oath. Had I 
yielded to such a base invitation, I have just reason to think this Court 
would never have been assembled; but no sooner was it ascertained that [ 
was not to be moved from my principles, than, barely on thi.' ground of an 
anonymous letter, an inquiry is instituted ; and persons (some of whom were 
the worst characters in tlie ship, and two of thun acCiluHy dcs.rtcrs tVoia :t) 
are soiigliL out for it? support.'' 



156 HAVAi HftTORV OT TiT? ynESKHT YEAfi, 1 80T. 

The Defence then commcBt? with sc\'erity oii an assertion in the 'inony* 
mous letter, that an inferior oliict-r would encounter ruin in brins:in2; foruarif 
such an accusation, ami aserts tlip hmiour of our Courts Martial. It after- 
nards goes on to discitss and coml.iat the wliole train of the e\ ideiice, anci 
finally contends, tiiatit is crude, lagne, and contradictary. The Witnesses 
who spoke with most hil'tLrness aJ:■ain5^t the Prisoner, tojiether wjtii the 
Prosecutor, were, the Defence observes, proved, by the Prosecutor's own 
evidence, to luive been Crfficers reprehended by Captain H. for repeated 
roiscondiict ; and it infers niatrgn'rty in their motive, and very little scruple 
in their testimony. Enouiih too had slipt out in evidence to show that there 
was an actual conspiracy, a combining; together, amonsst the. Witnesses, w ho 
ijad said any thing to the Piisoner's disadvantage, to fabricate a cltar^re. 
One of these Witnesses had declared, not that his discipline was too severe, 
but too relaxed, and that this was the opinion of liis fellow officers. It had 
been proved by the Surijeon, that the deceased had slept between tlie main- 
mast and (he fore-ma?t bull: head of the tiun-room, the best place in the 
sliip ; that the deceased never appeared on deck after the venereal disease 
was disrovered upon him; and, liefore tliat time, hiscou-.phunts were not so 
bad as he ailed^ied : that the deceased quacked hiniself, by internal and 
exienjal medicines, actually prodacing a nir>iriiication ; the official reptjrt 
to the transport oriice (made when tliis trial could not h;(v<) been thougiit 
«fj shows that the deceased was properly attended, and had wine allowed 
instead of groji;. It was proved" by oae of the Witnesses on whom tlie Pro- 
svcutor mi^ht best expect to rely, tliat the deceased had been actvially in- 
valided from an hospital just before he c:\uic on board ; concurrent 
testimony proved that he was a skulker, early shaniminijto be ill to get to tiiC 
hospital, and from the service ; was exiremcly hlthy au'l noxious, and was 
universally deemed an inipobtor ; and it was in proof, that the Prisoner hatj 
ordeied Bowley to put a clean shirt on Davie, and to dry his bed. '1 he 
practice of having the sick on deck, for air, was fully justified, particulaily 
io this man, I'nnn his filthy habits. The concurrent testimony of all the Wit- 
nesses proved, that tlie I'risouer had ;^iven oiders that no man should be 
struck or tJl treated on board his ship : and by the testimony of all, :is a 
general fact, that the Prisoner was i»ot guilty of cruel or oppressive con- 
duct to the crew. The Defence, speaking of Davie, says — 

'• I admit that 1 did once, and once only, shove him from me on deck in 
contemptuous indignation at his conduct, about the second or third day of 
his coming on board ; and I declare, on my lianour, I never at any other 
tiii>e lifted my hand annrsist him.'' 

It cjjRcluded b_^ seating, the Prisoner would call only three Witnesses to 
the charge itself; one to rebut a single point of evidence, (when it had been 
stated that the Prisoner gave orders to the Cook to beat Davie,} for he felt 
tliere was but that one to rebut, and two to fpeak taa fact his Prosecutor 
had not turnished him with. lie should then call on one of the Honourable 
Alembers of the Court, to hi;>charactcr, auti produce other evidence of cha- 
racter. 

SJrT. Lavie said — " I have been ship-mate v.ith Captain Hawkins ; I do 
affirm that his conduct was uniformly uiavked with mildness, humanity, and 
gentleness." 

Capt. ?»U'uds called. — " I have been intimate with Capt. Hawkins between 
twenty-cwo aiul twenty-three years; antl se\en of that we were iMidstupineu 
and i.ientcnants of the same ship, and that gaie me t'ull opportunity of 
knowing him; and duriiig the whole time, wlieu we were on duty together, 
I solemnly declare, that I know of no insttmce of any thing like trutlty, 
uppres^ioM, or injustice in his conduct : on the contrary, liis conduct was 
markfed by the utmost .icjjrec of huuiaaity and henevoh.;nc'..." 



NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEA'r, 1807* V57 

Mr. Wm. Evans, Cook of the Dispatch called — Capt. Iliuvkins. Q. Do 
vou remember WilUaia Davie being in the Dispatch, and did you belong to 
her all the time he was in her ? A. Yes. (^. Did I ever order yuu to beat 
him, with the stick you usually have, or any other weapon? A. Mo. 
Q. Did you ever beat liim while on board .^ A. Xo. 

Court. — (i. What sort of stick did you carry when the deceased was on 
board, and for what purpose ? A. The first thing I cimld get hold of to 
steady myself, having lost my leg, sometimes a broomstick. Q. Did you 
«ver strike any body with that broomstick .? A. No. 

Prosecutor. — Q. Do you recollect Capt. Hawkins sent for you three or 
four days after the Disp'atch sailed .? A. Yes. Q. Do you recillect Ca[.t. 
H. giviuii; you orders respecting the deceased, on the larboard side ot tint 
quarter deck.? A. Yes. Q. Do you recollect, that Lieut. Barrel and myself 
were present ? A. I cannot recollect that. Q. What orders did Capt. II. 
give.? A. To keep him in the store-room, to do something, and not to let 
him lay about the galley. Q. If he did not go when ordered, what were ins 
orders.? A. To get him there, and keep him there till 12 o'clock, and 
then let him como out again.— No othor orders. Q. Did Capt. II. point to 
the stick you had in your hand ? A. Not to my knowleolge. 

Court.— Q. Had you orders fro:n Capt.H. to beat or ill treat the deceased 
in any way ? A Not to my knowledge, Q. Did you think, in conserjuence 
of what the Captain said to you, you were authorized to do it ? A. I did 
not. Q. Do you know that the Captain in any way, or through any chan- ' 
iiel, used the deceased in a cruel or oppressive manner? A. No, 1 do 
not. > 

Captain Hawkins. — (J. Was the store-room in which I ordered Davie to 
be kept, as comfortable a place as any cabin firward ? A. Yes, it was. 

Thomas Bolam, (Jimner's Mate of the Dispatch, called. — Q. Do you 
remember William Davie being in the Dispatcfi, and did you belong to iier 
all the time he was ill her? A. Yes. Q. Was he your messiuute? A. He 
was. Q. Had he quack medicines in his chest? A. I do not know what 
medicines they were ; he had medicines. Q. Did you ever give him of 
those medicines by his own desire? A. Yes, often. 

Court. — Q. How long before the deatli of Davie did you give him any 
of those medicines ? A. From his rirst coming on board till four or five days 
after we went to sea ; I gave him powders aud something out of a bottle, 
and some bougies. Q. Did he ever say for what purpose he took tiiose 
medicines ? A. He said, they were medicines tlvit h? got from a Doctor on 
shore, he thouglit they would do him good. Q. Did he take them when t!ie 
Surgeon of CTie ship give him medicines. A. No, he did not. Q. Of what 
disorder did he complain for which lie took those medicines? A. A stoppage 
of his water. Q. Did you ever intorm your t'aptain or the Surgeon, th;it 
he took such medicines? A. No, I never did. Q. Could Davie at any 
time have got those medicines without your knowledge? A. i do not 
know. 

A letter from Sir C. M. Pole, to the Judge Advocate, dated Chandns- 
itreet, Caveadisti-square, was read, as part of the Defence. Sir Charles, 
after stating that he could not possibly attend the Court Jlartial, expresses 
his intention, to have olfered himself as a most willing and anxious \Vitiicss 
to Capt. Hawkins' general character and conduct for nearly tv.eniy years ; 
to have declared on oath, that Capt. II. had served with lam, from the year 
178(3, and was scarcely ever out of his knowledge as to beha\iour and con- 
duct until his promotion from the Royal Georire in 'Jl\; in which period his 
character and conduct were those of a most humane, considerate, and 
ienevoicut oliiccr, zealously attentive to tb© sick and suffering seamen ; and 



158 NATAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

he should also have declared on oath, he was almost the last man in tlie 
service against whom such an attack could have obtained credit. 

Here the evidence for the Prisoner closed. 

The Court being cleared, and the Prisoner, after some deliberation, 
l>eing brought in, the Judge Advocate read the following sentence : — The 
Court is of opinion, that the Charges have not been proiucl against the said 
Capt. Edward Hawkins, but were scandalous and malicious, and dolh adjudge 
him to be acquitted, 

Feb. 17. A Court Martial was held on board the Gladiator, on Lieut. 
Alexander Day, of the Royal Marines, on chanj;es exhibited by Lieutenant 
Trotter, commanding on board the prison ship Guilford, in the harbour, for 
contempt, disobedieace of orders, and neglect of duty. — Presider.t, Captain 
Lechmere. The Court, after a very s!)ort deliberation, adjudged Lieutenant 
Day to be honourably acquitted of all the charges. 

Feb. 20. George Melvin, seaman of His INIajesty's ship Antelope, was 
tried by a Court Martial, for desertion, and sentenced to receive 1300 
iashes. 



umiii iini I II II iiiw 



%mtvs on ^fttia, 

Copied verbatim from the London Gazette. 
[Continued IVom page 88.j 

ADMIRALTY OmCE, JANIZARY 24, 1807. 

Copy of a Letter from Jiecr-Admiral the Honourable Sir Alexander Coch-- 
rane, K. B., Commander in Chief of His Majesfr/'s Ships and Vessels at 
the Leeward Islands, to William Marsden, Esq.; dated onboard His 
Majcstt/s Ship Northumberland, in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, 10th De- 
cember. 180(3. 

SIR, 

TlIS enclosed copy of a letter from Lieutenant Earkcr, of His Majes- 
ty's armed brig Grenada, gives an account of the third privateer 
captured by that vessel in three weeks. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX; COCHRANE. 

His Majestifs Brig Grenada, St. George's, 
SIR, Grenada, November '27, 1806. 

I have the satisfaction to acquaint you, that at daylight this morning* 
London Bridge Rock bearing east three leagues, I discovered a su^pic^ou3 
vessel to the southward ; and, after a ch;ise of four hours, came up with and 
captured the French sloop privateer le Tigre, mounting tsvo six-pounders, 
and twenty-six men, out from Guadaluupe fifteen days, and had taken a 
mail boat. 

I have much satisfaction in this capture, as the ves'jol sails very fast, and 
has done considerable damage to tlie coasting trade of St. Lucia and St. 
Vincent. 

I have the hoonur to be, Sec. 

JOHN BARKER. 
The Hon. Sir A. Cochrane, K. B., lVc. &c. SjC. 



NATAL UI9T0RY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 159 

^ JANUARY 31. 

Copif of a Letter from Vice- Admiral the Right Hon. Lord Collin gzcood, 
Coninandtr in Chirf of Hia Mnjetsi/a Ships and Fesscls in the Mediter- 
ranean, to Williain Marsden, Esij.; dated un board His Majesty's SMp 
Ocean, ojj'Cadiz, the 5th vf January 1807. 

SIR, 

Enclosed I transmit to you a letter from the Honoura'ble Captain Walde- 
grave, of His Majesty's sloop the Minorca, informing me of his having 
chased a number of those small privateers which infest the Straits, and, 
by a skilful manoeuvre having separated the largest from the rest, cap- 
tured her. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

COLLINGWOOD. 

His Majesty's Sloop Minorca, Gibraltar 
MY LORD, Buy, December 19, 1806. 

T have the honour to acquaint you, that on my passage to this port with 
the Spanish vessel I captured oa ilic 23d, on entering the Straits eleven of 
the enemy's privateers stood out to reconnoitre us so near, that I gave chase 
to them, on which they dispersed. We were coming up with two very fast, 
when the largest stood to the westward, with the intention of cirtting off our 
prize. Having allowed her to get a sufficient distance oft' shore to prevent 
her regaining it, I hauled up, and after a chase of two hours, captured her, 
close to Cape Trafalgar, 

Her name is the Nostra Senora del Carmen, alias la Caridad, mounting 
two twelve-pounders, two four-pounders, and two large swivels, having oa 
board thirty-five men out of her complement of fifty. 

I have peculiar satisfaction in announcing this capture, being one of the 
largest of that class which infest these Straits. 

I afterwards captured a small felucca, the Spanish packet from Tangier 
to Tariffa, having a mail on board. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

G. G. WALDEGRAVE. 
To the Right Honourable Vicc-Admiral 
Lord Collingicood, <^-c. 

Copy of a Letter from Commodore Sir Home Popham, to William Marsdertf 
Jiisq.; dated on board His Majeslys Ship the Ltda, off Buenos AyreXy the 
4th of August, 1806. 

SIR, 
I have the honour to transmit to you, for the information of the Lords 
Commissioners of tlie Admiralty, the copy of a letter which I have this day 
received from Captain King, ol His IMajesty's ship Diadem. 
I liave the honour to be, dec. 

HOME porn.ui. 

Diadem, Monte Video N.N. E.ftvc 
SIB, leagues, July CO, 1806. 

I beg to inform yon, that a strange sail having been discovered in tlie 
N, W, quarter about noon this day, I immediately weighed and chased her 
until the Diadem was in four fathoms water, when I hove to, and detached 
the boats, who soon came up with her and captured her. She proved to 
be a Spanish man of war brig, called tlie Arrogante, pierced for Hvelveguns, 
but had only two mounted, with twentv-fom- men on board. 

I haxc, &c. WILL. KING. 

To Commodore Sir Home Topliam, K. B., 
<5c. Sfc. 4c. 



180 NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1 807. 

Cop7/ of another Letter from Commodore Sir Flome Fopham, to WiUiam. 
Marsden, Eaq. ; dated on board the Diadem, Rio de la Plata, September 
9, 1806. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to transmit you, for the information of my Lords Com- 
missioners of tlie Admiralty, the copy of ;i letter which I have this day re- 
<;eived from Captain Honyman. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

HOME POPHAM. 

His Mujest)/s Ship Leda, of Monte 
SIR, Video, September 9, 180G. 

In obedience to your signal to slip, at ten A.M. we made sail in chase of 
a Brigaiitine standins; towards the river St. Lucia; at two P.M. Point del 
Lspinello beariiiji N. about four miles, and conceiving ourselves near the 
Hock la Pancla, tacked siiip, with an intention of making a short board to 
prevent the enemy from gaining the river; shortly after, the chase not being 
able to wcatlicr the rocks off the point, she bore up and ran for Monte 
Video; tacked, and made all sail towards her, and at half-past three drove 
her on shore, close under the Pointa de las Yagues, when she hoisted Spa- 
nish colour^; anchored in four fathoms within gun-shot; hoisted out the 
large cutter, pinnace, and launch, and sent them, manned and armed, to 
endeavour to bring otf or destroy the enemy ; Lieutenant Parker, and Mr» 
O'Grady, ]\Latc, in the large cutter; Mr. Lascelles, Mate, in the pinnace ; 
and Lieutenant Stewart, and Mr. Sterne, Midshipman, in the launch, with 
a carronade to cover the boats. During the time jhey were pulling to the 
vessel, we fired from the ship, to prevent, if possible, the enemy from col- 
lecting. At six P. M. the cutter and pinnace returned; Lieutenant Parker 
reports his having boarded the enemy, she was pierced for fourteen guns, 
had none on board, and deserted by the crew ; from the heavy sea and state 
of the vessel, he found it impossible to get iier off or destroy her by fire, he 
therefore cut the cable and left her to drift further in amongst the breakers. 
The wind veered more to the southward after the boats left the ship, tiie 
launch unavoidably sunk and was lost, and in the act of taking out her crew, 
about two Jiundred men, who had before concealed themselves behind tli« 
Sand-hills, commenced a fire of musketry on the other boats, and unfortu- 
nately wounded i^ieutenant Stewart, and three men, who were with much 
difficulty brought oif. 

Lieutenant Parker, and those with him, appear to have acted with great 
7e«l ; and, liad tiie weather been more favourable, I make no doubt they 
would have done themselves great credit, and had to contend with a visible 
instead of tm invisible force. 

I cannot coiiclude this without mentioning, that it is the second wound 
received this war by Lieuienat Stewart in the service of his country, and I 
trust their Lordships will consider him entitled to their protection, his 
last wound hiivir.g occasioned the loss of his left arm much above the . 
elbow joint, but I am happy to say he is now in a fair way of reco- 
very. Enclosed I have the lionour to transmit a list of the names of the 
wounded. I am, &c. 

ROB. IIONYMAN. 

Commodore Sir Home Popham, K. B. 
^■c. 4c-. 4e. 

List of Wounded. 
Lieutenant V/illiam Stewart ; William Cumber, seaman; John White, 
ditto; Abdula, ditto, dangerously. '- 



NAVAL IIISTOP.Y OF THE PllESEXT YEAR, 1807. 161 

FEBHUAIiY a. 

Cop}/ of a Letter from the R'liiht Himimjub/e Lord Keith, K. R., Admiral of 
the White, 4"c'., to WiUium Mursde/iy Esq.; daltd off Rams^ale, the lit 
Ina.niit. 

SIR, 

I tmiismit, tor their LorHsIiips' iiiforniiition, a opy of a letter wliirh I 
have received tVoni Captain Stodrlurt, of ills Majcbtys sloop the (Jruizcr, 
acqiiiniuiii<; me tliat lie liad driven on shore, i'.i the vicinity of Blaakenbern, 
and arterwitrds tirouirht off, the French privateer le iirave, of sixteen guns; 
and als.) that ho had recaptured the LeaniU r of .Shields, and the Guardian 
of Bri.llini;t.:i.. 

Their J.oi ii'iiips wilMiave nuicli satisfaction in oliscrvint^ tJie iudicious 
inini:i!ieniei!t that has been manifested iiy Captnin Studdart on that occa- 
sion, as well as the meritorious condncr of jiis officer.; and boats' crews, 
1 ha\e the honour to be, &c. 

KEITIL 

His AI(ijestj/'s Shop Cruizer, nt Sea, 
MY i.or.D, January 28, 1807. 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship, that on the 2^it!i instant, at 
t\Vo A. M., as we were stretching t'roni the Island of Walchcren towards tha 
Galloper Shoal, and only four leagues fiom the latter, a lujiirer was seen 
passing; onr weather beam on the opposite tack; being Ijol!) under easy sail, 
lio alteiation wa.^ made until out of sight, when the wind veeriiig to the 
west, enabled us to fetch, into her wake : after a long chase, we forced her 
on ehi-rc three miles to the westward of Blankenberg, at which time her 
Captain and considerable part of her crew made their escape. I anchored 
about half gun-'shot off, to scour the beacli, if necessary, und cover the 
boais. which were dispatched under the direction of Lieutenant Pearse. as- 
sisted by Mr, Lash, the Master, and Mr. Mnffut, Master's Mate; t'lroao-h 
whose animated exerti ms the privateer wasgi.t off without snstainnig the 
Smallest damage. During the performance of thi-; service, (lie enemy col- 
lected on the Sand-hills, and kept up a brisk fire or musketrv wirhont effect. 
The lugger is le Brave, of Dunkirk, carrying sixteen iruns, and is reputed 
one of the fastest sailing ve.-sels of her description: she had capturei' lie 
Lcander, a Collier brig, of Shields, and an Englisii iialiiot, i.'.uea ..Jtlirum 
on Government account; the l\Iaster and crews of which were fouad on 
board of her. The Lcander was retaken by u-i thit ar'rernouii, as w^.!! as 
the (Tu;irdian, of Bridlington, which had been capiuied by le llev„i!;che 
privateer, off Flamborougb Head, along with four others, all from the 
Bailie. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

P. STODDART. 

Admiral Lord Keith, K. B. ^e. <§c. 4"C- 

Cojiy ijf a Let ier from Vice- Admiral Russell to WilUam Marsden. Esq.} 
dattd on board the Majestic, in Yarmouth Roads, the 31si of Januara 
1807. 

SIR, 

Ilcrewitii T enclose a letter from Lieutenant Tracev, of the Princess Au- 
gusta hired cutter, reporting his having cupitn-id the Jena privateer, and 
recaplmed her prize, a Prussian ship, laden with tiii)ber, boniid to London, 
whicli I beg you vvdi lay befi;re my Lords Connnisiionors of the Ad- 
miralty. I am, &c. 

T. U. RUSSELL. 



1C2 NAVAX HISTORY Or THE rHESENT YEATl, 1S07. 

His iJujrsh/s Hired Cutter Piinccst Am^u.sfa, 
SIR, Yaimvut/i Roud.i, Jan. 31, 1807. 

I hertiuith enclose ;i letter to Adiuinil llie JUiiht lion. Lord Keith. K. B.. 
Cuinniaiidcr in C'liict, of svlucli the tollovviiig ii iii subbtaiice ii dupiJcivic, tor 
vour iiitbnuatioij. 

MY LORD, 

I h&ve tlie honour to inform vour Lordship, that on the 07lh inst. Lowes- 
tofl'e !)eurin<i; ^^est hy iiorlh t'orty-tivc mile-, !it half-jiait eleven P. 3iL i fell 
in w itii ;i Lrencli cutter [-rivaleer, and tiiased her to ttie S. 8. E. until tiaif- 
past two A.M. on tl>e 2oth, when havjnij; got alongside of her, and ririui^ 
-soiiic ;^uns and niubkctry into her, she lovsci't-d her sails, and hailed that she 
luid stiuck. 

8he i.s called the Jena, commanded by C .ptain Francis Caprllo, with thirty 
men, mounting four {^uns, and has on board a gi'eat number of small anu*. 
Had sailed from llushinsj; twelve days ago, and made two capture.^; one of 
which, a liir<;e Piubsian ship, laden with a ^■aluable cargo of timlier, boui;ii 
to Lo.idou, I recaptured on the same morning. 

1 have the honour to be, &:c. 

J. TU.VCEY, Lieut, and Coin. 

7b Vlcc-Adiniial Russell, ^r. ^c. <§t-. 

KF.KIUARY 7. 

Ciipi/ofc Letter from Vice-.'iihmral Dacres, Commander in Cliirf of Hh' 
M(!Jes^t/'s S/iips (I lid J'(.v.s<7.s ut Jamaica, to William MarsdeUf JL's/y. ; dultil 
at Fort lioi/cd, Dceiuibtr 1, lyuo. 

SXR, 

On the Pique's return from her cruise, I received from Captain Ko-is 
two letters, of which the enclosed are co[)ies, and transmit them to you^ 
for the infurnaation of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

I am, iS»:c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majcstifs Sfnn Pique, Alona Passaiie, 
SIR, ^oiumbcr 2, 180ti. 

T have the hononr to inforn> you, that the b;\rge and two other boats of 
His Majesty's snip under my conmiand, were sent yesterdav to intcree[)t a 
schooner coming round Cape Ro\o (Forti> Rico), hut (jwing to a very heavy 
squall, with rain, connng oit' shore, tliey lost sight of her in the night; but 
have great satisfaction in adding, that Lieutenant Hell, who commantied the 
party, a'-sistcd by Lieutenant iJaillie, of the Royal JNJarines, pushed in lV»r 
Cabaret Bay, vvhere they completely succeecied in destroying a battery on 
sliore, of three guns, spiking tliem uj), breaking the carriages, and bring- 
ing out u very iine Spanish copper-bottomed brig, pierced tor twelve 
giuis. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

C. B. H. ROSS. 
To J. Pt. Dacrcs, Es-j., c^c. .^r. ^c. 

His Majesty's Skip Pique, Mona Passage, 
SIR, November 3, 1806. 

I liave the honour to infirm you, that on the 2cl instant. Lieutenant Baker,. 
. in the launch of His JMaj- sty's ship under my command, chased and drove 
on shore, afiei some smart skirmisiiing, upon the reef of Cape Roxo,a rreiijch 
feiiuche-rigged piivateer, of two guns, four swivels, and tv.eiity-Mx men, 
wliere she was totally lost. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF TIIF. riir.SENT YIAR, 1807. 103' 

{ Iinvo the [ilcnsiirc further to itirorin yon, fiiat on his reriiniiiKj; to join the 
^^lip, ho buccceiicd in cuptiirinii (nfler a vcr v loiiir i.lia^e) another very latjt 
saiiiii;^ French privateer, of one gun, and twcutv uieii. 

I hav» , iScc. 

C. B. II. ROSS. 
J. R. Dacrrx, E^f., Vice- Admiral of tlie 
White, Jkc. 6j-c, Sfc, 

Copy iif another Letter from Vice- 'fhni: a! Dacrcs, to William Marsden, Es-j.; 
dated ut Por' Roi/ul, Decciuhcr IC, 18U6. 

- I have the liononr to enclose von, for tiic information of tiie Lnrtis Corn" 
missioncrs of the Adnuralty, tlie co])y of a letter I have received from Cap*' 
taiH Bri'.-:t;-*, of the Orpheus, ac(j;iaiiitiii<^ mk? of hi-; ha' ;m>; captured tlir Spa- 
nish schoon.er Subauiia, offuurgriis, from Canipeche to the iluvannah, \^iLtl 
merchandize. 1 am, &c. 

J. R. DACRKS. 

Orflii it<:, in. the G'llfof iVIexivo, 
SIR, 1'6tfi NuvciiiU-r, loOti. 

I hft; to acqnaint you, that on tiie ICJth instant i feli in wjtN, anti, after a 
short ciiase, caj.'tured the Spanish schooner Suiaima, of f>nr u.n\y-i, (two 
cij;hts and two sixes,j '.ruiu Cainp^chc to tije liuvannafi, witii nicr- 
chanuize, 1 am, ike. 

T. DIUGGS. 
To J. ft. JD«rrrs-, Es']., Vicc-Admira! <)f the 
White, 6,e, 4c. c,c. 

Coj'ij of another Le'ler from Vice-A'hniral T)ncrcs, to fVi'liuin Marsden, 
Escj.; dated ul Eori Roj/ul, Dceei.iler 12, loOO. 

SIR, 

Tlieir Lordships will be concerned to learn, that thf enclosed copy of a 
letter fi-oni Captain AysC'vanh, of His Majesty's ship Success, acjoainting 
uic of t!ie destruction of the Venjieiir friQcca-ri:a;ed privateer, of one gun,, 
and al)-)!it tifty men, by t:;c boats of t!)at s'riip, reputs so great a loss of killed 
and woiitided, thcugh >;reat intrepidity and perseverance 'verc displayed, 
very creditable to the oarty cn<rai;ed in it. 

I am, cS:c. J. R. D.VCRES. 

His Mii'ied^fx Sbi'.i Succexx, Lucca, 
sjn, ijih Decentber, 1806. 

I beg leave to inform you, that, on tiie niornin>.' oi' tne 20th of last month, 
fltaiKhng in for the land to the eastward of Cumberland iiarhmir, I observed 
ii small felucca rinming into Hidden Port Mr. ^V. Duke, the lirst Lieute- 
ii.iur, \-oli:nteered his s rvicc-, witii Lieutenant^ Charles Spcnce, and acting 
Lieut-nant Do>ve!| O'lieiily. The bar^e and yawl were armed, and in. 
stai>tly dispatched. On their approach they found her crew had landed 
(aboar iifty in munber) witli tiicir small arms, and llu. only long gun ; had 
Jastud tie vessel to tiio trees; poste<l themselves on a h.U clothe to the 
heacii, and fired down on oiw boats witli jrrape tmd nnisketrv in the n>ost 
determined manner. (I am very sorry to say Lientonant Duke was kdled 
the iirst vcjllry.) Lieutenant Spence, wno took the c(jmmand, nifbnns me it 
was impo>sible to stani! the continual fire kept up ("n^m our boats for one 
hour ami twenty uuMiites, (several of the eiuany having fallen daring that 
time.) From the n;irg'; i.eiiig shot through i:; niany place^, seven wounded 
men in the buats, Lieutciiani Spence very properly jiidLod it uouid be a.nly 
fucriiicing the lives of the brave party ty attempt tjit hiil, he tlitrcfore or- 



164 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESE^fT YEAR, 1807. 

dercd rh vessel to be tnwed out, whicli was done from under n. very heavy 
fire of ;ri'apc. By her journal she a;,penrs to be the Vtageur French 
pri 'ateer, a-ul sii'ed from the city of St. Domingo the Ist of Tic'ober, 
vvliikh, from being leaky, owing lo shot-holes, &c. sunk abtcr;i jf the 
ship. 

Lieutenant Spenrc spe;il-b in the hli^hfost terms of the artinj. l.icinenant 
O'Reilly. ( ho has \ eeii m ;hur siuation v\ith me above eight m<jntlis,J the 
petty otliccrs, seamen, .;. i marines under li:S orders. 

I n-.nn'U .unit reeo,;.. r uding to your notice Mr. William Rand Hut!;hcs, 
Master's-"' late, vvho passed for a Lieutenant, and conducted himself in a 
ver,' siur'.ted man ,er. 

With concern I enclose you a list of the killed, wounded, and missingj 
and h ive tlie iionour to he, &c. 

JOHN AYSCOUGH. 

"To Vice-Admiral Darres, Cnmnander in Chief, 
^c. C)C. dj-(\ Jauiuica. 

jiRcturnoiKlied, Woundtd, uvO Missing, in the Boats commanded by TJcu- 
taiunt Cltar'i'H Spence, of His Ahtjesti/s S/tip Sinctss, John ^-ji/moiigh, 
Emj., Captain, in Action <ih ii'it Ving ur Fremh ±'c!a ca l^rizatcer, 
of one gMi and abvutfif\>/ Mi u, on the Win of ^uvoiibt r 1806, in Hidden 
Port, on chc Coast of Culia. 

William Duke, first Lieutenant, killed; "Dowell O'Reilly, actin;; Lieute- 
nant, woiii ded in the lei^; Jo!m Frederick, orriinary, badiy wounded in the 
this^h ; James (.'lewer, able, havily wuiiuled in the kni c joint ; Henry Cibby, 
ordinary, badly wuundi.d through the bod\ ; John I'ornsby, able, badly 
wounded thioiiifh the lunjis; Daniel Burn-, landman, slightly wounded h\ 
the lingers; Jasper Wheeler, marine, slightly wounued in the hand; An- 
thony Pascal, able, missing, supposed to have deserted. 

Total — 1 killed, 7 wounded, and 1 missing. 

JOHN AYSCOUGH, Captain. 
THOAL^S DEAR, Surgeon. 

Copy of a Letter from the Earl of St. Vincent, K.B., Admiral and Co: - 
inandcr in Chi f if His Mojesffs Fleet ennploijtd in the Chunne!^ Sound- 
ings, 4c. io William luuisUtn, E-aj. ; dated in Topn, the od Instant. 

SIR, 

i enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, copy of a letter winch I liave this day received from Captain Sir 
Thomas Lavie, of His MHJesty ship the Blanche. 

I am, &c. ST. VINCENT. 

His Majesty's Ship Blanche, off' Bour- 
MY LORD, - di ail X, January 16, 1807. 

Ihvtve the hononr to transmit, for your Lordship's information, a copy of 
* letter I have addressed to Captain Keats, Commander of a squadron of 
His Majesty's shius off Rochefort. 

" With my accustomed good fortune I have intercepted tlie George 
Washington, and found Ca[)iain Karg;n-ian, late Commander of the Valeur 
reuse French fVinate, with his ofncers and men on board, consisting, in all, 
of three hiindied and six men ; but .■^he has no stores bci;)nging to that ship. 
I have taken the prisoners out, and sent the ship to England." 
1 have the honour to be, ike. 

"THOMAS LAVIE. 
To the ruohf. Hon. pa .' St. Vincent, Com- 
juundcf in Chitf ^c, i^c. t^t'. 



T^W 



IfAVAL HISTORY OV THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 163 

Copt/ <)fa Leiler from Captain Campbell of Hh Majesli/^s Sfiip the TctcI, to 
Witiiam Mumden, ilsij.; duled lu Ltith iiuads, tite ^t/i Instant. 

sin, 
You will l)e pleased to acquaint the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty o' the arrival here, yesterdtiy, ot' flis Majesty's hired defence ship the 
Nort'olK, from Slieeriicss; and hcre'\ith I enclose a letter which I have re- 
ceived from Captain Richan, giviiif^ an apcount ot the capture of I'Adolphe 
J'Veuch privateer, as mentioned iii my letter to you of the 31st ult. 

I am, &c. 

D. CAMPBELL, 

His Mujesli/s armed Defence S/iip Norfutl-, 
SIR, L(.i.th Roads, Febiuarji 3, 1807. 

I have to acquaint you, that on my returning from the Nore t" rliis an- 
chorage, we ob^erved on the Cfith iilr., :it eiL'ht o'clock A. M.., alugger bearr 
iug r,. i.E. (hstaiit six or seven miles, Flamhru' (lead heariiig N. N. \V. 
distant four miles, the wind W. S. W., several merchant vessel? V- '*hore; 
made ail sail in chase, and, at twenty minutes past one u'c'ock P. I. came 
up and boarded. The rl'u-e proved to tie I'Adolphe French privateer, can* 
mandcd by Jacques Francis Leclerc, mounting fourteen guns, aiic; l,n\;i;g 
on board thirty-nine men ; two ^runs, fourteen carriages, with their i.oats 
and ports, they had thrown overboard dur ng thp chase. She snileo '..no. 
Dunkirk Roads on the 21st ult. and made a capture o.i tiie ^.'id ult. ut the 
Leith packet, laden vvitii hemp, &c., from Toimingen bound to London, neir 
the Dogger Bank. We ffuuKl on l)oard PAdolphe the Master and ave of 
the crew, with three passengers. I have, &c. 

W. RICIJAN". 
Donald Campbell^ Esq., Captain of Hin Jh[a^ 
Jestys Sitip Texcl, i^c. Sfc. ^c, 

FEBRUARY 10. 

Extract of a Letter from, the Right Honourable Lord Keith, K B., Admiral 
off-e White, S;c. to Wiiliam Mar.sJen, Esq.; dated off" liamsgate, the 6th 
Instant. 

I have also the satisfaction of enclosing a copy of a letter from Captain 
James, of His Majesty's sloop the Kite, to \'ice-Adm!ral M(»lii.\vav, report- 
ing tlie capture of le Cliassenr, another {'rtnch lugger privateer, and one of 
those by which the Channel has lately been infested. 

His Majesty s Sloop Ki'c, Dozens^ 
SIR, 7th Februart/, l.'jo? 

I beg leave to inform you, that last night, about half past eleven, the 
North Foreland Light bearing W. by S. distant about four ieas^ues, I fell in 
with and captured, after a (hase of one hour and a halt, a f re..' i lugger 
privateer le Chassiur, commanded by Jacques 1 rai.cois lo'iiinciitier, 
pierced for sixteen guns, two only mounted, tlu. icmainJer being m the hold. 
She is a very taht-sailing vi ssel, only three months oiil ; saileti i'r jm ("afiis 
yesterday morning in company with another pru ateer of tlie »ame de.■^( lip- 
tioii ; had imt made any capture since she last sailed; her cn.uplemei t of 
men was fifty- two, but had only forty-two on board when captured, two of 
which were wounded. I'ortunatf ly our snot cut anay his jib, wlieu we first 
commenced our hre U} on him, otherwise the ciiase would have bt t n long, and 
our success doubtful. I have, &c. 

JOS. JAMES. 

Vice-Admiral Hoiloicai/, ^c. SjC. 4c. 



166 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEARj'lSO?. 

rEBKUARY 14. 

Copj/ of a Letter from the Honourahle Captain Stopford, of His Majesty's 
Ship the Spenrrr, to }Villinin Marsdcn, Esq.; doled at l^ortoFruifa, St. 
Jcgo, the 11th Janiicty, 1807. 

SIR, 
I herewitli transmit two letters Mhirlj I havo received from Captain Cor- 
bet, of His Majesty's ship the Ncreidc, acquainting mc with the captures 
of two Spanish vessels. 

I have the honour to he, 5zc. 

R()bi:rt stopford. 

His Mnjes'ifs Ship Nercide, off Madeira, 
SIR, 'Zd December, 1806. 

His Majestv's ship under my command captured, on the 25ti\ uU., in lat. 
42 dcg. >J., lonti. 11 do:;. W., J! Brilliante Spanis'i hiL'gcr privateer, of lour 
guns and fifry men, out two days from Vigo, on a four months" cruise, ami 
hod captured nothing. 

I was much picaseil at this capture, as there were several sail in sight when 
1 chased him, some of whicli might have become his p icy. 

I ha\e the honour to be, &c. 

R. CORBET. 
Captain the Hon. R. Stopford. 

His Malesfi/''s Ship Ncreidc, at Sea, 
SIR, 21 st Kotember, 1806. 

Yesterdav, whilst under separation from the convoy nndor your orders, in 
lat. 47 dc<:. \., lonjr. 10 dei:. W., I captured, after a chase of some hours, el 
Veioz Spanish corvette, pierced for twenty guns, ritted out at Biib.ia. with 
ten guns mounted, and seventy-five men, to carry dispatelK"-, some passen- 
gers of distu)Ction, and a eario "f Hour on (nnernmcnt account, to the 
Caraccas. She is a beautiful vessel, w.as to have been fitll armed abroad, 
and since her capture has kept way with the Nereide on all points of 
sailing. 

R. CORBET. 
The Hon. R. Stopford, 4c. ^c. Sfc. 

Ff.BRt'ARY 17. 

Copy of a J^etter from the Eurl of St. Vincent, K. B., Admiral and Com- 
tvander in Chief of His Majrslifs Fliel employed in the Channel, Sound- 
ings, fyc., to Wiiliayn Marsden, Esq. ; dated in Town, the 13th Instant. 

SIR, 

I enclose herewith a copy of a letter from Connnodore Keatj;, and of one 
addressed to him by Cnptam Lord Cochrane, trivinga more rleiailed account 
of ail aitack made upon I'ort iiKquette, at the entrance of the fj;isMn d'Aiv 
casson, whereof the outline was reported in an enclosure of niy ieiler of the 
17th ultimo. 1 am, iS:c. 

ST. \T\CEXT. 

His Majrstifs Ship Superb, oft Ckassiroti, 
MY torp, 'Z8th Junuurij, IQui . 

T have tiie honour herewith to transmit a letter, which I hnvo just re- 
ceived from Lord Cochranii, Captain of Ujs Majesty's siiij> Imperieuse^ 



NAVAI, HISTORY OF THE PUESF.NT YEAR, 1807. 167 

reporting the particu'.iirs of an enterprise (noticed in my letter to your 
Lordship of ihe Idth in'itont,) hii^'hiy crcdituble to Lieutenant Maple- 
ton of that ship, and to the othccrs and men employed under his coiu- 
inand. 

I have the honour to Le, &c. 

R. G. KEATS. 
The Earl of St. Vincent, K. B., c^c. ^c S,-c. 

His ]\rjest.i/'.i Ship imperieuse, 
SIR, January 7, 1807. 

Having been led in chase to the southward yesterday, as tlie Imperieuse 
passed the Bason of .ircasson, in returning to l!ic station you liad assigned. 
Lieutenant MapleCwn volunreered his services to brinji out ivitli the boats 
whatever vessels mighr be found there, and, as a preliminary step, attacked 
I'ort lioquctle, uliii^h was intended for the defence of tlie entrance. A 
Kirge quantity of mditury stores was destro^-ed, four thirty-six poundt-rs, 
two field pieces, and a thirteen inch mortar spiked, the platoons and car- 
riages burnt, and the fort laid in ruins. 

The Honourable Mr. Napier and Mr. H. Stewart, Midshipmen, accon> 
panied Lieutenant Mapleton; and Mr. Gibbert, the Surgeon's tirst Assist- 
ant, embraced the opportunity to show his zeal even in this alfair, forei;;n ta 
Lis profession. 

1 am liapjjy to add, that as it was well conducted, so it was accomplished 
iftitliout any lo^s. 

Subjoined is a liit of vessels taken or dc-troycd since the fifteenth of last 
inontii. 

I have tlie honour to be, &c. 

COCIIRAXE. 

Captain R. Kails, His M.ijest)/^ Ship Superb^ 

Vt'sse/s captured. 

Lc .lean Baptiste, laden with wine; el Anna, laden with wine; Pere de 

Famille, laden with wine; la Decide, laden with rosin; Joseph, laden fviih 
butler and cheese ; Cutter, laden with butter and cheese; VViliiehuiua, ua». 
tioual transport; r.:Vimabifc Xanncte, laden with vviue^ 

Vessels deslroj/ed. 

Ship Frederica, a transport, wrecked; ship St. Jean, a transport, wreck- 
ed; a chassc murce, sunk; la Confiance dc Nantes, destroyed ; a chasse 
maree, destroyed; a sloop sunk, drifted to sea; a small siuop, went 
adrift. 



LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDL\ARY. 
Sl'NDay, Februauy 22, 1807. 

Admiralty Office, Feb. '21, 1807. 
Capfnin Lj/diard, f>fHis Mnje^fy's Ship the Ansvn, urrivd here this m tru- 
ing, aiUi dispatekts from Vic-Adn.iral Dacres, Comiuuiider in Chitfuf 
His Mujcsti/'s Ships and t^es^els at Jumuica, to Wiiliam Marsden, Esq. ; 
of which l/icj'olloxiug are copies. 

sni. Shark, Port Royal, Jan. 11, 1807. 

I have much satisfaction in congratulating my Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralcy on tlw capture of the island of Caracosi) ou NcwYeaiV 



iGS NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUESENt YEAR, 1807. 

I)ay, in the morning, bv the fmir frigates named in the margin *, under th« 
ordcs of Captain Brisbane, (if the Arethiu-a; a copy of whose letter I 
' enclu'-e for their Lordatiips' information. 

W!i;lst r contt njplate t!ie immense strengr!) of the harbour of Amster- 
dam, and the superior force contained in its uilTercnt batteries opposed to 
tilt e-.nrance of tlie fiigates, I know not ho\\ suthciently to admire tlie 
decision of Captain Brisbane in attc rnptmg the Iiarbonr, and the deter- 
mined bravery and conduct displayed by hiniGcIf, the otlier three Captains, 
and all the otlicers and men under his conniianfl : and is another strong 
iiisrance of the cool and determined bra\ery of British seamen. 

Captain Brisbane being from his situation obii^i'd to act as Governor, I 
have, as an acknowledgment and lii^h approbation of hi-? conduct, continued 
hini in tl)at situation until ilis iNiajcstv's pleasure shall be kiiOun; and 
request, in the strongest manner, that tlieu- Lordsliips will be pleased to 
recommend him for ihat appointment. 

Captain Lydiard, (who will liavc the honour of delivering this, and who 
fnlly partook of the conquest, and has before distmouished himself olT the 
Havana,) I beg to refer their Lordships to for any information. I shall put 
an acting Captain into the Ansjn initil his return, or 1 receive directions 
thereon. 1 am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 
SIB, Hk Mujeii^ifs Ship jhr'htisa, Curacoa, Jan. 1, 1807. 

Tt is v.ith the most lively and heartfelt satisfaction I liave tl)e honour to ' 
inform you, that liis Majesty's squadron under my connnand has this day 
opened the New Year with what I humbiy liatlcr myself will be deemed an 
enterpri/.e of considerable consequence to my country. 

I proceeded in the execution of your orders the '->9th of November, with 
fevery possiiile avidity, but the adverse wind and current prevented me fioni 
reacl)ing this inland before the Jst inst. In my way up I njet (^'aptain 
Boltftn, of the Visirard, going to Jamaica; I took hiin under my orders, 
according lo your directions, and proceeded with the squadron off this port, 
ha\inii previously resolved oj'. that sy>teni of aitack which British seamen 
are so capable of executing. My arrangements having been previously made 
known to the respective Cajitaiiis, 1 was satislied nothing farther remained 
for iTicthan to put it in execution. Mylineofbattleconsistedof the '-.rcthusn. 
Latona, Anion, and Fisguard ; anr', very soon after the bnakofday, 1 
made all })OssJi)le sad with tlie ships in close order of battle, passing the 
wiiole extensive line of sea batteries, and anchored the squadron in a style 
far surpaisii a mv cxpecuuions. Being still desirous of having the clfusion 
of liunuui bl,M,d spared, I writ tlie enclosed, No. 1, on the capstan of His 
Majesty's ship Arethusa, during the acti^on, which was not regarded, as they 
did their utmost to destroy us. Words cannot express the ability of the 
Snuadron. The harbour was defended i)y regular fortifications, of two tier 
of guns, Fort Amsterdam alone contistiog uf sixty six pieces of cannon ; 
the entrance only fit'ty yards wide, athwart which was the Dutch frigate 
Hatslar, of 36 gur.s, and Surinam, of 'i'l, with two large sciiooners of war, 
one commanded by a Dutch commander; a chain of forts was on Misel- 
burg commanding height ; and that almost impregnable fortress, Fort 
Republique, within the distance of grape shot, enlilading the whole 
harbour. 

At a quarter past six o'clock we entered the port ; a severe and destruc- 
tive cannonade ensued ; t'le frigate, sloop, and schooners, were carried by 
buardiiigj the lower forts, the citadel and town of Amsterdam, by'"oim; 
ail of V. liich, by seven o'clock, were in onr possession. For humanity sake 
1 grunted die annexed capitulation; and, at ten o'clock, the British flag was 
hojsie.l ir. Fort Rep:;.:jUque : — the whole island is in our quiet pOssessiou. 

* Arethusa, Latona, Anson, and Fisgard. 



NAVAL HISTORY OV THE PRESENT TEAK, 1807. 169 

The strength, commerce, and value, I-unclcrstanii, is immense. It is now 
beconj.e a pleasin;; part of my duty, althoiigii impossible to do ju^tice to the 
merits, gallantry, and determination of Captains Wood, l.ydiard, and Bol- 
ton, wiio so nobly hended tlieir respective ship's companies to tiie storm; 
and the same (gallantry and determination are due to tlie officers, seamen, 
and marines, for followiiii; up so glorious an example. Enclosed is a list of 
tlie killed and vvounfled in His lAIajesty's squadron. I have imt yet been 
able to a-certain ih.it of the enemy, except tfiosc in the ships. I'he l^utch 
Commodore was killed early in ttie action, and the Captain of the Surinam 
severely wounded. I have appointed, by Proclamation, Wednesday next, 
the 7th instant, for riie inhabitants (winch amount to thirty tlionsand), to 
take the Oath of Alle;.;iancc to our Most Gracious Sovcrei:^n ; those who do 
not choose, will he instantly embarked as prisoners of war. For any farther 
particulars, I must beg to reter you to that gnlhuit orHccr, Captain Lydiard. 
I have the honour to be, &:c. 

CHARLES BRISB.iNE. 
To James Richard Dacres, Esq.., Vlce-Admiral 
of the White, Commander in Chief, S^c. 

NUiSIBER I. 

His Majesty Ship ArefhuM, Curacoa Harbour.^ 
srn, Jan. I, iao7. 

The British squadron are here to protect:, and pot to conquer you ; to 
preserve to you your lives, liberty, and property. If a shot is tired at any 
one of Hiy squaflron after this sunnnons, I shall immediatelv storm your 
batteries. You have five minutes to accede to this determination. 
I have the honour to be, &C. 

CHARLES BRISBANE. 
2c His Excellency the Coiernor of Curacoa% 

KU:\iBER IT. 

Curacoa, January I, 1807. 
PRELIMINARY ARTICLES of the Capitulation aj^rced upon hy Charles 
Brisbane, llsq., Captain of His .Majesty's ship Areihusa, and senitir 
otiicer of a squadron of His i!vlajesty's ships at CuracoaJ on the one part; 
and by His Exceliency Pierre Jean Chaiiguion, Governor of the island of 
Curacoa, and its Dependencies, on the other. 

Art. I. The Fort Republique shall immediately be surrendered to the 
British f.jrce ; the Garrison shall ma.'-ch out with the honours of " ar, lay 
down their arn.s, and become pri;:oners of war.— Answer — Granted. 

Art. II. The Dutch Garrison at Curacoa shall be prisoner? of -var, and 
hy His Britannic Majesty sent to Holland, not to serve this war before they 
shall be regularly exchanged ; and for the ckie performaixe of this Article^ 
die officers pifdge tiieir word of I'.onour. — Answer — Granted. 

Art. HI. The same terms as in the above Article, are granted to the 
officers and peojile oi' the Dutch men of war. — Answer — Granted. 

Art. IV, .'\ll the Civil Otliccrs mav remain at their respective appoint- 
ments if they think proper; and those who choose, shuU be sent by His 
Britannic J>lajesty to Holland.— Answer — (Granted. 

Art. V. I he Euij^hers, Merchants, Planters, and other Inhabitants, 
without diiferencc of colour or opinion, shall be respected in tlieir persons 
ami property, provided they take the Oath of .Alleiiiance to Mis Bnuinuic 
JViajcaty. — Aut-wer — Gr.intcd, neutral properly beir.g ic.-pccted. 

.il2a0» €l;rort. uJol.XVU. z 



J70 NAVAL HISTOllY OF THE PRtSTNT YEAR, 1807. 

Art. VI. All the incrcliant vessels, with their carjioes, in the hnrhour, of 
^'hatsoever nation they belong to, sliall be in the possession of ilieir proper 
owners. — Answer — Not Granted. 

Art. VII. A Definitive Capitulation f.haU be signed upon this basis in 
Fort Amsterdam. — Answer — Granted. 

Ctn-acon, Jaiwary 1, 1807. 
The foregoing Airticlcs having this day been mutually read and agreed to, 
this Capitulation is Ijeconie dclinitivc. — Signed ou the one part bv 

CHARLES BRISBANE. 
Signed on the otlier part by His Excellency 

' P. J. ClIANGUiON. 

A List of KlUed and Wounded on hoard His Mnjesfi/s Squadron under ituf 
Command, at the Capture of the hlund of Cutacoa, on the Isl ofjanuury, 
1807. 

Arethusa. — 2 seamen killed, 5 seamen wounded. 
Lntoiia. — 1 seamnu 'nilled, '2 seamen wounded. 
Anson. — None killed, 7 seamen wounded. 
lusgnrd. — None killed, none wounded. 
Total. — 3 scaraeu killed, li scanicii wounded. 

CHARLES BRISBANE. 

Cunicoa, Junuarj/ 3, J 807. 

Lists (if Killed and Wounded on hoard the Hutslar Frigate, Surinmn Sloop, 
and F/i/uig Fish Schoont r. 

Hatslur. — C. J. Evertz, Commandant, killed ; G. B. Z. Gerond, second 
Purser, ditto ; A. Graaf, chief Mate, batliy wounded ; .1. J. N. Giblesperd, 
t>tcward, killed ; William Maubers, seaman, ditto; Henry Driel, seaman, 
ditto. 

Surinam. — .Tan ^'^an Nes, Captain, dangerousdy wounded ; Jean Bap- 
tiste, Lieutenant, ditto; G. B. Baltner, jMidshipman, dangerously wound- 
ed ; Arend Arens, seaman, ditto ; Ecrdinand Ballatin, seaman, ditto (since 
dead.) 

F/j/iiig Fish. — G. II. V. A. Ilinget, Gunner, dead ; M. S. Giblespred, 
Seaman, wounded. 

By Charles Brisbane, Esq., Captain of His IMajcsty's ship Arethusa, 
and senior officer of a squatlron of His Majesty's ships employed at 
Curacoa. 
His Excellency, Lieutenant-Gencral Changuion, Governor and Comman- 
der in Chief of the Island of Curacoa and its Dependencies, having refused 
to take the Oath of Allegiance to His Britarmic Majesty, and surrendered, 
liimself prisoner of war, I have thought proper to appoint myself Governor 
of the said Island and its Dependencies, until the pleasure of the Comman- 
der in Chief is made known ; and I do hereby appoint myself accordingly. 
Given under my hand at Curacoa, this -Ith of January, i;X)7. 

CHARLES BRISBANE. 

By Charles Brisbane, Esq., Captain of His Majesty's ship Arethusa, 
and senior officer of His Britannic Tvlajcsty's squadron in Curacoa 
harbour. 

Whereas this Island and its Dependencies have surrendered to the 
arms of His Britannic Majesty, as appears by the Capitulation which has 
been signed by Hi* Excellency Piene Jean Changuion and me ou the l*t 



NVV\r JUSTOUY OF THE PREST-NT YEAR, 180^. 171 

instant, I therefore hereby require, that all Burghers and Inhabitants of this 
Island, shall meet on Wednrsclay next, the 7th instant, at ton o'clock in the 
morning, at the Government House, in order to take the Oath of Alletriance 
to His liritannic Majesty aforesaid- Tlio^e who belong to tiie Militia 
Companies will receive further orders from their Major, and are to conduct 
themselves accordingly. All those who fill public ollices, of whatsoever 
nature thev may be, and all such as do not belonj; to the Militia Compa- 
nies, are also r,e(|uircd to meet at tho Government HOuse, at the hour and^ 
for the purpose aforesaid. — I expect tliat the Burj^hers and Inhabitants ot' 
this Island will conduct themselves in such a manner as to deserve my 
protection and favour ; ;ind, on my part, shall not fail, as far as in my power 
lies, to promote the ii.-ippiiiOss and welfare of this Island and its Inhabi- 
tints: and I flatter myself that niy endeavours in this case will be crowned 
with the <:raciuus approbatic.i of my Sovcreij^n, and, I hope, to the satisfac*> 
don of the Inhabitants of this Island and its Dependencies. 

Given under my hand, on board His Majesty's ship Arethusa, in th« 
llarboiii- of Curacoa, tliis lifch day of January, 18U7. 

CHARLES BRISB^VN'E. 



Erratum in the Gazette of 27th January, 1807. 
Admirulty Office, Janiiari/ 27, 1807. 
For Dispatches, of which the following are Copies, 
Read, Dispalchesj of which the foilowing are Uitracts and Copies. 



31mf£rial parliament. 

HOUSE OF LORDS, Thursday, Fee. 5- 

IT ORD GREXVILLE, in moving the second reading of the Bill for abo» 
jLA lishinij the Slave Trade, expatiated, at great Icneth, on the in;policy, 
as well as inhumanity, of courinuiug that traffic, until the whole island oi 
Jamaica and tlie settlement of Trinidud should be cleared. If that were to 
be done, three centiu'ies must ehipse, during which the tratHc must be cop* 
tinned to the same extent as at present, for each of those islands would re- 
quire the importation of 1,0U0,0U0 of Megroes. His Lordship observed, 
that should no other country unite with us in putting an end to this detest- 
able traffic, that ought not to prevent us from obeyiug the dictates of jus- 
tice. In the American Congress, however, there was a Bill passing un- 
resisted, througli its dilYerent stages, for inflicting on t!»e continuation of 
this traftc the punishment of death. Denmark had abolished it ; Sweden 
had never engaged in it; and, at jn-csent, at least France, Spain, and Hol- 
land, could not carry it on. Portugal, unassisted by British capital and 
shipping, and deprived of a market in the \\'es£ India islands, could not 
carry it on to any great extent, if she were disposed to continue it. His 
Lordship then proceeded to consider the state of the Negroes already im- 
ported into the NVest India islands ; with regard to whom, he dep.ecated all 
intcrftrence on the part of the liritish Legislature, and reconnncnded a slow 
and gradual emancipation, under sucii regulations as the Colonial Assemblies 
might think prrjpcr to adopt. 

'ihe Duke of Clarence, in opposing tiie measure, predicted, that in less 
than live years after piissing the present Bill, Parliament would have to 
j-epeal it. 

The Duke of Gloucester spoke in favour of the BiU ; and Lord Mortoji, 
jj^.4 tl^e Earl of Westmoreland, against it. Lord Selkirk, Lord lloilyn, Lord 



172 KAVAL HrSTOKY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Kin^, Lord IMoira, the Bishop of Durham, Lord Northesk- the Earl of Suf- 
folk, aud Lord A illaud, aUo gave their support to the Bill; which was op- 
posed by Lord St. Vincent, Lord Eldon, and Lord Hawkesbury. — The Iloubs 
at length divided on the second reading. 

C intents "^"otes 72 Proxies 28 — — 100 

Non-Conteuts -Vote*' 28 Proxies 8 36 

Majority 64 

FRIDAY, TEB. 6. 

In a Committpe on the Slave Trade Abolition Bill, Lord Grenvjlle, in pro-! 
posing that tiiri blanks of the Bill should be ijlled up, wished to fix the Ub 
iiiited time t<<r ships to proceed on this trathC; to the 1st day of May next. 
This would atford opportunity sutticieut for ail those who had already em-, 
barked in the trade to complete the object they iiad coiiimcticed, without 
any deti-imeut to their interest, and prevent the Bill i'roin taking; tiie ch'ect 
of an ex post facto law. For j?r')hibitinii all further dealm^ on the trade from 
Africa, lie would fix the 1st of January, 1808; and for the termination of it 
all together in tiie West Indies, to the 1st of January, JoOB, also.— 
Resolutions to this offect were moved, and the bhuiks ordered to be lilicd 
up accordingly. 

The several clauses of the Bill being iione through, and the question 
on the preamMe beiug put, " tiiat it should stand part of the Bill," 

Lord Hawke^bnry moved an amendment, that tlig words, "justice and 
humanity" should be om.ttcd la the preamble, ur!:;;ig, that they implied an 
indirect censure upon ourselves, for having continued the trajhc so long; 
and that the sla\es understanding, for the hrst time, that to be the prevail- 
ing cause of at length abandoning it altogether, it might lead to revolts and 
niirfchief in our Colonies, not to be calculated. 

This produced a conversation of some length; after which the Hou^e di~ 
%'ided, when there appeared for the amendment, 10— Against it, 33. — 
The original motion, therefore, was carried, and the report urdcred. 

TUESDAY, FEB. 10. 

The Bill for the Abalition of the Slave Trade, was read a third time 
and passed. 

THURSDAY, FEB. 19,. 

The Royal Assent, by comn■^i^sion, was given to a Bill for preventing tha 
seduction of men from the Navy; and to a Bill for rcgulatiu- the trade am^ 
commerce of liie Cape of Good fiope. 

HOUSE OF COMMONS, Friday, Jan. 23. 

Mr. T. Grenville, in a CommiUee of Supply, rose to propose a vofe of 
10,000 stamen for the Navy, in addition to the 120,000 already granted tor 
the service of 1807. Li the course of his speech, he also stated the out- 
line of a new plan, which it was intended to follow in future, iu making up 
the accounts relative to the Navy; by ufiigh the expenditure incuircd 
under each particular, of timber, cordage, &c., would b^ separately kut^ 
before Parlisiment. 

Mr, Rose observed, that there was nntlnng new in the supposed im- 
provement promised by the first Lord of the Admiralty; for the acctiuuts of 
the nav?J expenditure had, for yenrs, been kept under the distinct heads 
mentioned by hnii, thouj^h it Ijud iK»t been usual to state to the Houi-e any 
more than tlie fovms. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE riirSEN'T YEAR, 1807. 173 

This remark led to a conversation of coiisiderulile length; in the course 
of which, Mr. Cireuvillc and Mr. \'ausittart declared, that they had found 
no such documents in the Public Othces, as those alluded to by Mr. Rose. 
Tlie latter <;entlcninn, after a few minutes' absence from his seat, returned 
with a paper, from svhicli he read a variety of items, in proof of his state^ 
luent. The resolution was at lengtti put, and agreed to; as were also vari- 
ous resoluliuns, under the followinij heads of estnnates: — Wages, 240,500/, ; 
Victualling, 247,000,.; Wear and Tcvr, :39(),000/,; Ordnance, ^52,500/.; 
Ordinaries, 1,135,43-1/, 9s, 'Id.; Buildmg, and extra works, 2,134,903/.; 
Transports, 1,500,000/. ; Sick and \Voundcd, at home and abroad, 300,000/. ,- 
Prisoners of War, 500,000/. 

MONDAY, JAX. 26, 

The Report of the Committee of Supply, on the vote for 10,080 addi* 
tional seamen, t<.c. was brought up, and agreed to. 

MONDAY, lEB. 2. 

Mr. Slieridan, agreeably to notice, moved for, and obtained, leave lo 
bring in a Bill, for the fuitlicr regulation uf the Office of Treasurer of His 
Majesty's, .Navy. — In prciacmg his motion, lie observed, that there could be 
but (me seutiincnt as to t!ie propriety of the measure. There had been 
passed an .'.c; for tlie regulation of the Offices of Treasurer and Paymaster 
of the Aavy ; but the opinions of the Judges, as delivered in the case of lx>rd 
Melville, had thrown doubts upon that Act, It was provided by that Act, 
that on no account should the Treasurer of the Navy, and the Paymaster, 
have any eiiioluments from the public money in their hands, yet the opinions 
of the Judges had rendered the o[)eration of that provision doubtful. It 
was necessary to remove those doubts l)y a new Act, that should subject the 
Bank to as little inconvenience as possible. This was the object of his pro- 
posaL 

WEDNESDAY, FEB. 4. 

Mr. Percival, agreeably to notice given a fortnight before, respecting the 
lieutral tratle, in(/>ed, that an luimble address should be presented to His 
Majesty, praying that His Majesty would be graciously pleased to direct, 
that there should be laid upon the table a copy of the (_>rder of His Majesty 
in Council, on the 7th of Jaimary, relative to vessels sailing from port to 
port, such ports being in possession of the enemy. 

Sir John iN'icholl, the Advocate General, in following Mr. Percival, took 
a most a>)le and cMensive view of the subject. As to tiic measure pro- 
posed, by that hunouiable and learned gentleman, to be substituted for the 
order of council, namely, that no ships with colonial produce should be suf- 
fered to enter t!ic ports of France; such a measure would not be mcn-e dis- 
tressing to the trade of France than to that of neutrals, or to our own trade, 
}t would be injurious to our trade, because the neutrals, by carrying the 
colonial produce of the enemy, are enabled to export our manufactures in 
great quantities. The House of Commons would not, therefore, in the exer- 
cise of its inquisitorial powers, interfere with this act of the executive, until 
jt should see what etl'ect would be produced by the measure that had al- 
ready been resorted to. It was his opniiun, tfiat the cutting off of the coast- 
ing trade would be higldy distressing to tVatice. But if France should, in 
the madness of her policy, think of shutting up the remaining neutral ports 
tipon rhe Continent, she would soon find tiiat they are now as necessary to 
her as to Croat Britain. It was therefore his opinion, that they should in 
the fir.^t instance make trial of the measure that had been adopted, as they 
would at idl tunes have it in their power to resort to mcaiures of greater 



174 NATAL mSTOKY OF THE PilESENT YEAR, 1807. 

extremity, if sach should be found ne.cessary. If tlie enemy should persist 
in their deciT?e, and attempt to enforce it, thfiii he was convinced tliat the 
country had builicient means, and His iMajesty's Ministers sufficient vigour, 
to resort to such measures as should be deemed necessary for a complete 
retaliation. 

A long and spirited debate ensncd; in which the motion was opposed, as 
unprecedented, unconstitutional, and injurious. — Lord Ilowick, in parti- 
cular, observed, that it was direcU'd against a nKasure in proj^ress; and 
which, if deficient in its oVrject, might be succeeded with ulterior means ; 
but that at present it was su connected with the dearest interests of us and 
our friends, that without danger to both, it could not be discussed. — The 
motion was at length withdrawn. 

On the motion of Air. ituse, it was ordered that there be laid before the 
House an account of the tonnage of ships that arrived from China each 
year, from 1778 to the present lime. Also an account of the manufactures 
exported to China since 1773, with their real value. Also an account 
of the quantity and value of tobacco, tea, and various other articles 
exported. 

TUESDAY, FEB. 10. 

The Slave Trade Abolition Bill was brought down from the Lords, and 
read a first time. 

WEDNESDAY, I'EB. 1 1 . 

In a Committee on the report of the Sierra Leone Petition Committee, 
leave was moved for, and given, to bring in a liill for transforring to His 
Majesty certain possessions and rights vested in the Sierra Leone Com- 
pany. 

TKunSDAY, rr.B. 12. 

In a Committee on the report concerning the Naval Asylum, it was 
agreed to move for leave to bring in a Bill for empowering His Majesty to 
grant the Royal Palace and appurtenances in Greenwich Park, to certain 
Trustees, for tl:-j use and occupation of the said Asylum. 

MOKDAY, FEB. 16. 

Sir Charles Price presented a petition from the Ship-owners qf the port 
of London, which stated, that they apprehended it was one of the objects of 
the new financial arrangement, to continue the additional duties laid on the 
tonnage of shipping; they prayed, therefore, that these duties miglit cease 
at the end of the war. Ordered to be laid on the table. 

ERIDAY, FEB. 20. 

Mr. T. Grenville presented a copy of the warrant, by which the Lords of 
the Admiralty had tiiought proper to put Sir Home Pupham, a Member of 
thib House, under arrest.' — The Clerk then read the copy of the warrant, in 
substance as follows : — 

" Whereas, Captain Sir Home Pophain left the Cape of Good Hope witli- 
out any orders, and proceeded to attack a Spanish settlement on Itio de la 
Plata; now this is to command you, that you take the said Sir Home Pop- 
ham under arrest, preparatory to his trial by Court IMartial for liis said 
offence. But you are not to put him to any greater intonvenience than is ab- 
solutely necessary; and, therefore, having made the arrest, you are to take 
his word of honour for his apj)earance, when the Court Martial takes 
place, and you are to attend him to and from the said Court Martial. 

" To Jo.hn Cricket, £sq. Marshal 
of t fit: AdiuiratijJ' 



JfATAL HISTOnV or THE PRESE^fT YEAK, 1807. 175 

On the motion of Lord liowick, this documciit was ordered to be entered 
on tlie Journals of the House. 

Tiie Slave Trade Abolition Bill was read a second time; after wJiich, 
(/enerul Gascoi!j,iic t^ave notice, that it was liis iiiteiitiou to move for com- 
pensation to sucii of the \Ncst India traders and planters, as miglit suffer in- 
jury fioui tlic passing of this Bill into a law. 



j[Pr&niotionj3 auB appointmcnt0» 

His Majesty has been pleased toy direct tliat a pension of .'500/. per 
atinuin be settled on Sir Samuel Hood, in cuusideratjoii of tlte loss of his 
arm. 

Captain Alexander IVaser, to the Prince ; Captain P. Puget, to the 
Gibraltar; Captain T. liowen, to the Hindostan ; Captain G. Pi*^>t, to 
tlie Blossom; JMr. Payne, firot Lieutenant of the Clyde, is promoted to a. 
(Jonnnander. 

.T. W. Nelson, Esq., Clerk of the Survey at liis Majesty's dock-yard at 
Deptford, is appointed Store-keeper of His Majesty's dock-yard at Potts- 
mouth, in the room of VV. Gilbert, Fsq., who is superannuated. J.Scott, 
Esq., Clerk of the Rope-yard at Plymouth, succeeds Mr. Nelson, at Dept,. 
ford; and Mr. Scott's son is appointed Clerk, of the Ilope-yard at Ply- 
moutii. Mr. Gilbert has been a zealous, upright, and faithful pubhc ser- 
vant in His JMajesty's service 47 years ; he retires with a pension of oOO/,. 
a year. 

Lieutenant Rose, of the Royal William, is appointed to command tlie 
Crown, prison ship, at Portsmouth. 

Mr. W. H. Banks, (of Rhytie,) is promoted frotn Assistant Surgeon of the 
Ilibernia, to be Surgeon of the Hermes, sloop of war. 

Captain J. West, to the Excellent; Captain Lake, (re- appointed) to the 
Gibraltar; Captain K. M'Kenzie, to the Valiant ; Captain Raggett, to th^ 
Africaine; Captain Rose, to retain the command of the Agamemnon; 
Captain W. Peake, to the Etna; Captain SchomberiT, to the Juno; Cap- 
tain Mainwaring, to the Tartarus ; Lieutenant D, Carpenter, to the 
Chearful cutter. 

Earl Nelson, by Lord Grenville, upon his receiving the grant of a pen- 
sion and estate, and receiving His Majesty's permission to accept the title 
of Duke of Bronte, in Sicily. 

Viscount Trafalgar, son to the Earl, by Lord Grenville, upon Ins receiving 
His Majesty's permission to assume the title of Viscount Trafalgar, and to 
accept the Order of St. Joachim. The Noble Viscount wore the Riband, 
and all the Insignia of the Order, as worn by his late Uncle, x4.dmiral Lord 
Nelson. 

New and immense powers have been granted by ihe Kinp; of Spain to 
the Prince of Peace. He is appointed to the office of High Admiral gf 
Spain and the Indies, and Protector of Commerce, with the title of 
" Serene Highness." 

Captain Brcnton is appointed to the Spartan ; and Captain M'Leod to 
the Superb, bearing the broad pendant of Commodore KcHts. 

The Spartan frig-.ite, Captain Brcnron, takes the East India convoy as fir 
as the Cape of good Hope, in.stcad of the .'\ntclope, Captain Eea.:icy, which 
i* to sail alone with Lord Calcdon, for tiie Cape. 

\ 



ITS NAVAt HISTOUY OV TIlC PHE^ENT YEAR, 1S07. 

BIRTHS. 

On tlie 31st of Dccember,180(j, the ^vife of Captain Foote, R. N., of a 
daupjhter. 

On the 16th of February, 1807, at Brompton, London, the hidy of Cap- 
tain J. JSrentou, o( the Navy, of a son. 

MARRIAGES. 

Lately ^vas raarried, at NcnfouncIlanH, Lieutenant Bibhop, of the TMac- 
iarel schooner, to Miss Duggin, daughter of Mr. Dugi^in, Surgeon, of St. 
John's. 

On the 25th of January, was married, at Alverstoke. Lieutenant Elers, 
of the Royal Navy, to Miss Yuunghusband, daughter of the late G. Yount^- 
liusband, Esq. of Berwick upon Tweed, and sister to the late Captain Youn^-* 
husband, of the llo^al Navy. 

OBITUARY. 

On the 16th of January, died, of the dropsy, at Lambeth, London, Cap- 
tain Jolin Larniour, of the Royal Navy, late of Mis Majesty's ship Emerald. 
An excfUent otficei', who rose, by forluuate merit alone, from the humblest 
bituatioiKin a ship. 

On the 21st of January, died, J. Swaffield, Esq. jun. chief Clerk at the 
Kavy Pay Otiice at PortMuouth Jock-}urd. 

On the 2d of February, most poignantly regretted by her parents and re- 
latives, Miss Ann Montai;u, youngest daugliter of Admiral Montagu, Com- 
uiiuider in Chief at Portsmouth. 

An inquisition was held at Portsmouth, on the body of John Ilayman, a 
seaman, belonging to tiie Daring gun-brig, wlio fell, two days previously, 
from the main-topsail-yard, while reefing the sail, and fractured his skull. 
ngainst a gun. Verdict — Accidental Death. 

On Sunday, the 7th of February, at her house in Hinde-street, Manches- 
ter square, the Right Hon. Raroncss Dufferin and Claneboye, of the county 
of Down, Ireland, at the age of 80 years, leaving issue five sons and four 
daughters, all married, and by them fifteen grand cliildren. She was mother 
of the gallant and brave Captain Henry Blackv/ood, the confidential friend 
of the most Illustrious Lord Nelson, especially in tlie glorious battle of 
Trafalgar. She was alwr.ys admired amongst her numerous friends, for the 
dignity of her manner, and the wir, of her repartee; and she was also, 
durint' a tedious illness, the admiration of all for piety and foriitudc, which 
has been often aimed al of late by the philosophers of the age, but never 
surpassed by those brave men, wlio, by their destinations in life, Iim'. e often 
met death in the field. She died with calmness and tranquillity. She is 
succeeded in her fortune and title by litr eldest sun, the Hon. Sir James 
Blackwood, now Lord Duflerin and Claneboye. 

On the 14th of February, a very sad and fatal accident happened in 
Portsmouth dock-yard : — Mr. Campbell, foreman of Mr. Huft'am's contraci- 
xiggers, was struck in the head with tlie studdins-sail-booin-on hoard the 
Brunswick, which was fixing to form part of a stage; the blow was so vio- 
lent, that it instantly killed him. This accident is rendered the more af- 
flicting by its being the first day of his employment here, and he has leit a 
wife and three children. 




^^^^MttMi €>f the 



GEAIRT BAIR- 






PubUihed. 32^Mt>vhie07. Jy J- Gcl& 203. StwcLaiialUet Strett 



BXOCRAPinCAL MEMOIR OF THE LATE 

SIR FRANCIS GEARY, Bart. 

ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADRON. 



"He was BUT WORDS ARE WAXTISO TO SAY WHAT; 

Say all that's odod and bkave, and ke was that." 

LOUD LYTTLfTOV. 

*|rX presenting a memoir of Aclmiml Sir Francis Geary — a 
■^ distinguislied officer of tlio old school — %ve are in hopes of 
gratifying many ol the friends of that deceased Commander. 

The father of Sir Francis was the descendant of an ancient 
family, which had been long settled near Aberystwyth, in the 
county of Cardigan. In the earlier part of his life, he resided 
at Cheddington, Bucks; but after\^a^d3 at Areall Magna, near 
Wellington, in Shropshire. Sir Francis was born in the year 
1709; but whether at Che^ington, or at Areall Magna, we 
know not. 

Wr. Charnock * informs us, that, having made choice of a 
naval life, Mr. Geary was, in 1727, by an Admiralty order f^ 
entered as a Vohmteer on board the Revenge, a 70 gun-ship, 
at that time commanded by Captain Conningsby Norbury. She ^s- 

was one of the fleet which, under the orders of Sir J ohn Nor- -' 

ris, was sent to the Baltic, for the purpose of overawing the 
Czarina, and preventing a rupture between the courts of Den- 
mark and Sweden.— On his arrival off Copenhagen, Sn .John was 
joined by a Danish squadron ; but, as the death of the Czarina 
happened soon after, hostilities were prevented, the Russian tleet 
was laid up, and the English Conmiander returned home. 

Imnjediately on her return, the Revenge was ordered to 
Gibraltar, as a reinforcement to Sir Charles Wagor, who had 
. .> ' - ■ ' - ■ 

* To Mr. Ciiarnock's very useful piililication, 7'/ic BiociK,\j'u:A Navalis, 
we are indebted tnr the principal facts in thii nieimtjr. 

t This, according to the earlier usuj^t; of lln: ^ll»v^, w&s denominated Uw 
Kin'i''s Letter. 



i7S KIOGRAI'lIU AL MLMOIK Ot iflE I.ATi: 

been sent tluther to ri^livve the place Iruiu the Snauiiird.-; by 
Mhom it was tlinn bisii. p'tl. 

Oi thf sncceediiii, tiflfen years of Mr. v»far\V life, we kwow 
nothiijg tarlherj ihaii that he cfniuiujtd to sti\c in tlii^ Navv, as 
a Midsliipman, a..d altciward^ as a Jjeutt'uaiU. On iht 'jO'Ji of 
June, \7-^~, iie was promoted frcm the lutlei' rank, to be Cap- 
tain of the Squirrel, of CO guns. Soon afleiward?, he wis 
ordered out on a cru:-e otY liie island of ^ladeira ; where, on 
the lOlh of February, 1743, ho fell in with the Pierre .Joseph, 
a Frc'icli ship chartercil by th.e Spani.sl) merchants at Cadi/, atid 
bound thither from the ports of \ era Cruz and the Havana. — 
" The eiieiny had used consmiunate art in endeavouring to 
conceal from any ship that mJ'j.ht casually meet them, the 
knowh dge of the [)ersons to whom tiie cargo in reality belonged. 
The papers were all throv>n overboard, and the Supercarjio 
concealed hm}?eif. The Ma'-.ter was a Frera Innau, unlrue to 
bis trust, and dishonest to his employers, for he coiifesscd the 
■whole cargo was totally Spanish property. It consisted of 
sixty-five chf-ts of silver, each ccmtajn.'ug ih.rec th.ousand nieces 
of eight, (}ve hides of cochineal, (irt\->^evcn of indigo, ar.d one 
c;i-e nf viniilla, a quantiiy of sugar, and 'Inee thousand fi\e hn;;- 
ditd hfdes." 

PreMoiisly to this. Captain Gear, hud cnnUned a Sjjanish 
privateer, \sliich he manned am! employed as an armed tender; 
and, in company with her, he had, on the '2f)lii of the prect dinu 
month, taken and bmnt a Spanisf: armed ^liip. 

Before he sailed upon tins cruise, wliicii proved so snrcess- 
fid, he entcicd into an engagement with another Captain, to 
share witli him whatever pri.ns they migh.t take, during a given 
period. I'lie Fieri e Joseph was not . captured till after the 
expiration of the term agreed upon ; notwitlistanding which, 
Ca[)iain Geary, m the most honomable manner, presented his 
frieu.l with a fair moiety of the pnze ; eN})vessing his conviction, 
that be wonid 'ave dcud m the same manner towards hini, had 
he been eqaaliv siiccesstul. 

Captain Geary apjHars to ha\e b* en extremelv fortunate in 
his captures. " Eaiiy in 1744," '=>-'ys J>lr. Charnuck, '* he com- 



«iH FRVNCis f;r.Ariv, n.^RT. 179 

i-'nnrlfJt * oiii/iL time, the Dolpliin; but, f)'.i tlie 17'-h 

( us jjioinotcd to tlif Ciu'Ster, of 50 guns: and 

b':'.: •-, • Hit to cruise, in company with C;ij5l:!;!i iJictt, of the 
Savidcriaad, captureii, on the 'iOlli of rtbiuarv, a French fiij^ale, 
ot JO guns, and l.^-i intn, bfsiilfs niauy pn>;s{ngcis of conse- 
quence, liaving on board t\vent\-f<;ur tisousand dollars, and a 
vfry vakiablo cargo." — Fuitiier on, in a note, Mr. Ch;'rucck 
savs : — " In a meniorandnm nuide bv himyelf. Sir Francis 
stah-^, that w'lile he command! d the Chu--ter, he ciip'ared, a!'t<T 
a triiHn-j,- skirmish, as he terms it, but in which he hud an officer 
kiii( <!; and sevcra! men killed an(i wounded, a I'rcnch frigate, 
calh d th.e Elephciut. W iiether th.is circumstance took phico in 
Fnrope, or durm;; the time he s\ as at Louisburc:, he is silent." 
The fact is, that bo(h of these accounts relate to one an<l the 
same capture. But the iJepliant, commanded by M. Seliot, 
was taken on the '2()lh of Fobrunrv, 174o, and not 1744- By 
the date, this ("vcnt took p'ace b'i'orc Captain Geary sailed ivr 
jjouisbing. 

Iji the year 1744, houcver, this oftircr participated in the 
taking f)f ri^iit French \N est Indiamen. It does not appear that 
that exploit was ofTlrially recorded ; but the following account 
thereof was given in one of the newspiipe.rs of the day : — - 

July the 1st, 1744. — Vesterdiy morning an CTprc-s arrived at 
(he Adinindfy Oilico, with an account that Ilis Maj;"-fv's ships tlis 
J{:iTr.pton Court, and Chester, with the Grampus shjop, have 
tak. n ei;.':ht West Indiamen, from flispaniola and Marthiiro, 
curr'. iiig 1 .'iS s""^? ^i-'' •'' ' ■^ men. Tln^ Chester aifd Grampus arfe 
since arrived in the Downs with their prizes. 

[n the month of February, 174.5, C-sptnin Geary sr.t as one 
of tlie menibers of the. Court Martial, v,};ich was holdcn on 
board the Lenox, in PorL*mf)uth harbour, for the tiials of tlie 
Captains, GrifHii, Mi^styn, lirctt, and Fowke*; soon after 

* Thi se oiHcers hjivin;^ heeii much ceiisuipci liv tiic jn.hiic tor not coji- 
tiiHiinjr to pursue and eiiia;:c' two Fronrh ships of w;ir, le Neptune !ind le 
Fltufon, of 74 izuns eiicli, \\l)i(h flifyti-ll in -vlth in "ihe ('liar:ripl, ']■ mauried 
a f'or.rt Martial to in'^niirt iiuo their ("Hiducf, ai)4 \^cve hoiionrahly 
acquitted. Captniti Brett, ns well as (^iptaiu Cc;iiv, afterwards joined 
Cuintuodore Waricn's squadron off Louibburg. 



180 BIOCRAFinCAL MEMOIR OP THE t,ATE 

v.'luch he Avas ordered for Louisbnrgj to reinforce tlie small 
squadron, then employed in the reduction of that place, under 
the late Commodore Sir Peter Warren*. Shortly after the 
surrender of Louisburg, in June, Captain Geary v. as sent home 
Avith an express ; a circumstance by which he was prevented 
from receiving a share of the immense property that was 
subsequently captured. He is said to have thus sustained a 
*' negative loss" of nearly 12,000/. 

Soon after his arrival in England, Captain Geary Mas 
appointed, through the special interest of the Duke of Bcdford_, 
at that time first Lord of the Admiralty, to the Culloden, of 7-t 
guns. In this ship he was, in 1 747, ordered into the Bay of 
Biscay, with the squadron under the command of Rear- Admiral 
Ilawke, with whom he remained, on constant service, until the 
conclusion of the war, in 1748'f'. While thus employed, he 
had the misfortune to encounter a violent storm,, in which the 
Culloden lost one of her masts. 

Captain Geary was next appointed Commander in Chief of 
the ships in the Medway, with the rank of Commodore ; an 
appointment which he is supposed to have holden but a short 
time ; as> in the month of September, 1748, he quitted the 
Culloden, and is not known to have received any subsequent 
command, until the beginning of the year \7o5. 

In the course of the same month that he left the Culloden, 
Captain Geary niarricd Miss Bartholomew, a Kentish lady, of 
considerable fortune; througli whom his son and successor, the 
present Sir William Geary, inherits the family seat of Oxeu' 
heath. — During the remainder of the peace he lived in retire- 
ment. 

In consequence of the French having continued to foment 
disturbances in America, it was found expedient, in the spring 
of 1755, again to prepare for hostilities. At this time, Ca})tain 

* yide Naval C'droniclk, Vol. XII, pa;^e 263. 

+ Captain Geary does not appear to have joined .Admiral Ilawke, until 
after his action with the French squadron of M. de I'Etcndiere. Viile 
Kaval Chkdmcif, Vol. VII, piic;c 454. Indeed we have some doubt, 
whether he joined him at all be-fore January 374B. 



SIR FRANCIS GEARY, BART. 181 

Geary was appointed to the Somerset, of 70 guns ; and, in the 
month of April, he sailed for North America, under the com- 
mand of Admiral Boscawen *. The result of this expedition 
was, that thecomhincd squadrons, of Boscawen and Holbournc, 
captured two of de la Motte's ships, the Alcide^ and the Lys, 
of 64 guns each, with 80,000/. sterling, and a number of French 
ofKcers of distinction on board. Finding that nothing farther 
was likely to be aeliieved, x\dmiral Boscawen returned to 
Fngiand in November. 

At tlie close of the year. Captain Geary was ordered to join 
the Channel fleet, then under the command of Sir Edward 
Hawkc. In the winter of 1756-7, he was one of the members 
of the Court Martial, assembled on board the Prince George, 
in Portsnjouth harbour, for tlie trial of Admiral Byng, the result 
of which it is unnecessary to state. 

The only material success that Giptain Geary met Avith, 
whilst employed in the Channel fleet, appears to have been the 
following : — 

At dawn of clay (in April, 1757,) the Somerset and Rochester 
men of war discovered ftve sail about two leagues distance; they 
consisted of three ship-, one snow, and a schooner : upon which 
the Somerset and Rochester immediately chased the two largest, 
who bore away to the northward, and the other three hauled to 
the north-west, iieforo noon tlie Somerset and Rochester took 
them; one named the llenonnnee, burthen three hijndred and fifty- 
tons, laden chiefly with pork, llour, and two hundred muskets : 
the other, the Superb, burthen seven hundred and lil'ty tons, hiden 
with some provisions, bale goods, and several cases ot small arms, 
both letter of marque ships from Bourdeaux to QucbLC, havinj; on 
board two hundred and forty-two othcers and soldiers of the royal 
regiment of foreign vohniteers, wliich, Avith the scavien and 
passengers, amounted to three hundred and ninety-one prisoners. 

About the month of Februtiry, ]7o8. Captain Geary was 
appointerl to the I^enox, a new third rate, of 74 guns ; but 
quitted her, in the following year, for the Resolution, a ship of 
the same force. On the 1 8th of May, 17 o9, he sailed with the 

* Vide Naval Cuuo.vicle, Vol. VII, page 200. 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF THE L V7E 

fieet commanded by Sir Edward Hawkc ; and^ in tliree days 
after, was ordered, by the Commander in Chief, to iioist a red 
broad pendant, as Commander of a division or squadron, con- 
sisting of ten ships of the line, two frigates, and a fire-ship. It 
does not appear, that, in this new comiTxand, he had any parti- 
cular opportunity of distinguishing himself. Whilst at sea, in 
v})e month of June, he received his commission*, as Rear- 
j^dmiral, accompanied by instructions to put himself under the 
command of Sir Edward Hawke, with the following squa- 
dron : — 

Ships, Guns. Com.mn)j^eys. 

r Francis Geary, Ilear-Admiral 

Sandwichf.... 90 < of the Blue. 

C Captain R. Norbury. 

Fondroyant ...... 8J R.Tyrrell. 

Bienfaisant 64 ■ G. Balfour. 

America 60 ■ • J. Kirk. 

Anson 60 M. Whitwell. 

Firm . 60 J. Revuokls. 

Juno 32 ■ • J. I'hillips. 

On the 29th of August, he shifted his flag from the Sand- 
wich, into the Royal George, the former having been ordered 
into Plymouth to refit. When she rejoined the fleet, off 
IJshant, on the '29th of September, he again hoisted his flag in 
the Sandwich ; in which he remained, under Sir Edward 
Hawke, watching the fleet of Confluns, then King in Brest 
harbour, till the strong westeiiv winds drove the British ships 
from their station, and compelled them to put into Torbay, in 
the beginning of November. The Sandwich, having sprung her 
main-mast, was prevented from getting in till after the rest of 
the fleet. 

Sir Edward Flawkc put to sea again, on the 14th of the 
month (November) in quest of the enemy i; ordering Rear- 
Admirai Geary to land his sick, amouiiting to eighty-seven, at 



* Dated, either on the V.)0.i of May, or l!ie 5lS ofjaiie. 
t The Reiir-Arlmiral first hoisted his flai!; on Ijoanl of the Resolution oa 
the 1 Ith of June; hut removed it iuto the S'lndsvieli on the 7th of Jul^. 
I I'iiJc Naval Ciuioniclk, Vol. VII, page -162. 



SIR FRANTIS r.r.ARV, HAUT. 183 

Plymoutii, and to pet up :i iiiw toji-niu-it ; alter wlifch he was 
to proceed to tlie place of rendezvous, off Ushaiit, taking 
with him out of Uie Sound every ship that was ready for sea. 

Unfortunately, the delay, thus necessarily occasioned, prevented 
the Rear-Adiuiral from rejoining the Commander in Chief, 
sufiiciently early to participate in the memorable defeat of tho 
]Marijuis de Conflans *. Exerting himself, how tver, with the 
greatest possible diligence, " he sailed from Plymouth on the 
19th of November, carrying with hau the Foudroyaiit and 
Jiienfaisant; but, on his passage to the appointed rendezvous, he 
received a letter and order from Sir Edward Hau ke, instructing 
him to continue cruising oti' Brest, with all the ships of his 
squadron, till farther orders. On the '2'2d of November the 
Actoon joined him with a duplicate of the order last mentioned, 
enclosed to him by Commodore llauuay, from Plymoiilh. 
When otf Ushant, he unfortunately encountered a most tremen- 
dous gale, whicli drove him near two hundred leagues to the 
westward: he then made sail and regained his station, where he 
continued, though w ithout being fortunate enough to met.'t with 
any success till towards the end of JDccember, and returned inlu 
port on the QJih, having been seven months and nine days ut 
sea, with the trivial interval of putting into Plymouth Sound for 
three days, by order of Sir Edward Hawke, to put his sick nicu 
on shore, to procure water and get up liis top-mast." 

jAfter this long cruise, Rear-Admiral Geary contiriUfJ in 
port till the 30th of April, 17(iO; when he received an order 
from Admiral Boscawen, to proceed, with a squadron]- uudtr 
his command, to cruise off Rochfort, for the purpose of inter- 
cepting a French expedition, then fitting for the Iva'^t Indies, iu 
that harbour. This w as a measure of precaution, on the part of 
Government ; as, had the French squadron got to sea, and 
arrived safely in India, their naval force in that quarter would 
have become greatly si perior to that of ll;e English. Accord- 



* ViJe Xavai. CniiONirt p., Vol. VU, f)a;:e 40'?. 

f The Saiithvicli, War^pitc, Orford, Torbuy, Chichester, Priucess 
Amelia, uud Unicorn (Vl^aie. 



184 BIGGRAPincAL MEMOIR OF TUT. LATE 

injE^Iy, tlie Rear-Admiral continued cruising off Rochfort^ and 
occasionally anchoring in Basque Road, in sight of the encmvj 
till the 6th of September. On that day, it having been ascer- 
tained that the Frerjch had abandoned their intended expedition, 
and had actually unrigged their ships, he received orders to 
join Sir Edward Hawkc, in Quiberon Bay. This junction he 
effected '' on the 7th_, and continued on that station, with Sir 
Edward, till the 3d of October, when he received orders from 
the Commander in Chief to proceed to Spilhead, where he 
arrived on the 25th of the same month. On the following day 
he struck his flag, having obtained leave of absence from the 
Admiralty Board, but soon after\\ards was invested with the 
command as Port Admiral of the ships and vessels at Spilhead, 
being successor to Vicc-Admiral Holbourne : lie accordingly 
hoisted his flag on board the Royal Sovereign. — His first conse- 
quential charge, after entering on this office, was the equipment 
of the squadron intended for the expedition against Belleisle, 
and the embarkation of the troops destined for that service. 
The same occupation, thougli not on so extensive a scale, not- 
withstanding the object itself was more important, was, repeated 
in 1761. This was the superintendance of the equipment ot 
that part of the arnsamcnt which sailed from England, under 
the command of Sir George Pocock, destined for the attack of 
the Havana and the island of Cuba. The great diligence and 
attention to the service, as well as the indefatigable exertions 
disj)IaYed by Mr. Geary, in forwarding every thing that related 
to it, were so conspicuous, that the Earl of Albemarle, the 
General in Chief, made a very particular representation of his 
conduct to His Majesty, who signified his highest and most 
gracious approbation of his beliaviour." 

On the 2 1 st of October, 1 762, he was promoted to tlie rank 
of Vice-Admiral of the Blue Squadron, retaining iiis command 
at Spilhead until the signing of the preliminary articles of peace*. 
Soon after that event, he received orders to strike his Hag, the 

* The preiiniinarics weio signed at Fontaiiiblcau, in November, I7ti2, 
and raiitied at Loiidczi oa luc 10th of Febiuarv, 176^. 



SJR FRAXCIS CEAllY, 71ART. 185 

paitiidular service on which he had been employed having becu 
ilccomplished. 

I'hus, during the wliole of the war. Admiral Geary had been 
uninterruptedly employed in the Channel service^ and as Com- 
mander in Chief, or Port Admiral, at Portsmouth and Spilhead ; 
excepting only for ten months,- when he commanded at the 
Nore, with the rank o{ an established Commodore, having a 
Captain under him. 

By the saTite packet which conveyed to Admiral Geary the 
■orders for striking his Hag, at Spithead, he had the satisfaction 
of receiving " the thanks of the House of Commons, both to 
himself, and the officers under his command, for his diligence 
and conduct, m.ore particularly on those occasions which had 
already established him in the highest reputation, both with his 
Sovereign and his countrymen." 

From the peace of 17^^? to the period of the Spanish 
armament, in 1 770^ to v.hicli we have so often had occasion to 
advert, the Vice-Admiral enjoyed another interval of retirement. 
At that time he was re-appointed to the Portsmouth command, 
and made Vice-Admiral of the Red *. Assisted in this case of 
emergency, which required the utmost dispatch, by Rear- 
Admiral Buckle, he succeeded in effecting the intentions of 
Government, as for as his department was concerned ; after 
which, when the armament was laid aside, he f^ once more 
passed," says Mr. Chaniock, " into retii ement and private life ; 
a station to which no man could do more honour, either as a 
friend, a relative, or a gentleman ; perfectly independent in his 
principles, strictly honourable in all transactions with which he 
Was connected, and exhibiting on everv occasion the character 
of a man possessing every moral and social virtue." — It is 
deservhig of notice, that, soon after Vice-Admiral Geary entered 
upon the conmiand of which we have been speaking, he had an 
unpleasant dispute with Rear-Adniiial Elphinstonc, of the 
Russian service, respecthig the right of the latter to fire a 
morning and evening gun, at relieving and setting the watch. 

* October 18, 1770. 

/^atj. ^5wn. acol.XVIL b b 



LS& BIOGUAPHIGAL MEMOIR OF THE iATE 

The English CoiiTmanckr resisted the practice, as irreguliir ; 
particularly as the Russian ship had neither flag nor pendant 
Hying. Several letters passed upon the subject, in which thy 
conduct of Rear-Admiral Elphinstone \vas censured by the 
Russian Minister ; whilst Vice-Admiral Geary was much 
applauded for his vigilance in attending to the forms of His 
Majesty's service. 

On the 31st of March, 1775, during his absence from active 
life, this officer Mas made Admiral oi" the Blue Scjuadron ; and, 
on the 29tli of January, 1779, Admiral of the White. — In the 
month of May, 1780, on the death of Admiral Sir Charles 
Hardy, Admiral Geary, though in a very indifferent state of 
hicalth, w'as again called upon to return to the service of his-, 
country. Accordingly, on the C4th of the month, having 
received His Majesty's orders, through tlie Earl of Sandwich, 
then first Lord of the Admiralty, he assumed the chief command 
of the Channel fleet, which at that time consisted of the 
following ships : — 

Ships. Guni. Commanders. 

r Francis Geary, Esq., Admiial of the 

^^^^^"^y 10*^1 1st Captain, Richard Kempenfelt. 

t 2d Captain, S. ^Y. Clayton. 

i George Darby, Esq., Vicc-Admiral 
Britannia - - tOo)^ of the White. 

C Captain James Bradby. 

r Sir J. L. Ross, Rear-Admiral of 
Royal George .... 100/ the Red. 

l_ Captain John Bourmastcr. 

5 Robert Digby, Esq., Rear- Admiral 
JL..W..V. v^v^v,.^^ ^^ ^ of the Red. 

^ Captain William Fox. 

i Hon. Sam. Barrington, Vice. Admiral 
Barfleur.--.- = 98^ of the White. 

{.Captain Bcn-jamin Hill. 

Buke 98 . Sij Charles Douglas. 

Formidable D8 J.Stanton. 

Queen - 98 Alex'ander Innis. 

Namur, -»..»-.--- 90 Herbert Sawyer. 



sill FUANCIS GEARV, BART. il£7 

Ships, Guns. Commanders. 

Ocean 90 Captain George Ourry. 

L-niou 90 John Dalrymple. 

Princess Amelia 80 — J. IM'Cartney. 

Foudroyant 80 . John Jervis. 

Cibraltar 80 J.C.Allen. 

Alexander 74 — Lord Longford. 

Alfred 74 William Bayne. 

Eellona 74 Richard Onslow. j 

Canada 74 Sir George Collier. 

Couragcux 74 ■ Lord Mulgrave. 

Defence 74 ■ • James Cranston. 

Dublin 74 Samuel Wallis. 

Edgar 74 ■ John Elliot. 

Invincible — 74 Charles Saxton. 

Marlborough 74 . Taylor Penny. 

Monarch 74 — ■ Adani Duncan. 

V'aliant 74 Samue! C. GoodalT. 

inllexible 64 

Nonsuch 04 • Sir J. Wallace. 

Buffalo CO Row. Cotton, 

rraoATES, &c. 

La Prudente ._, 36 Captain Hon. W. Waldegrave. 

Ambuscade .. . 32 Hon. IL Sey. Conway, 

Proserpine „.. '28 . George A. Byron. 

Licorne 31 Hon. T. Cadogan. 

Diana 32 Sir William Burnaby. 

Emerald 32 ■ Samuel ]\iarshall. 

Pluto, fire-ship U > T. Geary. 

Incendiary, ditto .. 14 ■ G. A. JNlerrick. 

Prior to his first putting to sea, with the above fleet. Admiral 
Geary received the Ibllowing letter from that '' greirt and ever- 
to-be-revered character/' Lord Ilawke ; \Ahicli, with another 
that will presently appear, *"' will be considered," observes !Mr. 
Ciiarnock, ^'^ extremely interesting, as displaying the private 
thoughts of so brave and great a Commander, even at the latest 
period of his life ; and showing that, however age and disease 
might have enervated his body, they had nothing impaired the 
vigoxir of his mind." Iiufependenlly of this, the letters are such 



188 ElOGUAPinC.VL MEMOin OF Tllf tATE 

hpnourable testimpnials of the high professional character m^ 
conduct of Admiral Geary, that it would be injustice to with- 
hold them. The one here immediately alluded to is as 
follows : — ■ 

MY DEAll SIR, 

THIS is principally to tliank you for the farouar of your letter 
of the 3d instant, and for all the kind acts you have been so kind 
as to do for my Parson, which -was doing every thing in your 
' pov^'er. I have this day dispatched him away for town, in order 
to take up his warrant, so that he Avill be ready at a moment's 
•warning to obey the commands of his Captain. 

I find by the papers that you are getting reai3y for sea wiih, all 
the dispatch tliat is possible, and that yon will sail the iustant tlia^ 
is in your power ; and though I could wish this could get to your 
hands first, yet the times are so very pressing, from many unfortu- 
nate events, that I think the sooner you can get to my old station 
<)ff Brest, the better it will be for my country'. When you are 
there, watch (hose felloAvs as close as a cat watches a mouse; and 
|f once you can have the good fortune to get up to them, make 
jnuch of them, and don't part with them easily. 

Forgive my being so free : 1 love you. We have served long 
together, and I have your interest and happiness sincerely at 
heart. My dear friend, may God Almighty bless jon ! and may 
that all-powerful hand guide and protect you in the day of battle I 
And that you may return with honour aud glory to your country 
and family, is the sincere and faitliiul wish of him who is mo^t 
truly, 

]My dear Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble Servjint, 

HAWKE. 

P. S. Pray remember me to ray friend Barrlngton, aud hope fcc 
approves of young Baron. 

F, Geary, Esq., Admiral and Commander 
in. Chief nt Spltkeud. 

When Admiral Geary put to sea^ he immediately proceeded 
off Brest ; his instructions being, to prevent, if possible, aii 
intended junclion between the Spanish squadrons tlien in Cadiz^ 
Ferrol, and Curthagena, and those of France in Brest, Rochfort^ 
and rOrient. Nothing material occurred, however, " till t^je 3<^ 



SIB FUANCIi GF.AnV, BAP.T. 18Sf 

pf July, when the Monarch, being a-head of the tleet on tJie 
look-out, made a signal at ten o'clock in the morning for disr 
covering a fleet consisting of twenty sail : these were immediately 
concluded to be the enemy of whom they were in search, and 
the utmost alacrity was used in endeavouring to get up with 
them. The chase continued the whole day, and at live o'clock 
in the afternoon the headmost ships came up with the sternmost 
of the fugitives, which were now discovered to be nothing more 
than a pouvoy from Port-:au-Prince, under the protection of a 
single ship of tifty guns. The chase was continued by the pur- 
suers, who did i]Ot bring to for tl-s purpose of securing the ships 
they passed, leaving thaj; duty to some others of the fleet who 
were still astern. Unfortunately a very thick fog ciunc on about 
^ven o'clock, and proved the preservation of nearly half the 
(enemy's cor.yoy." The following twelve, however, were cap- 
tured ; and, had it not been for the fog, the whole of ihem iuu>t 
have fallen into the hands of the British fleet : — 

The Voyageur, valued at £ 15,000 

Compte d'Argout _ 14,500 

L'Hazard 10,500 

Conipte d'Kstaing 9,00Q 

Cosmopolite . . , 5,700 

Courier _. 5,50(). 

L'Aurore 5,50Q 

Solitaire '.'. 5,000 

Marie Thcrese 5,000 

St. Bartholomew C,90Q 

J^leonore ._. 4,700 

Jeunc Francois 2,800 

The aViove, witli the Compte de Ilalwicd, valued at 70,000/.^, 
«nd la Marguerite, valued at 18,000/., also captured in the 
Channel, were reckoned at a total of 126,000/. 

It was during the chase of thii^ French convoy, th^t the 
following ludicrous incident took place. The unfortunate 
Kempenfelt, celebrated for his skill in manceuvering a large 
fleet, previously to the commencement of an action, and also 
||uring its continuance^, was Admiral C^eary's first Cap- 



ISO BIOGrllAPlliCAL ^ItMOIR OF THE LATE 

-jtaivi*. Kempeafelt had contracted a habit of using more signals 
■than men less practised in that particular branch of service tliought 
necessary. '^ As soon as the enemy Mere discovered," says 
.Charnock, " and the signal made for a general chase, Kenipenr 
felt, burning with as much impatience as his Commander in 
Chief to get up with the enemy, though differing in a trivial 
.degree in his idea as to the best mode of effecting it, brought up 
the signal book, v.hich he opened and laid on tlie binnacle with 
the greatest form and precision ; Admiral Geary, eagerly sup^ 
posing the chase to be the Brest tleet, went up to him with the 
greatest good humour, and r-iueezing him by the hand in a 
manner better to be conceived than expressed, said quaintly, 
* Now my dear, dear friend, do pray let the signals alone to-day, 
and to-morrow you shall order as many as ever you please.'" 

Having continued at sea for upwards of two months, and 
having 2,500 sick men on Ijoard the llect. Admiral Geary thought 
it advisable to return to port, and accordingly put into Spithead 
on the 16th of August. Shortly after his arrival theie, he 
received the following letter, to which we have already alluded^ 
from Lord Hawkc :r— 

MY DEAR SIR, Sunhmj, August 26, 1780. 

I AM greatly obliged to you for tlie favour of your letter of the 
^Oth, on your arrival at Spithead ; indeed it was more than I 
expected, well knowing the hurry and bustle you must be in on 
your first coming into port. I do not Avonder at the men being 
sickly upon so long a cruise; six weeks is long enough in all 
conscience ; any time after that must be very hurtful to the meiij 
and will occasion their falling ('own very fast. I hope in God 
they will soon recover, that yon may be enabled to proceed to sea 
immediately, for by all accounts the enemy is out, so that nothing 
can well stir from hoaie with safety. I wish the Admiralty would 
see what was done ia former times, it Mould be the means o*^ 
making them act with more propriety, both for the good of officers 
and men. I take it for granted that the grca,t ones will let you 
have no rest till they iget you out to sea again. 

* Lord Hawkc, who was u'.i excellent judge ot' naulicai abilities, acids, iis 
a postscript to one of Wis letters to Admiral Geary, " I am glad j-ou liavo 
got so excellent an officer with you as I an^ convinced KcinpcnfcU is : ,\v^ 
will be of great service to you." 



SIP. rilANCIS GEARY, BART. ififl 

AUhoiialh I am iu a good deal of pain, and much in the invalid 
f)ider, yet I cannot refuse myself the pleasure of Misliing 3 ou all 
imaginable good fortune when you go out again : and I trust in 
God your next cruise will prove a happy and a glorious one, botli 
for your country and yourself. JNIy good friend, I ha>e ahvays 
•wished you well, and have ever talked freely and openly to you on 
every subject relative to the service. liecoUect some of these 
jjassages ; and, for God's sake, if you should be so lucky as to 
g.et sight of the enemy, get as close to them as possible. Do not 
let thorn shuffle with you by engaging at a distance, but get Avithia 
rausket-shot if you can ; that will be the way to gain great honour, 
and will be the means to make the action decisive. By doing this, 
yon will put it out of the power of any of the crawlers to lind 
fault. I am fully persuaded you will faithfully do your part, 
therefore hope you will forgive my saying so much on the subject. 
I find the Russians are gone from tlie Douns, so that you will have 
110 trouble about them. jMy good friend, God bless you ! may 
the hand of Providence go with you and protect you in the day of 
b.ittle, and grant yon victory over oar perfidious enemies! and may 
)'ou return w ith honour to your country and family again ! These 
arc the 'incere and hearty wishes of him who is most truly and 
fnithfully, My dear Sir, 

Your most obedient and most iiumble Servant, 

SirRGcanj. HAWKE, 

Admiral Geary had not the happiness of reahzhig the wishes 
of his friend ; as, shortly after his arrival at Spithead, he was 
taken ill ; and, obtaining leave of absence, he went on shore, to 
his house at Polesdcn, in Surifn-, under the hope, by that means, 
of facilitating his recovery. His returning health, however, did 
not keep pace with his wishes ; and, conceiving such a trust too 
important to be holden by any person whose imbecility of 
body might impair the energies of his mind, he solicited and 
obtained leave to resign his command. " This gentleman," 
says jSIr. Charnock, '' continued to live ever afterwards in" 
retirement, spending the remainder of his life with a character 
rendered truly exalted by a long and most meritorious service : 
the grateful remembrance of which procured him the honourable 
advancement to the rank of a Baronet of Great Britain, on the 
3d of August, 1782. Having obtained the advanc-ed age of 
eighty-six years, he died ou the 7th day of February, 179^.. 



192 BibcnAPuicAL memoik. of the lati; 

most highly revered as a Naval Commander, and not less sifl- 
cerely lamented as a friend^ a gentleman, and a Briton. In thisj 
tiierefore, among many other instances, we have the satisfactioa 
of sayingj without the imputation of flattery, that honour,; 
benevolence, public spirit, and general worth, formed the leading 
traits of his character, and that mankind have not been so 
ungrateful as to forget them.'* 

As a proof of the high estiiiiation in which Admiral Geary^ 
character was holden amongst the seamen, Mr. Charnock sub- 
joins the following anecdote : — " At the late contested election 
for the county of K., a sailor was carried' down to vote by a 
gentleman in the interest of Mr. II. ; but on his arrival at the 
booth, after inquiring who the otlu-r candidates were, of whom 
Sir Francis Gearj's son was one, immediately declared, with a 
tremendous oath, that it should never be said he voted against 
liis worthy old Admiral's son ; for him alone he would j)oll ; 
and in that instance, at least, kept his word." 

• 

UKKALDIC I'ArvTICUr.ABS. 

Francis Geary, of Cheddington, Bucks, afterwards of Areall 
Magna, near WeUuigton, in Shropshire, niai^ried, in 1663, Judith, 
daughter and heiress of Robert Barber ; by whom he had issue, 
Corletta, Susanna, Robert, John, and Francis, the subject of the 
preceding memoir. lie married Mary, only child of Philip Bar- 
tholomew, by Mary, Jiis second Avife, daughter of Leonard Tho- 
mas. By this lady, who died on the 28th of August, 1778, he 
had two sons and tiiree daughters : Francis, a Cornet in General 
Burgoyne's Light Dragoons, killed in an action in America; 
AVilliam, the present Baronet, who was one of the Members, iu 
the two last Parliaments, for the county of Kent ; i\Iary, born 
1749, married, March 30, 1779, Thomas Leigh, Esq. ; Judith^ 
born 1750, unmarried ; and Elizabeth, born 1734, married, April 
Ihe 8th, 1782, to Sir John Twisden, Bart. 

Arms. — Quarterly : 1st and 4th, gules ; two bars, or; on the 
bars three mascles, azure ; two and one, on a canton, argent; an 
anchor, sable; 2d and 3d, argent, a cheveron voided between three 
fleurs de lis, all within a bordure, gules. 

Crest. — Out of a naval Crown, a sinister hand and arm in naval 
uniform, s-upporting a flag, argent; on the Hag a crossj gules. 

Motto. — Chase, 



1S3 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c, 

NAN'TKS IM GURCIIK VASTO. 

AUTHENTIC NARRATIVE OF THE *DEATH OF 
LORD NELSON. 

fExtrncted from Df. Bcatty's Work, entitled, "Authentic Narrative of the 
Death of Lord Nelson : v/ith the Circumstances preceding, attending, and 
Subsequent to, that Event ; the professional Report of hi> Lordsfiip's 
Wound ; and several interesting Anecdotes. With an admirable Portrait 
of Ijis Lordship; and a Plate, representing the Wound, and CourJc of the 
Ball."] 

IT was from the Redoubtable that Lord Nelson received his 
mortal wound. About j&fteen minutes past one o'clock? 
■which was in the heat of the engagement, he was walking the 
quarter-deck with Captain Hardy, and in the act of turning near 
the hatchway, with his face towards the stern of the Victory, 
when the fata! ball was fired from the enemy's mizen-top ; -which, 
from the situation of the two ships (lying on board of each other), 
was brought just abaft, and rather below, the Victory's main-yard, 
and of course not more than fifteen yards distant from that part of 
the deck where his Lordship stood. The ball struck the epaulette 
on his left shoulder, and penetrated his chest. lie fell with his 
Face on the deck. Captain Hardy, who was on his right, on 
turning round, saw the Serjeant-Major (Seeker) of Marines, with 
two seamen, raising him from the deck, where he had fallen, on 
the same spot on which, a little before, his Secretary had breathed 
his last, with whose blood his Lordship's clothes were much soiled. 
Captain Hardy expressed a hope that he was not severely wounded ; 
to which the gallant Chief replied; " They have <doae for me at 
last, Hardy." — " I hope not," answered Captain Hardy. " Yes,'* 
teplied his Lordship, " ray back-bone is shot through." 

Captain Hardy ordered the seamen to carry the Admiral to the 
cock-pit. While the men were carrying him down the ladder 
from the middle-deck, his Lordship observed, that the tilier-ropes 
were not yet replaced, and desired one of the Midshipmen 
stationed there to go upon the quarter-deck and remind Captain 
Hardy of that circumstance, and request that new ones should be 
immediately rove. Having delivered this order, he took his hand- 
kerchief from his pocket, and covered his face with it^ that he 

i^&^» erj^ron. ©oI.XVII. c c 



194 VAVAr. ANECDOTESj 

might be conveyed to the cock-pit at this crisis unnoticed by UiS 
crew. 

Several wounded officers, and about forty men, were likewise 
•arried to the Si!r2;eon for assistaiicc just at this (iine, and some 
others had breatlied tlieir last during their conveyance bclovv. 
Among the latter were Lieutci^ant Wra. Andrew Ram, and Mr. 
Whipple, Captain's Clerk, The Surgeon had just examined these 
two officers, and found that they were dead, when his attention 
was arrested by several of the wounded calling to him, " Mr. 
Beatty, Lord Nelson is here : Mr. Beatty, the Admiral is 
wounded." The Surgeon now, on looking ronnd, saw the 
handkerchief fall from his Lordship's face, when the stars on his 
coat, which had also been covered by it, appeared. Mr. Burke, 
the Purser, and the Swrgeon, ran immediately to the assistance of 
Iiis Lordship, and took him from the arms of the seamen who had 
carried him below. In conveying him to one of the IMidsIupmin's 
berths, they stumbled, but recovend themselves without falling. 
Lord Nelson then inquired who were supporting hira ; and when 
the Surgeon informed him, his Lordship replied, " Ah, Mr. 
Beatty ! you can do nothing for me. I have but a short time to 
live: my back is shot through." The Surgeon said, " he ho^icd 
the wound was not so dangerous as his Lordship imagined, and 
that he might still survive long to enjoy his glorious victory.'' 
The Rev. Dr. Scott, who had been abseiit in another part of the 
cock-pit, administering Iciuonade to the wounded, now came 
instantly to his Lordship ; and in the anguish of grief, wrung his 
hands, and said: "Alas! Beatty, how prophetic you wore!" 
alluding to the apprehensions expressed by the Surgeon for his 
]jOrdship's safety previous to the battle. 

His Lordship was laid upon a bed, stripped of his clothes, and 
covered with a sheet. While this was ejecting, he said to Dr. 
Scott, " DoGtor, I told yon so. Doctor, 1 am gone;" and, 
after a short pauso, he added in a low voice, " I have to leave 
Lady Ilamilto'!, and my adopted daughter Iloratia, as a legacy to 
my country." The Surgeon thpn examined the wound, assuring 
hi» Lordship that he 'Aoidd not ))ut him to much pain in endea- 
vouring to discover the course of the ball ; which he soon found 
liad penetrated deep into the chest, and had probably lodged in tha 
spine. This being explained to his Lordship, he replied, " he 
was confident his back was shot through." 'J'hs back was then 
examined externally, but without any injury being perceived ; on 
"rthich his Lordship was requested by the Surgeon to make him 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RKCOLLtCTIOXS, Sc. 195 

ac/iuaiii(c(l w ith all his sensations. He replied, that " lie felt a 
gush of blood every minute within his breast : that he had no 
fueling in the lower part of his body ; and that his breathing was 
(iifhcult, and attondfd with very severe pain about tiuit part of the 
spine where he was conlident lliat tlie ball had struck; for," said 
he, <' I felt it break my back." These symptoms, but more par- 
ticularly the gush of blood which his Lordship complained ot, 
together with tine state of his pulse, indicated to the Surgeon tho 
hopeless situation of the case ; but, till after the victory was 
ascertained and announced to his Lordship, the true nature of ius 
wound was concealed by the Surgeon from all on board, except 
Captain Hardy, Dr. Scott, Mr. Burke, and iNlessrs. Smith and 
Westemburg, the Assistant Surgeons. 

The Victory's crew cheered whenever they observed an enemy's 
ship surrender. On one of these occasions. Lord Nelson anxiously 
inquired what was the cause of it ; Avhen Lieutenant Pasco, who 
lay wounded at some distance from his Lordship, raised himself 
up, and told him that another ship had struck, which appeared to 
give him much satisfaction. He now felt an ardent thirst ; and 
frequently called for drink, and to be fanned with paper, making 
use of these words : " Fan, fan," and " drink, drink." This he 
continued to repeat, when he Avished for drink, or the refreshment 
of cool air, till a very {cw minutes before he expired. Lemonade, 
and wine and water, Avere given to him occaMonally. lie evinced 
great solicitude for the event of the battle, and fears for the safety 
of his friend Captain Hardy. Dr. Scott, and ^Mr. Burke, used 
every argument they could suggest, to relieve his anxiety. JMr. 
Burke told him, " the enemy were decisively defeated, and that 
he hoped his Lord>hip would still live to be himself the bearer of 
the joyful tidings to his country." He rej)Iied, •' It is nonsense, 
Mr. Burke, to suppose 1 can live: my sulferings are gr-at, but 
they will all be soon over." Dr. Scott entreated his Lordship 
**• not to despair of living;" and said, " he trusted that Divine 
Provideece would restore him once more to his dear country and 
friciuls." — " Ah, Doctor I" replied his Lordship, " it is all over j 
it is all over." 

Many messages were sent to Captain Hardy, by the Surgeon, 
requesting his attendance on his Lordship, who became impatient 
to sec him, and often exclaimed : " Will no one bring Hardy to 
me? He must be killed : he is surely destroyed." The Captain's 
Aid-du-camp, Mr. Bulkelcy, now came below, and stated that 
^' circumstances respecting the licet required Captain Hardy's pro- 



196 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

sence on deck, but that he would avail himself of the first favour- 
able moment to visit his Lordship," On hearing him deliver this 
message to the Surgeon, his Lordship inquired who had brought 
it, Mr. Burke answered, *' It is Mr, Bulkeley, my Lord."-^ 
" It is his voice," replied his Lordship: he then said to the young 
gentleman, " Rcnaember me to your father.*' 

An hour and ten minutes however elapsed, from the time of his 
Lordship's being wounded, before Captain Hardy's first subse- 
quent interview with him ; the particulars of which are as follow: 
They shook hands affectionately, and Lord Nelson said : " Well, 
Hardy, how goes the battle? How goes the day with us?"— 
*' Very avcH, my Lord," replied Captain Hardy : '-' we have got 
twelve or fourteen of the enemy's ships in our possession; but live 
of their van have tacked, and show an intention of bearing down 
tipon the Victory ; I have therefore called two or three of our 
fresh ships round us, and have no doubt of giving tiiem a drub- 
bing."-*-" I hope," said his Lordship, " none of our ships have 
struck, PLirdy," — " No, my Lord," replied Captain Hardy • 
^''- there is no fear of that." Lord Nelson then said: " I am a 
dead man, Hardy. I am going fast: it will be al! over with me 
soon. Come nearer to me. Pray let my dear Lady Hamilton 
have my hair, and all other things belonging to me." Mr. Burke 
-was about to withdraw at the commencement of this conversation ; 
but his Lordship, perceiving his intention, desired he would 
remain. Captain Hardy observed, that " he hoped Mr. Beatty 
could yet hold out some prospect of life." — " Oh ! no," answered 
his Lordihip, " it is impossible. My back is shot through, 
Beatty will tell you so." Captain Hardy then returned on deck, 
and at parting shook hands with his revered friend and Com- 
mander. 

His Lordship now requested the Surgeon, who had been pre- 
Tiously absent a short time attending Mr. Rivers, to return to the 
■wounded, and give his assjstatice to such of them as he could be 
tisefiil to ; " for,'' said he, " you can do nothing for me." The 
Surgeon assured him tliat the Assistant Surgeo'is were doing every 
thing that could bo eifectcd for those unfortunate men ; but on lus 
Lordship's several times repeating his injunction to that purpose, 
be left him, surrounded by Doctor Scott, Mr. Burke, and two of 
his Lordship's domestics. After the Surgeon had been absent i» 
fiew minutes, attending Licvitenants Peake and Reeves, of the 
Marines, who were wounded, he was called by Doctor Scott to his 
Lordship. wLo said : " Ah, Mr. Beatty ! I have sent for you to 



COMMERCIAL HINT8, RECOLLECTIONS, ke. 197 

iiy, what I forgot to tell you before, that all power of motion or 
feeling below my breast is gone ; and ^oj/," continued he, " very 
well knozo I can live but a short time." The emphatic manner in 
■which he pronounced these last words, left no doubt in the Sur- 
geon's mind, that he adverted to the case of a man who had some 
months before received a mortal injury of the spine on board tiie 
Victory, and had laboured under similar privations of sense and 
muscular motion. The case had made a, great impression on Lord 
Nelson : he was anxious to know the cause of such symptoms, 
which was accordingly explained to him ; and he now appeared to 
apply the situation and fate of thi-i man to himself. The Surgeon 
answered, "My Lord, you told me so before:" but he now^ 
examined the extremities, to ascertain the fact; when his Lordship 
said, *' Ah, Bcatty ! I am too certain of it; Scott and Burke have 
tried it already. Von knozo I am gone." The Surgeon replied : 
" My Lord, unhappily i'or our country, nothing can be done for 
you ; " and having made this declaration, he was so much ali'ected, 
that he turned round and withdrew a few steps to conceal his 
emotions. His Lordship said ; " I know it. I feel soraethiag 
rising in my left breast," putting his hand on his left side, " which 
tells me I am gone."— Drink was recommended liberally, and Dr. 
Scott and Mr. Burke fanned him with paper. lie often exclaimed, 
" God be praised, 1 have done my duty !" and upon the Sur- 
geon's inquiring whether his paia was still very great, he declared, 
*' it continued so severe, that he Avished he was dead."-^" Yet,'* 
said he, in a lower voice, " one would like to live a little longer, 
too;" and, after a pause of a few minutes, he added in the 
same tone, " What would become of poor Lady Hamilton, if she 
knew my situation !" 

The Surgeon, finding it impossible to render his Lordship any 
further assistance, left him, to attend Lieutenant Bligh, Messrs. 
Smith and Westphall, Midshipmen, and some seamen, recently- 
wounded. Captain Hardy now came to the cock-pit to see his 
Lordship a second time, which was after an interval of about fifty 
minutes from the conclusion of his first visit. Before he quitted 
the deck, he sent Lieutenant Hills to acquaint Admiral Colling- 
wood with the lamentable circumstance of Lord Nelson's b^'ing 
wounded. Lord Nelson and Captain Hardy shook hands again : 
and while the Captain retained his Lordship's hand, he congra- 
tulated him even in the arms of death, on his brilliant victory ; 
*' which," he said, " was complete ; though he did not know how 
jpany of the enemy were captured, as it was impossible to percciva 



198 NATAL ANECDOTE*, 

every ship distinctly. He was csrtain^ howerer, of fourteen or 
fifteen ha> in g surrendered." His LordsJiip answered, " That is 
■Kell, but I bargained for twenty : " and then emphatically 
exclaimed, ^^ Anchor^ Hardy, anchoi^ I" To this the Captain 
jeplied: " I suppose, my Lord, Admiral Collingwood will now 
take upon himself the direction of affairs." — " Not while I live, 1 
hope. Hardy ! " cried the dying Chief ; and at that moment 
endeavoured ineffectually to raise himself from the bed. *' No,'* 
added he, " do ^o?« anchor, Hardy." Captain Hardy then said, 
*' Shall arc maka^he signal, Sir?" — " Yes," answered his Lord- 
ship, " for if I live, I'll anchor." The energetic manner in 
"Hhich he uttered these his last orders to Captain Hardy, accompa- 
nied with his efforts to raise himself, evinced his determination 
never to resign the command while he retained the exercise of his 
transcendant faculties, and that he expected Captain Hardy still to 
earry into effect the suggestions of his exalted mind ; a sense of 
his duty overcoming the pains of death. He then told Captain 
Hardy, " he felt that in a few minutes he should be no more; " 
adding in a low tone, " Don't throw me overboard. Hardy." 
The Captain answered, "Oh! no, certainly not."— "Then,'' 
replied his Lordship, " you know what to do : * and," continued 
jte>. " take care of my dear Lady Hamilton, Hardy ; take care of 
poor Lady Hamilton. Kiss me. Hardy." The Captain now 
knelt down, and kissed his cheek ; when his Lordship said, 
" Now I am satisfied. Thank God, 1 have done my duty." 
Captain Hardy stood for a minute or two in siknt contemplation : 
he then knelt down again, and kissed his Lordship's forehead. 
His Lordship said: "Who is that?" The Captain answered : 
" It js Hardy ;" to which his Lordship replied, " God bless you, 
Hardy!" After this affecting scene, Captain Hardy withdrew, and 
returned to the quarter-deck, having spent about eight minutes ia 
Ibis his last interview with his dying friend. 

Lord Nelson now desired Mr. Chevalier, his Steward, to turn 
him upon his right side ; which being effected, his Lordship said ; 
*' I wish I had not left the deck, for I shall soon be gone." He 
afterwards became very low ; his breathing was oppressed, and his 
Toicc faint. He said to Dr. Scott : " Doctor, 1 have not been a 
great sinner ;" and after a short pause, " Remember^ that I leave 
Lady Hamilton, and my daughter Horatia, as a legacy to my 

* Alluding to some wishes previously expressed by bis Lordship to Cap* 
ftain Hardy, respecting the place of bis interment. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS) RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 199 

country: and," added he, ''never forget Horatia." Ilis thirst 
now increased ; and he called for " Drink, drink," " Fan, 
fan," and '' Rub, rub :" addressing himself in the last case to 
Doctor Scott, who had been rubbing his Lordship's breast with 
his hand, from which he found some relief. These Avords he spoke 
in a very rapid manner, which rendered his articulation difficult : 
but he every now and then, with evident increase of pain, made a. 
greater effort with his vocal powers, and pronounced distinctly 
these last words : "Thank God, I have done my duty !'' and 
this great sentiment he continued to repeat as long as he was able 
to give it utterance. 

His Lordship became speechless in about fifteen minutes after 
Captain Hardy left him. Doctor Scott and Mr. Durke, who had 
all along sustained the bed under his shoulders, (Avhich raised him 
in nearly a semi-recumbent posture, the only one that was sup- 
portable to him,) forebore to disturb him by speaking to him; 
and when he had remained speechless about five minutes, his Lord- 
ship's Steward went to the Surgeon, who had been a short time 
occupied with the wounded in another part of the cock-pit, and 
stated his apprehensions that his Lordship was dying. The Sur- 
geon immediately repaired to him, and found him on the verge of 
dissolution. He knelt down by his side, and took up his hand, 
which was cold, and the pulse gone from the wrist. On the Sur- 
geon's feeling his forehead, which was likewise cold, his Lordship 
opened his eyes, looked up, and shut them again. The Surgeon 
again left him, and returned to the wounded, Avho required his 
assistance ; but was not absent five minutes when the Steward 
announced to him, that " he believed his Lordship had expired.'* 
The Surgeon returned, and found that the report was but too well 
founded : his Lordship had breathed his last at thirty minutes past 
four o'clock ; at which period Dr. Scott was in the act of rubbing 
his Lordship's breast, and Mr. Burke supporting the bed under his 
shoulders. 

From the time of his Lordship's being wounded, till l;is death, 
a period of about two hours and forty-five minutes elapsed ; but a 
knowledge of the decisive victory which was gained, he acquired of 
Captain Hardy within the first hour-and-a-quarter of this period. 
A partial cannonade, however, was still maintained, in conss-- 
quence of the enemy's running ships passing the British at different 
points ; and the last distant guns that were fired at their van ships 
that were making oft', were heard a minute or two before his 
Lordship expired. 



■%00 JfAVAfi ANECDOtES, 

flATAL OFFICERS, .BORN OR EDUCATED IN THE COtJNiT 
or DEVON. 

Flag Officers. 

LORD VISCOUNT HOOD, Governor of Greeriwicb HospU 
tal, and Admiral of the Red. 

Lord Viscount Kridport, Admiral of the Reid. 

Wil'km Domett, Esq., Rear-Admiral of the ftHiitei 

Sir Thomas Louis, Bart., K.M.T., and K.S.F. Rear-Admiral 
Of the \V hite. 

Sir I'ho.nus Graves, K.B., Vice-Admiral of the Blue. / 

Edward Thornborough, Esq., Vice-Admiral of the Blue. 

Sir Thomas Trouhridge, Bart., Rear-Admiral of the White. 

Sir Edward Pollow, Bart., Rear-Admiral of the Red. 

Sir Richard John Strachan, Bart., K.B., and Rear-Admiral Of 
tiie Blue. 

Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K.B., Vice-Admiral of the 
White. . 

Post Captahis. 

Captain Sir John Laforey. 

• Keates. 

■ Brown. 

THE mariner's COMPASS. 

M. AZUNE, a French author, has published a dissertation on 
the origin of the compass, in order to prove that the French were 
the first who made use of it: it was known in France, he tells us. 
so early as the twelfth century, under the name of mannicre ; 
and was used under the reign of Louis the IXth. Givia d'Amflaj, 
tvho is said to be the inventorj lived not earlier than about the year 
1300. The ficur-de-Us has been adopted in all countries for t^e 
•ompass. The same author, in his Navigationj observes, that 
*' Father Xiraenes, a ceiebraied Italian astrononier, proved the 
priority of the French, in his work enlitled, Del Gnomone Fioreiu 
tiiio," page 59. 

SIR SAMUEL HOOB, K.B. 

IN the month of October, 1804, His Majesty was most gra* 
ciously pleased to coiifer the Order of the Bath upon Commo- 
dore Hood, for his important services in the West Indies*. He 

— T" . 

' * Vide page 28 of the present Volume. 



COMJitRtlAL IIINTg, HECOLLECTIONS, &C. 201 

*>sas invested with that honourable Order, at Antigua, by Lord 
Lavington, the Governor, in the spring of ISOo. After the 
ceremony, his Lordship addressed him in the following 
words : — • 

COMMODOllE SIR SAMUI.L HOOD, 

AfU'T the honour wliich you have this clay received by command 
of His ^Majesty, no eulogy from me of those services Avhicli have 
so mcrito/iously obtained it, can enhance its value, ordesf.rvcyour 
acceptance. But 1 cannot repress the expression of my own gra- 
tification, in being delegated by my Sovereign to administer a mark 
of his royal favour to a gallant officer, the very name of whose 
family occurs in no page of our naval history without circum- 
stances of celebrity and distiuction. There wants no herald to 
proclaim the w'ell-known, well-earned reputation of the two Chiefs 
of it, who are novv enjoying an honourable repose from danger and 
fatigue, under the shade of those honours which the services of their 
past lives have so eminently merited. But your nearest and ever- 
to-bc-lamented relative has secured to himself a place in the Tem- 
ple of Fame, paramount to all the rank and titles which Princes 
can confer, and which the King of Kings alone can bestow— the 
glory of sealing with his blood, in the arms of victory, a life spent 
in, and devoted to, the service of his King and Country. May 
this period of renown, if ever it be destined for you, although tho 
ultimate ambition of patriots and of heroes, be far, far distant, for 
the sake of that country, for the sake of every object which is 
dear to you. — Ma}' your conduct, of which the harbour of Touloa 
and the bay of Aboukir were witnesses, be only the presage of 
your future trophies, and still more splendid achievement^ ! And 
may you, in the mean time, after a safe and prosperous voyage, 
cxpciioncc that auspicious reception from our gracious Sovereign, 
which the best of masters will feel to be due to a brave and 
faithful servant. 

Sir Samuel Hood, as already stated *, received the congra- 
tulations of the inhabitants of the islands where he had com- 
manded ; accompanied by their thanks for the able manner iu 
which he had provided for their interests. A letter, which was 
transmitted to him from the mercantile interest of the Virgin 
Islands, says : — 

The enemy's ships of war and privateers have repeatedly learned, 
• Vidi; page 28 of the present V^oliiiae. 

f9a0» Cljron. GJoI.XVIt. o d 



20'1 COnUESrONDENCE. 

from mortifvlng experience, that their most formidiilile g;irrisons . 
an^ batteries could afford them little or no protection from your 
boats, though placed almost in contact with them. The predatory 
sffuadron of Rochfort, possessed of so decided a superiority, has 
been greatly checked in its designs, not daring to detach itself, fear- 
ful of being cut off by your little squadron. The recollection of 
the Juno at Toulon, and of the Zealous at Aboulcir, -would cen- 
Tince this flying eneiTiy, that -what naval skill could project, or 
valour possibly perlorm, they v.ould have to encounter. 

Tn the address of the gentlemen deputed to convey to llie 
gallant Commodore the sentiments of the Board of Council for 
Antigua, we find this passage : — 

We are desired at the same time to express to yoii the liigh sense 
•which the Board entertains of your sjiirited conduct in keeping the 
seas •vvith your vcrv suiall squadron, during the many weeks that 
the naval strength of the enemy was so vaslly superior to you ; and 
to assure you, that we felt very sincerely for the mortification which 
a gallant and brave mind, like yours, must have experienced at 
your inability, with any regard to prudence, to seek and engage 
the enemv. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. ElilTOlJj 



nrillE life given in your Naval CiiKonicle of Admiral 
Cornwallis is so very imperfect^ and does so little justice to 
this truly good man and excellent officer^ that I am induced to 
add a fcA' particulars relative to what has already been published 
of him;, as they relate to the last command held by one, who 
may truly be said to be the father and the fiiend of all who have 
ever had the happiness of serving under him. — 

In May 1803, Admiral Coi-nwalHs hoisted his flag on board tlie 
Dreadnought, in Torbay, and came on board on the 11th of that 
month, and proceeded to cruise off tJshant. On the 9th of July, 
in the same year, he shifted his flag to the Ville de Paris, as Com- 
mander in Chief of the Channel fleet. In October a fresh supply 
of provisions and water from the Ardent man of war was taken 
into the Ville de Paris, in order to avoid the necessity of quitting 
the French coast, the French having a large force in l]rest ready 



CORUESPONDrXCE. 203 

for soa ; but such severe weather arose in November, that Admiral 
Corii-vvallis was blown oft' his station above an hundred miles to the 
south-west, and had his masts and yards crippled in the gales. On 
Christmas Day, a most tremendous gale split the sails of the Ville 
de Paris, and laid her over in an incredible manner under her bare 
jioles. la January 1804, she was again blown ott" her station by 
violent gales. In July she came Ut Spithcad to go into dock, and 
on the 9th of August sailed again with Admiral Cornwallis's flag, 
to resume her old and tedious station. In January, 1805, 
Admiral Cornwallis was confined to his cabin for a fortnight, with 
a badly sprained foot, in consequence of a fall occasioned by the 
ship's taking a very heavy lurch ; a tremendous sea having struck 
her on her broadside. .The gale was so violent, that thu Prince, 
and Piince George, who were in company, sprung some very bad 
leaks, and were obliged to go into dock, being otherwise also 
much damaged. Several of the lleet sprung their masts; and the 
Villc dc Paris drifted, in the course of the gale, upwards of four 
hundred miles from her station, and was obliged to come into 
Plymouth, having her rudder damaged : but Admiral Coriiwallis's 
unremitting anxiety to keep at sea was such, that the Ville de 
Paris merely remained in Cawsand Bay long enough for the pro- 
per workmen to be sent round to her from the dock-yard, and 
sailed the next morning. 

On the 10th of March, the Ville de Paris came into Portsmouth ; 
but on tlie 31st of the same month was ordered to take in pow- 
der, provisions, Sec, and get ready for sea with all possible expe- 
dition, bi'ing ordered by telegraph in consequence of its being 
thought the French fleet were out ; which was done so actively, 
that she sailed Aith several others on the 2d of April, but was not 
fortunate enough to find any truth in the rejjort of the enemy- 
being at sea. 

On the 21st of A\igust, 1S05, a frigat.^ made the signal that the 
enemy's fleet were apparently preparing to weigh anchor : our 
fleet immediately made all sail, but without any bustle. In a fe^v 
liours they were near enough to discover twenty-one sail of the 
lilie, very large ships, and four frigates, besides smaller vessels. 
The French were lying close in, uridor their strong batteries, in 
"what they call the Goullet I'assage. The Ville, de Paris made th^ 
signal for the fleet to lie bs , and disregard the Admiral's motions ; 
she then stood in within gur.-shot of their fleet, under a very heavy 
lire from their batteries all the w ay up, took a certain observation 
af their strength, and then stood down again towards the BritisJi 



204 CORRESPONDENCE. 

fleet. Admiral Cornwallis intending to go in, and engage them at 
their anchors the next day, he sent orders on board every sliip of 
the fleet, soon after he rejoined Ihem, the purport of which was to 
mention this intention, and added, " The Admiral intends 
engaging the French Commander in Chief ; and hopes evcri) ship 
zcill follozo his example, and bring out her opponent.''^ There wais 
very little else in the order. The next morning at three o'clock 
the Ville de Paris weighed, and formed the line of b3.ttle, the 
Admiral himself leading the Tan, contrary to the general form of 
battle of an Admiral's station being in the centre. The enemy 
■weighed as soon as the English were within gun-shot of their bat- 
teries, and stood alongshore under those numerous batteries, which 
form one entire range of guns all along their cliffs, their shells 
annoying our ships much more than their shot ; but although so 
Biuch superior to the English in point of nun^.bcrs, they would not 
allow themselves to be brought to action by those of our ships 
who had got in, but kept so exactly under their forts, that it was 
impossible to bring them to a general action. However, the Villc 
lie Pari?,; CiGsar, and Montague, our three van .ships, annoyed their 
rear so considerablyj that great hopes were entertained that they 
would have run on shore ; but the w ind and tide being both in their 
favour, they escaped, though with considerable damage. The first 
shell that struck the Ville de Paris (the tirst since she was launched) 
struck the spare anchor, and burst into a thousand small pieces^ 
flying in all directions ; one piece of about one pound and an half 
in weight, struck Admiral Cornwallis on the breast; but being 
entirely spent, did not hurt him ; a small piece however struck one 
of the Midshipmen. The Ville de Paris had her hull a little 
damaged, and rigging cut, but none killed ; the Caesar three men 
killed, and seven wounded ; some of the latter died afterwards of 
their wounds. The Ville de Paris had between three a!)d four 
hundred picked men, well armed, ready for boarding, the inten- 
tion of the Admiral being to run alongside, and whilst one party 
•was lashing the ships together, and another fighting the guns, the 
boarders were to go on board the enemy; but this design was frus- 
trated by their weighing. • 

Admiral Cornwallis continr-cd in the command of the CJiannel 
fleet, until the 22d of Februarj', 1806, when he struck his flag at 
Spithead, and was succeeded by liOrd St. Vincent. 

The tranquillity he might have enjoyed, on returning to his resi- 
dcnce near Lyminglon, was embittered by the recent loss of liis 
bi'Otherj (the late gallant liOrd Cornwallisj) the news of which Lad 



PLATE CCXXVII. 2Q5 

not long reached him, when he also sustained a heavy affliction by 
the death of his esteemed friend, Captain Whitby, who had fol- 
lowed this brave Commander through tl^e fatigues and vicissitudes 
of many years' service, selected as a companion he esteemed, and as 
an officer on whose conduct and judgment he could rely. Captaia 
Whitby died of a malignant fever at the seat of Admiral Corn- 
vvallis. The news of his death Avas received on board the Villc dc 
Paris by those he had so recently commanded with the truest marks 
of sorrow ; it spread an universal gloom t and althougii snatched 
from the service, and from his revered friend and patron at an early 
age, he will live in the remembrance, and grateful hearts, of thoso 
-who knew and felt his worth and kindness. From the commence- 
ment of 1806, Admiral Cornwallis has continued at his scat near 
l^ymington. We were very glad to observe the praise bestowed 
on tliis gallant officer, in the life you have published of Captaiu 
Faulknoi-, and trust it will r>ot be long before Ave see his flag again 
hoisted in the service of that country who so long viewed Avith 
gratitude and admiration, his patience and perseverance in fulfilling 
his duties, during his long and tedious cruises off the coast of 

France. 

Yours, Sec. 

LIEUT. H*^.;-****. 



PLATE CCXXVII. 

lIjlOR X\\e View which is here given of that extensive and 
noble pile of building, known by the name of France's 
Warehouse*, at Goree, Liverpool -f, we are indebted to our 
Correspondentj, F. W^. This structure, which fronted St. 
George's Dock, and which had long been the pride of Liver- 
poors enterprising inhabitants, and the admiration of strangers, 
was destroyed by fire, on the 14th of September, 1B02. A 
conflagration, so tremendous in its appearance, so extensive in 
ts devastation, had never been known in that city ; and, M'ith 
Inspect to the waste of property wliich it occasioned, it was one 

Neidicr tlie celebrated warehouses at Antwerp, nor thos^c at \ eiiice, 
eqully iainous, were so lofty or commodious as this warehouse, or ratlier 
thiSiile of warehouses. 

+ \ View of Liverpool, as it appears when coming up the I\icricy, by 
5Ii". 'ocock, is given in our Second Volume, page 597, 



200 ' FLATE ecxxvii. 

of the most destructive that has happened in the British domi- 
nions, since the great iire of London, in 1(3G6. Tlie following 
extract of a letter, written at the scene of the calamity, on the 
day follo\Aing", will convey some faint idea of its alarming and 
disastrous progress : — 

It is not known how this dreadful ca1anu(y originated ; bat 
about ten o'clock (at night) smoke was observed to issue from the 
centre of France's Buildings*. The firc-bcll was instantly rung, 
the drum beat to arms, the whole of the military^ turned out, and 
every exertion that active attention could furnish was rendered. 
The remains of the Northumberland Fencible llegimcnt were par- 
ticnlarly active, commanded by their Adjutant. — About one 
o'clock the flames burst forth Avith tremendous fury, and continued 
threatening destruction to all around till six o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when the fire abatedf- All those beautiful and extensive 
buildings, reaching from Water Lane to Brunswick Street, with 
the correspondent storc-houses, are one prodigious heap of 
ruins, 

I am just returned (twelve o'clock) from visiting these ruins, 
and cannot describe to you how awfully grand they appear. The 
walls which bounded these prodigious buildings, being from ten to 
fourteen stories high, stand perfect, but unsupported. The front 
has given way, except some large arches, which formed its basis j 
these, as the buildings have fallen J, are mutilated, and appear 
above the heaps of rubbish a perfect picture. St. George's Dock 
is one scene of confusion ; bales of cotton, puncheons of rum, 
hogsheads of sugar, bags of corn, &c. lying in promiscuous heapsj 
every face bears evident marks of sorrow or of sympathy ; the 
actual damage cannot be less than a million of money §. The 

* The actideut is generally supposed to have been occasioned by tlie 
falling of a snuff of caudle amongst sonic bhaviugs in a porter vault. 

f Fears were at one time pnteitaincd fur the gaol, and ihe debtors \\cr> 
removed to the Public Exchaui^e, and contincd in ss, room there till t!; 
fire had been got luider, when they were re-conducted to prison. 

:j: Not a single individual lost his life daring the time of the fire; Jitj 
afterwards, some of the ruins fell upon a Mr. Phillips, by wliich he w;i so 
dreadfully crushed, that he expired in a few hours. 

§ This is an exaggerntion. \'arious estimates of the loss were nide j 
and, according to a medium computation, the following may be cousiered 
;is approaching nearest to the truth : — the buildings, 52,000/. ; iugac^^ 
51,000/.; cotton, 9.^jomL; cotfcc, n-id other West India pwd.^jte, 4(001)/; 



* PLATK fCXXVIT. 207 

»,ljipplng (for the dock was close to the spot) were, from it'i for- 
tiinatcly beiiiy flood-tide, removed and preserved; but every 
attention was nccCSi-ary, £uch as wet sails placed before the 
rigging, kc. 

In arresting tlic progress of this dreadful fire, the most 
beneficial effects were experienced from the abundance of water 
yielded by the Bootle w ater-works * ; notwithstanding wiuch_, 
about thirty waichouseSj of immense height and depth, were 
destroyed. Such was the huge and shapeless mass of ruins, 
M'hich the site of these buildings presented, as almost to preclude 
the hope of seeing the mischief repaired, in any moderate num- 
ber of years. Every stranger M'ho visited Liverpool, soon after 
this event, seemed convinced that the prosperity of the town 
had received a blow, from which it could not, but at a very dis- 
tant period, be expected to recover. How gratifying must it 

jTi-oin, 110,000/. ; tallow, hemp, &c. 16,000/.; making a total of 295,000/, 
'Damaged articles were afterwards disposed of for somethitig more than 
13,000/. — Some time ago, a Mr. Gregson, of Liverpool, published the 
result of some iutercstitig investigations, relative to the uses of articles 
consumed by public fires. From the ruins of these warehouses, he had 
collected a quantity of wheat, burnt sugar, rice, flour, and cotton : the 
sugar he reduced to a fine powder, and made it into a nater-colour paiur : 
it also answered as a varnish ground, an oil colour, and a printinor ink. I'he 
burnt wheat answered the same purposes; and the fine American flour was 
converted into excellent paste. Mr. Gregson, to whom the Society of Arts 
voted a gold medal for his observations, was of opinion, that, if his method 
had been adopted, after this fire, a saving of 44,000/. might have been made 
upon the grain alone. 

* The Bootle springs, nearly two thousand of which are concentrated as it 
were, in one point, rise upon tlie estate of Lord Derby. They are situated 
upon a hill, in the village of Bootle, three miles north of Liverpool ; to 
which city their waters have been brought, for the accommodation of the 
inhabitants, by great perseverance and expense, and uncommon exertions. 
At the entrance of Liverpool there is now an immense reservoir — bnt it 
was not finished at the time of the fire — capable of containiin; 4000 tons ot" 
water; so that, should any accident happen to the long train of pipes, the 
town will still possess a supply of that indispensable clement. Tin's 
reservoir, from its great and commanding height, is calculated to prevent 
the occurrence of a similar calamity to that which we have been deserihiiuT, 
[t would be able to pour down its contents upon the most elevated build- 
ings in the town ; whereas, from the vast height of the warchouse>. jto 
•envine could reach them. 



268 TLATE CCXXTII. 

then be to leani, and what an exalted credit does it reflect ofl 
the enterprising spirit of tho in'iabitants, that^ in less than four 
vears, the whole, like a phoenix from its ashes, had risen w ilh 
increased niagniticencc, and augmented extent ! A more 
decisive and unequivocal testimony of the resources- of the town 
of Liverpool, could not possibly be presentedi 

The new v>arehouses, which may \fe regarded as a public 
ornament, as w ell as a con:iincixial establishment^ have been thus 
"described : 

At the time of the conflagration, (he stone basement, of the 
tvhole of that large and beautiful range whicli fronts to George's 
Dock, had been erected, but the superincumbent warehonses had 
only been built- on that division which reaches from the bottom of 
Brunswick Street to V/atcr Street, and on about one fourth of the 
other division. The whole of (his, except the part last men- 
tioned, was entirely dcmolislied. l>ut tiic entire range from 
Brunswick Street to Water Street, and from Brunswick Street to 
Moore Street, is now completed, and for elegance, Convcaience, 
and situation, there certainly i.s jiot such another range of ware- 
houses in Europe. The enormous piles Avhich hare lately been 
erected on the West India and Wapping Docks in London, are 
indeed vastly superior in size and extent, but for beauty and con- 
venience they are not to be compared. The new row on the 
Gorcc is, including (he two divisions, in length nearly two hun- 
dred yards, of a proportionate depth, and in height six stories, 
exclusive of the cellars and garrets. It is built with exact 
uniformity, on a rustic stone basement, which encloses, to the 
front, a fine flagged arcade, of thirteen feet in width, very conve- 
nient as a promenade for the merchants in wet weather. This 
piazza is formed by alternate great and small arches, the former 
ten feet nine inches in breadth, the latter full five feet eight inches. 
This intermixture has a pleasing appearance to the eye, and 
detracts much from the heaviness of that species of architecture. 
The whole pile has the convenience of being open to a wide 
pavement, both in Ciont and rear. The front rooms of the lower 
story are used as counting houses by the merchants mIio occupy 
the warehouses. The noble range of buildings belonging to Mr. 
Dawson, and others, which stood behind the' pile we have just 
described, was also entirely consumed ; and the whole of this 
ground, excepting a few yards^ has likewise been completely 



tRI.VL OF SIR HOME POPUAM, KNT. 20? 

rebuiU.— The new buildings, it is true, do not reach the enormous 
elevation which in the old was so much admired ; but this defi- 
ciency may justly be reckoned an improvement. The extreme 
height of the former warehouses, was not only beyond the bound* 
of just pro|>ortion, but occasioned a variety of inconveniences; 
and particularly rendered (he danger and mischiefs of a fire much 
more alarming and distressing. 



j^aljal Court ^partial. 
T R I A i. 

OF 

CAPTAIN SIR HOME POPIIAM, Knt. 

riKST D.VV, PORISMOUTH, ^fARC^ G, 1807. 

THIS morning a Court Martial assembled on board Ills 
Majesty's ship Gladiator, for the purpose of proceeding on 
the Trial of Captain Sir Home Popham, agreeably to the following 
Admiralty Order :—-• 

Bjj the Commissioners for exentting the Office of Lord High Admiral oj" the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland s i^x. HjC. 

Whereas, by our Order, dated 29tli July, 180.5, Sir Home Popham, then 
Captain of His r\Iajt;sty'.> bhip Diadem, was directed to lake under his com- 
mand His Majesty's sliipsliclliqueux, llaisonable, Diomede, Naicissus, and 
Lcda, the Espoir sloop, and Encounter gun-brig, for die purpose of cap- 
turing the enemy's settlement at the Cape of Good Hope, in conjunction 
with the troops under the command of Major-Gcneral Sir David Baird, 
whicli settlement was surrendered to the ships and troops above men- 
tioned, in the month of January, 180G. And whereas it appears, by letters 
from Jjir Home Popham to our Secretary, dated the 13tli aud ;>Olh of April 
follovvinj;, tliat, with the view to attack tiie Spanish settlements in the Rio 
de la Plata, for which attack he iiad no direction or authority whatever, he 
did withdraw from the Cape the whole of the naval force, which liad been 
placed under his command for the sole purpose of protecting it, thereby 
leaving the Cape, which it was his duty to euard, not only exposed to attack 
and insult, but even without the means of affording protection to the trade of 
His Majesty's subjects, or of taking possession of any ships <jf the enemy, 
which miizht have put into any of the hays or harbours of the Cape, or ports 
ndjacent; all which he, the said Sir Home Popham, did, notwithstanding 
that he iiad received previ<jus information of detachments of the eneray'a 
^llips being at sea, and in the neigiihourhood of the Cape; and, notwith- 
standing lie had been apprised that a French squadron was expected at the 
Mauritius, of which he informed us by his letter to our Secretary, dated th« 
9tli of April, 180(3, only four days prior to his departure trom tha Capo f«r 
the liio de la Plata. 

/^at.ei?ron. 0:iol,XVJT. e e 



210 IRI.VL OF SIR HO.Mi: rOPKA^f^ 

And whereas it appears to us, that a due regard to the !:ood of Hi* 
Majesty's service imperiously demands that so flagrant a breach of puMu; 
dutv should i>ot pass unpunished ; and, whereas, by our Order, dated the 
23th of July, 1806, Rear-Adiniral Stirlitig was directed to send the said Sir 
Hor/te Popiiani to En2;lan(h which he has clone accordin;ily ; and whereas 
Sh' Home Popham was, on his arrival, put uridcr an arrcal by our Order, 
and is now at Portsmouth, awaiting his trial, 

We send herewith the necessary Papers for tlie support of the Char<.'e ; 
and do hereby require, at.d direct you forthwiih to assemble a Court Mar- 
tial, (you hoiii'4 the President thereof,) wJiich is hereby required and dircctefi 
to inquire into tlie conduct of, and to try the said Captain Sir Home Pop- 
ham, for the oftences with wh ch he is charged accordingly. 
Given under our hands, &c. ike. 

IVillunn Young, Esq., Admiral of 
the Blue Squadron. 

The Court was composed of (he follovving Ofl'.ccrS :— 
William Yocnc, Esq., Admiral of the Blue Squadron, President. 



\'ice-AdmiraI Sir E. Gower. 

IIoLLOWAY. 

-■ — -■ ROWLP.V. 

Stanhope. 

llear-Admirai Vasiion. 

■"^ Sir Isaac Com v. 



llear-Admiral Sir R. J, Steacuan. 
Captain Guavi:s< 

ScoiT. 

T.ixzr.E. 

-= — {kvvi:?. 

Bovi.r. 



MosKS Giu.i-TiiAM, Esq., Jud;;c Advocate. 

The usual formalities of swearing the ^Members of the Court, 
and Judge Advocate, ha\ing been gone through — tlic Order from 
the Admiralty, appointing Mr. Jcrvis to conduct the prosecution ; 
also that directing ^Ir. Bickncll, their Solicitor, to assist him, 
were read. Both were signed by Mr. iSIarsdeu. 

The charge against Sir Home Popham, agreeing, in substance, 
with the above Admiralty Order, was then read by the Judge 
Advocate. This charge adverted to eighteen dirt'erent documents, 
which were also respectively read. Of their Gonteiils, the follow- 
ing is an abstract :— ^ 

No, L — Copy of Original Instructions to Sir Home Popham. 

No. E— (Most secret.) 

By the Commissioners for executing the Ojficc of Lord High Admiral if the 

United Kingdom of Gieut Biitaia and IreUnrl. 

The Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of Ilis Majesty's principal Secreta'». 
ries of State, having, with his letter to us of tlie 'J5tii .July, transmiitcd a 
copy of the instructions, which, by command of His Majesty, he had fur- 
nished to ]Major- General Sir David Baird, conunancling His Alajcsty's land 
forces, oil an expeditii-)n for attempting the reduction of the Cape of Good 
Hope; on the subject of which the iNlajor-tiencral has been directed lo 
communicate with you, intbeino^t confuhntial manner, and to concert uith 
you such measures as may be best for His Majesty's service; we transmit 
to you herewith a copy of the said instructions for your information, toge- 
ther with copies of the instructions from tiie Secret Cowiniittec of the Court 
of Directors of the East India Company, to the (Governor and Council of 
St. Helena, and also to the officers commanding their ships, which you w .1! 
communicate to the said Governor and Council, and to the said olhcers^ as 



TUIAL 01' SIR HOME POI'IIAM. 211 

5t>u fthall think it expedient ; ariti we do liereby require you, and direct you 
to comuiunicate in the iDost cuutideiitial manner with iVlajor-General Sir 
David liaird, to tuniish him witli all the iiitbi-mation in your power, and to 
ro-o[)er:itc uitii him in tlie cxocution of His Majesty's commands concern- 
ing: sych mea-urc= with the Major-CJcncral, for proceeding against the Cape 
in x\\t manner whicii may be nnjst likely to ensure success. 

On your arriial at Madeira, you will take under your command His 
Majesty's ships named in the margin*, which you may expect to find there, 
(-and the Caj)tains of which are directed to follow your orders,) together 
with the tran:-ports, victuallers, and Indiamen; and on leaving this island, 
you will deliver to the several Captains and Commanders such rendezvous, 
in case of separation, as may be judged most likely to enable you to arrive 
off the Cape with the whole of your collected force. 

Upon the surrender of the settlement to His Majesty's arms, you are to 
use your utmost diligence, as far as may depend on you, to have the troops 
iind jecruits destined for ]n(Jia, expeditiously re-embarked, in order that 
they may proceed, under the convoy of the Relliqueux, to the ulterior desti- 
aation, notitying by them, or by the earliest opportunity which you can 
find, the surrender of tlie Cape to the two Commanders in Chief of His 
iNIajcsty's Naval Forces in the Indian Seas, in order that the accustomed 
communication with the eolony may again be opened. And you are further 
directed, as soon as the object (jf the expedition stiall be accomplished, to 
send the Raisonable to St. [lelena, with orders to take under her convoy 
such of the vessels of the East India Company and others, us may bo 
collected at that island, and proceed with them to Spittiead. 

In the event of circumstances arising whicli may make it expedient to 
dfsi«t from the enterprise, you are nevertheless to detach the India siiips to 
iheir rlestination, under the convoy of tiie ]3elliqueux, and to return with 
tfje remainder of your force and transports to St. Helena; and not fiufling 
thei-e any tVesh instructions, after waiting fifteen days, or longer, if it shall 
be found expedient, you vvill proceed to Cork, with the ships and transports 
imder your convoy-, unless you shall receive a different destination at Port 
i'raya, at St. Jago, where you are directed to call tor further orders, leaving 
at St. Helena the liaisonable, to take under her convoy any of the liomc- 
warihhound East India shijis, that may either have arrived there, or be 
expected to aiiive within one month; but in the event of none being 
there, nor any expected in the above-mentioned period, you are to 
contiiuic the Raisonai)le imder your command, and proceed as before 
tlireclcd. 

Iinmediatelv after tlie surrender of ilie Cape, or in event of circumstances 
arising which may (jbli^e you to de.-i=l from the enterprise, yon are to dis- 
p.itili one of llu! >.mall vessels, which will accompany you to England, 
inmsniirting to our Secretary, for our infonuatiori, an account of your 
pi'occedmgs. 

(Jiien, ^c, July ?9, 1305. 

RARIIAM, 
.). GAMBIER, 
Pji. PATrEN. 

By conimand of their Lord'hips, 

JoH.N BaRPvOW. 

In tills was an Ijiclosnre, containing the Secret Instructions to Sir D. 
Praird to co-operate with Sir II. Po]ih;uii. 



* Belliqiieux, liaisonable, pioan'.M-, .\iii\i-sr..':, i.cdn. I'.spoir sloop, and 
J'ri'jouaU'r gun-buat. 



212 THIAl OF Sia HOME FOPIIAM. 

No. II. 

SIR, Admiralh/ Office, August 2, 1805. 

I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of ihe Admiralty to sig-^ 
nlfy their direction to you to send a frigate to cruise on the east coast of 
South America, between Rio de Yamira and Rio de la Plata, as soon us 
you shall have accomplished the object of the expedition on which you are 
about to proceed, for the purpose of procuring intelligence of the eneiny's 
motions, in order that you may be prepared against any attack they may be 
disposed to make on the settlement. 

Yours J &c. 

To Captain Sir Home Pophnm. JOHN BARROW. 

No. 3, is dated Admiralty Office,. Sept. 14, 1806, and directs Sir Home 
to retain all the transports ^at the Cape of Good Hope, after tiie reduction 
of the settlement, until he received further orders. 

No. 4, dated Admiralty Office, Sept. 24, directed Sir Home Popham to; 
send transports to India, for the conveyance of the troups, which, according 
to an enclosure addressed to Sir D. Baird, that otiic cr was instrucled to send 
to India, in case of a new war apprehended with Scindea and the Rajah of 
Berar, in conjunction with Holkar. In this order Sir Home was directed to, 
proceed to India with the whole of Sir D. Baird's force, if necessary, with 
the exception of the royal artillery, engineers, apd light drngoons, which li<f 
was ordered to send to Europe, with a frigate and the Raison.'^ble, provided 
!s>he had not left the station. He was also ordered to send to Europe such, 
of the prisoners of war as he might not find it expedient to enlist. 

The enclosure stated, that Lord Cornwallis, or such person as shovild be 
Commander in Chief in India at ttie time, was directed to send for rein- 
forcements to the Cape of Good Hope, if required. After having safciy 
conveyed the troops to India, Sir Home was directed to return to the Cape 
of Good Hope or to St. Helena, according to circumstances, '' at one of 
which places he might expert to find orders for bis fmtlier proceeding!?." 

No. o, dated Admiralty (Jffice, Nov. 21, 1805, ordered Sir Home, on the 
event of the surrender of the Cape, to send home without delay, under u 
proper convoy, all the transports which were not wanted for the conveyance 
of the troops ordered to proceed to the Iv.ist Indies. 

Nos. 6 and 7, dated the llUh and 28ih of January, 1806, from Table 
Bay, Cape of Good Hope, contair.cd Sir Home Popliam's account of the 
capture of ttic Cape, with the Articles of Capitulation, Ike, \\hicii appeared, 
in the London Gazette. 

No. 8, a letter from Sir Home Popham to^Mr. IMarsdcn, states tl!ccr,pture 
of a Fretich brig, which was brought into the Cape, by which means two 
letters from Admiral Linois to General Jauscn, Commander of the Cape at 
the time of its cnpturc, anr! to tl)c ^Minister of I\Jari;ie at Paris, fell into Sir 
Home's hand?. J'"rom these letters it appeared, lliat Linois never again 
intended to go to the Isle of Prance, as provisions were not likely to be had 
there, if he siiouid have occasion for them. This letter also states the 
arrival of a Danish ship at the Table Ray, frum which Sir Hume Pophain 
learned that slic had the evening before been boarded by the Piedinoutese 
Prench frigate, which was a large ship bound tor the Isle of Pr.ince. Of 
this the writer mentioned, that he would traiiitnic intelligence to Sir Edward 
Pellew. The following is a paragraph of tliis letter: — "The letters from. 
Linois are rather too equivocal to say exactly wlicn be will arrive, 
but he may be expected from the beginning to the end of March, and as the 
Northmnbcriai'd and J'liphrates Indiamen are expected the beginning c,f 
the ensuing month, I s^liall proceed minnediately oft' the Cape with my wliole 



TniAL OF SIR HOME POPIIAM. 213 

aquadron, to prevent, if possible, his falling in with such valuable ships as 
they would be to him, as well in point of the intelligence they could give 
him, as the great supply of provisions and stores which they contain, ^nd of 
which they so essentially stand in need." 

No. 9, dated Table Bay, March 4, was a letter from Sir Home to the 
Admiralty, communicating intelligence of the capture of a French ship 
called lu Voloutairc, which he describes as " the forerunner of Admiral 
Willeaumez's squadron." 

No. 10, dnted March 9, informs the Admiralty of the propriety which 
Sir Home felt of desisting from his endeavours to seize the Atalauta French 
frigate, because, as he states, " the possibility of the enemy coming suddenly 
upon US, when a number of our men were absent, made me c-ntertain no 
idea of again attempting to seize her." 

No. li, dated Taijle Ray, March 12, states Sir Home Pophaui's compli- 
ance with the request of Sir David Baird, to send two transports, with tlio 
whole of the French prisoners, to France. — ^Ihe writer urges as a reason for 
complying with this request, in addition to the motives which operated upon 
his own conduct on a similar occasion, (the sending to France iiie olbccrs 
and men taken on board the Volontaire.) " the disadvantn^cs, if not the 
cxtrcnie danger, that would attend the detention of so many French pri- 
soners, at a time when an attack on the colony i» a possible case, and likely 
to be so for some days longer.'' He added, tliat he would adopt the same 
expedient v^ith respect to any prisoners whom he might capture, in case, 
said ho, " any part of the squadrons of which we have had intelligence 
should come in here by small proportions, to water and victual." 

No. i2 is dated Table Bay, March 15. — In this Sir Home Popham men- 
tions the arrival of a whaler at Saldanha Bay, the officer of which stated, 
that he had on the Goth of February, in lat. .".3° 50' S., and long. 50° E. of 
Greenwich, fallen in with eight sail of ships, steering about E.S.E., and 
thought them English East Indiamen, but he was not lono in sight. 'J'hc 
writer adds, " Admiral Willeaumez's squadron consisted only of seven siiii, 
but they may have taken a prize, or this may be a small convoy of 
Jpdiamen." 

No. 13, (l{\tcd Table Bay, 2Ist of March, is a letter from Sir Homo, ii; 
which he states, that a brig from Tonningen had fallen in with the Leda, 
which was at the time cruising off St. Helena, and informed her, tiiat he hiid 
been boarded by Willeaumez's squadron, in lat. 33° 23', and long. 10° E. 
The IMasfer of the brig therefore said to the Captain of the Leda, '' get olf, 
oj: you'll be taken by the Frcnc(i." From the time at which the brig had 
met Willeaumez, the writer concluded, thf^t if bound tor the Cape he must 
have reached it some days before this letter was written, and IVom the pro- 
visions and water which the fleet originally took out, as stated to him by tht: 
Captain of the \'olontaire, he was of opinion, that it would touch at Rio de 
Janeiro. He immediately dispatched intelligence by the RoUa brii:, 
to Admiral Cochrujio, iu the West Indies, to St, Helena, and to Sir E. 
Vellew. 

No. XIV. 

SIR, His j[hjcsfi/'s Sfiip Diadem, Table Ben/, April 0, 1806. 

As thp season is very far advanced for lying in this Bay, and the weather 
particularly unsettled tor the time of the year, I propose quitting it with 
the squadron immediately ; more especially, as, from the length of time 
that has elapsed since we heard of Admiral Willeaumez's fleet, it was very 
improbable, consistent with the situation he was then in, that he should 
anchor at piesont. io determine his position at the moment would be im- 
possible, and it is almost equally difficult to decide on the best mode of apr 



214 TUIAL OF SIR IIOSIE POPHAM. 

piving the exertions of the squadron, the ensuing two months, to the greatest 
advantage. The intelligence we received by the Volontaire and Camel, and 
■which has already been transmitted to you for their Lordships' information, 
appears materially to incline to the supposition, tliat the West Indies is the 
destination of Admiral Willeauraez's fleet; but General Anker, the late 
Governor of Tranq-ocLar, who is just arrived here on his passage to Europe, 
informed me in the course of conversation, that a Irencii squadron was 
expected at Mauritius, but that it was impossible for that island to supply 
any flour to it, without looking to Rio de la Plata, on tiie coast of Erazil, 
for a supply; on which consideration, I think employing the squadron in 
cruising a short time oft" that coa^t, instead of remaining idle, will he a dis- 
position fraught with some advantages, and which I hope will appear 
so evident to their Lordships, as to induce them to approve of this 
measure. 

As this letter is to he conveyed bv a foreign ship, I shall not enter into 
anv minute detail, but say it is my intention to proceed of!" Hio de la Plata 
in -the first instance; to send the llaisonable to her destination by the time 
fixed ; the Diomede to Kio de Janeiro to procure rice for the colony, of 
which it is in the greatest want, and to return imniefhately to False Bay, 
with the other ships, unless I should hear that Admiral Linois is at St. 
Catherine's, preparing to cruise for the outward-bound East India trade; in 
which ca.'e I shall endeavour to intercept him, if it does nut infringe on the 
time of my return to the Cape, to leceivc their Lordships' commands, in 
consequence of the dispatches conveyed by the Espoir. 

When I have the opportunity of a safe conveyance to write more fully to 
their Lordships, I hope tlse additional reasons I shall give will be sutticient 
to £-atisfv their Lordships of the expediency of the measure which 1 aii) 
about to adopt. 

I have the honour to be, iSjc. 

Wn>. MarsdcTi, Esq. ^c. I1031E POPHAM. 

No. XV. 

SIR, DiumectC, Tabic Hay, April \?>, 180G. 

I had the honour to address you on the 9th instant, for the inforavation 
ef the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and, as stated in that letter, 
I weighed on the JOth with a light brce/c:, but it soon £\fter fell calm, and I 
was obliged to anchor in the outer part of the bay. 

In the evening I received some intelligence respecting the weak state of 
defence which Moutc Video and Buenos Ayres were in, and I returned to 
the shore the follow ing morning, to comnmnicate it to General Sir David 
Uaird. 

This intelligence so fully corroborated what I had ?,Ircady received from 
various quarters, that 1 suggested I he expediency of sparing a few troo.|)s 
for a short time, to enable us to brin^ a question of such iniportanct to 
immediate issue. I hesitate not to confess to their J^mJships, that I urged 
it %vith every argument in my power, from a conviction of the great and 
splendid benefits winch the con iitry would derive by a conquest of such a 
nature at this moment, embracing ronsidcratioiis of various advantages, not 
only to the mother country, but to this colony, which has been tlireatened 
more or less for many years with lasnnie, owing to the failure of iti 
crops. 

The result of mv inquiries for many years respecting South An:!crica in 
general, and Buenos Ayres in particular, have been presented to XWa 
Majesty's Governmeiit; and as it was at one time settled that 1 should- be 
gent there, 1 tuok every pains to form a detailed project for a con>l»i«c4 



Tni V.L 01 sni HOME ro¥HAJ,ti 215 

ffpcration, aiul winch I had the liononr of eivinc; to the late, and sent]iii<T to 
tlie present, I'ir>t I.onl of the Admiralty. After Sir D.ivid Baird had 
scrioii?ily considered this snhjcct, and coii?uhcd with General Bcresf(;rd oa 
the occasion, he detenniiied to accede to my proposition, and the 71st 
regiiiioiit \vas onlered for einharkatiini, under the directions of Briiiadier 
General Bcrest'ord; aud I have the pleasnre to inform tiieir Lordships, that 
the whole of that rcpjaieiit, with its deUichnient of artillery, iiorses, and all 
its other departiiuius, are eniharked, and we only "ait a breeze to sail; and 
the concurrent testimonies of various people whom we have examined, gi\e 
us the c'rcatest prospect of success. 

If our expectations are realized, I shall lose no time in bcjrin'j; myself the 
di»|)atches for En;:land ; Sir David Baird will notice this to Lord 
(.'astlereaj^h, and a-^sigr. the reasons on whicli such a decision was founded; 
one of the principal ones however is, that of conveyins^ to their Lordships 
the true situation of the country, its commerce, resources, dispositio;i of 
the inhahitants, and the extent to which its exportatior.s may be curried, 
with a scaL' also of the consumption for the manufactures of (ireat Biitain. 
Althoui:;!) these are points on which I cannot doubt Ijut their Lordships 
liKve collected a j^rcat deal of information, yet I consider what may be per- 
sonally conveyed by an othcer, w [lose sole ambition is to obt;iin ttieir Lord- 
ships' confidence and <iood opinion, will he more s:ei\eral, more correct, 
and more specilic, than any whicii can he obtained by other channels; 
and as Captani Row lev is the next oiUcer on the list to myself, I considered 
that the service would be deprived of little dignity w ith resjxxt to rank, 
and certainly none in point of zeal, judgment, and ability. 

I have only presumed to say a few words on the advantage which we may 
dcri\e by the exports from this country, by the cliaimel of importation 
which it opens, up a navii^alile river for many hundred lea;:ues, to supply 
several millions of inhabitants with the manufactures of the United Kin;^- 
dom. Therein, however, another, not of less conse(]ucnce on any con- 
sideration, which is that of dtprivin;^ the enemy of this most valuable trade, 
^^hich is carried on entirely under neutral ila^s. These prosjjLcts not oniv 
apply to Great Britam, but the connnunication with this colony will remove 
all idea of famine in future, antl be attended with vast reciprocal advan- 
tap;es, far beyond any calculation of risk in the present undiM-takiuj:. Tiiis 
letter will go by a neutral ship, but I hope under such a precaution as will 
almost ensure its safe delivery. I \vill, however, not enter into any fur- 
ther parti<:ulars, but sttite, for the iuformatiou of their Lord.shi[)S, that the 
moment the place is taken, I shall send to Uio de Janeiro, because it may 
enable His Majesty to give discretionary powers to any troops bound to 
India, touching at Janeiro, to proceed to la Plata, if the Conmiandinj^ 
Ulhcer hears that it is in oin* possession. 

I will also send notice to St. Helena, as the Governor may be induced to 
spare us a i'vw troo])s from that island, and I have already adviseil him of 
this enterprise, hoping that, in the (irst instance, he may be able to detach 
one hundred artillery men in the Georgiana jiacket, and at the same tim«- 
acquaint me if he has inlorniatiou of a man of war from England from his 
June conioy, wdiieh will prevent the necessity of my sending the Uaisouable 
or another ship there from la Plata. 

I enclose to their Lordships one of the letters which I have received from 
the master and ow ner of an American ship, who is now on board the Dia- 
dem ; and the result of many examinations is, that there are not above five 
Inmdrcd regular troops at the two places, some provisional cavalry and mi- 
litia ; that the walls of Monte Video are in a very ruinous state, and the in- 
habitants disatVected beyond any calcuhition. 

I hope the view I have given tiieir Lordships of my conduct, aud ihr 



S16 TRIAL OF SIR HOME POPHAM. 

motives by which I was induced so strongly to press on Sir David Baii'd tKljr 
expediency of undertakina; a project of zeal, enterprise, and exertion, pro^ 
inibing so much honoured prospect ofadvantage to the empire, will be con-* 
f^idered by their Lordsliips as far preferable to the alternative of allovvini^ 
tiie squadion I have the honour to command to moulder away its natural 
«nerij;y by wintering in False Bay, and eventually become paralysed after 
remaining so long, as it has done, in a state of cold defensive inactivity. 
I have the honour to be, 6ic. 

HOME POPHAM. 

In tliis letter were the following enclosures. The first is from the Amei'i- 
can Captain alluded to iu the tbrmer letter. 

sir.. Cape of Good Hope, QUth Mairfi, 1806. 

I heg leave to represent to you, that I have been three times to Buenos 
Ayres and IMonre Video ; that lioth places have the greatest abundance of 
wheat, flour, and intleed evei'y sort of provision. From n^y knowledge of 
the minds and disposition of the inhabitants, I can assure you that His Ma- 
jesty's squadron imdtr your command, wit!; a small military assistance, 
would with ease take possession of either of those places ; and if permanent 
possession could he cllccted, there is not the smallest doubt of procuring 
any quantity of flour ; and to prove to you that it is not an idle suggestion 
to mislead the British, I could !ia\eno objection to be one of live hun- 
ched men to attack either place. I am sure the inhabitants are so ridden 
by their government, that to prevent a shot being fired at Monte Video, if 
they had any threat from the men of war, they would send out any quantity 
of flour or biscuit to prevent mischief; but the places may be taken as I 
describe ; and if the trade is thrown open, all the inhabitants would willingly 
acquire and keep the place for the British nation without troops, which 
would be a mine of wealth. I hope you will not make use of my name im- 
properly, as it may injure me greatly. I myself, with my sliip , are at 

jour service, to do w hat you please to get possession of JBuenos Ayres. 

I am, &ic. 



The other enclosure was Sir Home's letter to Governor Patten, St. Helena, 
in which the Hon. Captain enclosed his letter to the Admiralty, and re- 
quested some military assistance, particularly a company of artillery, or 
8uch force as he could spare. This letter is dated Table Bay, I3th of 
April. 

No. 16, dated St. Helena, 30th April, is as follows: — 
siu, (COPY.) 

Conformably to the letter I had the honour of addressing to you the 1.3th 
instant, I sailed from the Cape with the ships named in the margin*, hav- 
ing on board ti:e 71st regiment, with a small detachment of artillery, and a 
few dismounted dragoons. 

On the night of the 20tb, in very squally unsettled weather, attended 
with a high sea, the Ocean parted company ; and as I thought it possible 
she might have rolled away the main-mast, and bore up for St. Helena, it 
was deemed advisable to bear up for that island, not only on account of 
the Ocean, but because it had been suggested as pos.sible that the Gover- 
nor Hiight be able to spare a few hundred troops to strengthen the expe- 

* Diadem, Raisonable, Diomede, Narcissus, Encounter. — Transports — Walkr-r, 
TiivoD, Nelanchoi OceaS) AVillingtou. 



XniAL OF SIR HOME POPHAM. 217 

"dition ; esppcinlly as it had been proposed, during the late war, to attempt 
3 similar c'i^tci[)rise with the trorjps of the island only. 

That no time mi^Iit he lobt after this decision was taiken, I dispatched 
the Encuinircr to Captain Honeyman, who was cniisiuL; oti" the nii;uili of 
the river, to warn him of the probable arrival of the CK;eaii ; and the Nar- 
cissus was sent to St. Helena with letter No. 1, to the GovxM-nor; and al- 
thouyjh I have not yet received nn official answer, vet he has ordered one 
hundred and fifty infantry, and (jne lunidred artillei'V men, with two how- 
itzers, to join the ex|)cdirion ; and as [ truKt they will be embarked either 
this mornintjj or early to-morrow morning, I hope we shall be able to sail 
immediately in the execution of this service. 

I am, &c. 

IIOMK POPHAM. 

Since writing ihs above, I have received the Governor's answer, No. 2 ; 
to vvhich I have annexed my answer, No. 3, tor their Lordships' iufornia- 
tion. 

The enclosed contain the letters referred to in this p(jsrscript. 

No. 17, dated Rio de la I'lata, July 19, is the dibpatch from Sir Home to 
the Admiralty, summoning the gari'ison of liueno> Ayres. This letter con- 
tains the copies of two letters, the one addressed to the officer, senior in 
command to sir Home Pophain, at the Cape of (Jood ihjpc, and the other 
to any othcer, jim. Pjoth press strongly for reinforccmeiits, in oider to be 
enal)li'd to proceed to farther offeuoive operations, pariicularly against 
Monte Video. In the letter to the junior oliicer. Sir Home srates> " I 
tliiiik it rii;ht to direct that you lose no time in disjjattliing all the naval 
force at the Cape to this place, except such part as Sir David Uaird and 
yourself may think it absolutely necessary to deiam there.'' 

No. 18, is a letter from Sir George Shee to Mr. Al irsden, enclosing the 
copies of two letters addressed by .Sir David iiaird to Lord Castlereagh, and 
dated at the Cape of Cocjd Hope, on the l4ih of April and 6di of i\Iay. 
The first of these letter's comnnuiicates an account of the dctaclimcnt whicii 
Sir David Baird hati sent \\ith Sir Home i'opiiain to the ilio de la Plata, 
and states the reasons which iiuliiced that otiicer c>; concur in the enterpri/.e, 
which reasons are quite tantamount to those that appear in Sir Home 
Popham's letter to the Admiralty, detailed in No. 15. — 'General baird ex- 
presses his hope that the importance of the object, and the apparent facility 
of attaining it, will serve to reconcile His Majc-ty's Government to his con- 
duct in undertaking it without any special commtuui. Tlie 3d letter from 
(icneral Baird contains an account (jf the Cannouier French frigate hav iig 
on the CUth of April anchored in .Simon's Bay, and sending on sliore, suj;- 
posing the Cape to be >til! in pos=essioii oi" the Dutch : hut that the Lieu- 
tenant was, with his boat's*, re .v, taken prisoners, and the Canuonier Cacap- 
ed by cutting and putting to sea again with the greatest i>iccipitatiou, leav- 
ing t\vo anchor-i and cables behinii her. I'liis letli.-r t'urilier uientioued t: e 
capture m Table Bay of the hv'nx Fortuna under iMelanhurLih, bound to the 
Ca|ie and to Batavia. '1 he writer meulious, tiiat amo.ig some dispatches 
which were found on board this brigj wa^ an order to the Gcnernoi' at the 
Cape, (supposing that place of course to be in p'j-session of the Dulcn,) to 
receive any French troops which might arrive, in a distinguished niitnncr, 
and to yield the commaad of the French and Batavian fortes tu tne senior 
olHcer of the former, alriiough of inferior rank. " An inference," observes 
Cicneral Baird, " may, I think, be faii'iy drawn from this C;rcum-lance, that 
the French mediiaied to soiiii out a body of troops for the purpo-,e of cither 
taking possession of the Ca[)e, or of forming a c.on_^,uiiiU. expedition against 
St. Helena, or some of liur Asiatic possessions." 



/^ab. ^!)ron. ^toI.XVII. 



r F 



21 S TKIAL OF SIR HOME POPHAM. 

Upon reading the fin^t enclosure in the last number, 

Sir lloMfc I'mUAM })ointffl out :tii l)!lli^^iiot», proljuliiy in rlie copviit-: the 
letter, as it only mentiouf tl " the West," whereas il bh'>uid have hecn " the 
\^Vsr Indic:^," tn wliicli tiie Treuch lleet had pn^aecuted ilirir voyage, ae- 
Cf)Tdui<x to the iiil'onnatioii !ic liad rci"ei\ed, u:id Sir I). Baird iiad his intelli- 
g«iice from him ; therellire there inunt have heeii a mistake in the omission 
of' the woid '• Indu:-." wliicli he wished to iiavt corrected, lest any impro- 
per iinprc siunsho'.ihl be pioduced by the stateuicnt as it now a{)pca!ed. 

3Ir. .Iluvis wa^- not di^incliutd to admit ihat there niii>,lit be such a niis- 
tpke as that alluded to i>y the Hon. Captain ; but as he iiad not brought 
down the original, he could not state positively. This (jriginal, indeed, he 
did not tliink material, as he did not mean to oUer the letteis referred to as 
evidence against the Hon. Captain, althou^.h read in the staleme.it of the 
qharj^e. 

Sir iloMK PorriAM was aware that sucli letters were not adnii;:sible e\i~ 
dence aj^ainst him ; yet he wished that afiy document hiid btlbre the Court 
hlinnhl be correct, and in that case he bad no objection whatever liiat any 
letter and paper at all rtlaliu::; to the subject of the charj^e l^eforc the Court, 
should be brau;;ht forward. Indeed, lie C(ndd not i)at be anxitjus that every 
thin;: connected with this business shouhl transpire — concealment was not 
Lis interest. 

This conversation ended by an admission, tliat Sir Homo Pophani repre- 
sented his belief to Sir David liaircl that llie Ficncli licet had gone to the 
West Indies, which admission was entered accordinsly. 

The .1: DGK Advocate having stated, that the papers which he had read 
composed ail that were referred to in the charge before the Court, 

iMr. .Iervis asiicd, whether the Hon. Canrain adinitiCil the receipt ot the 
on-^mal instructions of the c;9th of .Inly, lb05 r 

Sir HoMF. Poi'HA-ii. — '• Certalidy ; and 1 admit every document referred 
to in the cluuge, which purports to have been written by me; also such as I 
received." 

The instructions \\-erc read over again as evidcr,ce ; b.ut sonic ofthed' cu- 
nients, which iinmedialcly t'oliowed, benig but copied, with some bdaiiks, 
the Court adjourned f(n- some time, until the originals were sent for 
a-shorfe. 

Sir Home Popham stated, tl.at ho never received the Nos. 3, 4, and 5, 
until the other day, cai his return to England. He therefore could know 
nothing tit the orders they cui. tamed. 

Mr. Jervis admitted that these dispatches did not form evidence to 
affect the Hon. Captaiu, as knowing their contents. He adduced them 
merely as evidence, that such orders were issued by the Admiralty. 

Sir IIoMi PoriiAM asked ihen, if not against bim, why bring them for- 
ward at all upon his trial r 

Mr. .lERVJs. — " I'o show that the Board of Admiralty believed the Hon. 
Captain to be at the C'ape to receive orders." 

riie PuE^inr.NT. — " As there is no evidence of the receipt of these orders, 
of course no charge of disobedience can arise out of them." 

After some further discussion, the President ordered, that the letters^ 
8cc. should be admitted, observing, that tlie ( ourt might afttrwards con- 
sider, how far they l)ore upon the case before it. 

'ihe learned Gentleman here stated, that the case for the prosecution 
was closed. He observed, that the Hon. Captain, in a letter olhcially 
received from him yesterday, placed a good deal of emphasis upon what he 
called the introduction of new matter into the cliarge, whicli had been re- 
cently conveyed to him. But having seen tiie char;:e, a copy of wliich was 
Uiuisinitted to the lion. Captain iuunediately after liis arrival in England, 



t;;i\l or sir homi; i-oj-uam, 2I^ 

luc declared that be saw no material difference between tirat and the former. 
;|^Ie was sorry tlsat, in the toniicr, the dacunicnis to l>u adduced in evi- 
dence were not s|Kci(i<ally described, as the llon.C^iptaid jirot'essed to foci 
sunie inconvenieiire on account of thatoujission. 

bjr Howe I'oi'.'iam ob^x■rved, tiiat the diii'erence would be obvious to 
any man wiio reviewed the dufunients themselves. Indeed there v\ ere some 
papers read to-day nl^.ieh he had never Seen or lieard ol'. 

1 he PuiisiDENi lelHng bir lionie l'apha;n that lie was now at liberty to 
enter ujxjn Ins defence, Sir Uomf, requested liberty to retire with his conn- 
sel tor a lev.- moments, which was s^ranted. Ljjun bib return to Coni't, Sir 
Home said, he n)ust confess that he could not feel himself coJ'Ortcdile if 
callerl upon to eater into his defence before jMo:uiLiy. He sii(>ul(l be happy 
to conic forward to-morrow if it were in his po'.ver, but he hopeti the Couit 
would feel it very natural that he slioald be piopared, when they redectcd 
that theic were some icflers advanced in evidence against him \vliich he 
never heard of until this tiay, and that some procecdm;;s had been taken 
by his I'rosecutors, of wliicti he was not apprised until he came to Ports- 
mouth. 

F^iu-.siOK\T. — " There arc oliiccrs here who have been called away from 
I'a.ious stations, where they are enga'^ed in the service of their country, 
therefore every convenient expeditani is desirable. Perhaps by t )-iiiorrovv 
yon may be able to prepare y(;ur defence; in that hope we sh:;!! aiijoarti 
the Court until then; if not ready, yon will state when you can be so. I 
trust you will endeavour to come forvvard as soon as possible." 

Sir Home Porn am expressed iiis anxiety to come forward as early as 
possible; but observefl, that there were some letters for wliiih he had 
applied to the Admiralty, that he hud not yet received; and he trusted 
f.hat that Honourable Ccjurt would feel, that it was due to iiis ciiaracter, to 
omit no endeavour to meet every pare of the accusation. 

1 lie Court then adjourned, until Saturday, the 

SIX'OND DAY. 

Sir Home Popham, upon bis appearance in Court, was asked by tli^ 
president, whctiier he was ready to enter upon his defence.'' 

I'iie Hon. Captain replied, that however anxious he must be to stratify the 
wish of the C«)urt, and to briui; this business to a conclusion, he was mott 
sincerely umvilling to occasion t!ie Court any delay that could consistently 
be av'oided. But from the alteriition vvliich appeared between the charge 
ori!!;inally served upon him in London, aiul that which he had received 
from the Judge Advocate since hi,- arrival at Portsmouth ; the for.ner 
referrini;; to but three letters, the luttcr to no less than eighteen, some of 
which he had heard for the hrst time yesterday, hastily read in Court; 
from the very severe aniiaadvei-sions upon his conrluct, which had been 
made in the Senate; and the party animadvernons still more severe which 
had appeai'cd in some of the periodical publications; be felt it essentially 
neces-ary to his character to enter at large into all the facts wiiich he had it 
in his power to adduce in Ids defence. He therefore found it im[)0 sible 
to come prepared at that moment, the more especially as it was. amono- 
other eircumstauces, his misfortune recently to meet with a very -erioiis 
domestic atflcction, arising out of the animadversions he tiad already alluded 
to. For these reas^ms, which he hoped the Court would feel siilfu lent to 
(.Miervate and disarrange any man's mind, ho rey;rerted to say, that he was 
quite iinalile to comply with the wisiies of the Comt. by enterin;^ into his 
defence at present. Put there were some letters, v.iiieh, in order to save 
j^inie, he wished now to have read. These letters were, that which was 
y,ddrossed to him by the Judge AdvocftCc, and dated the 4tli instant,; and 



220 IRTAL or SIR IIQME fOPHAM. 

also liis onn letter to Mr. Scrrctai y Marsden, ref]iiinng a copy of the trin! 
of Captain Thomps-jn, with whom he (Sir Home) had sailed as a Mid^hipr^ 
iToan for three ye;irs ; also iii-i letter of the 30th of April, from St. Helena, 
the mere addenda to "liicli were read by the prosecutor; also the Gazette 
.of tiie 27tii of July hist, in order to compare it with his letter of the same 
date ; also the enclosures in his letter to the Admiralty, of the &th of 
October, 1S05. 

The Pkl.mdent asked Sir Home, whether the letters he required to have 
read were necesst.ry to his defence ? 

Sir HoMi-; replied, that in his defence he meant to refer to them. 

Mr. JtBvis obherved, that the Charge before the Court was word for 
vord the same witli that which he had itrn before the Hon. Captain came 
to Enszland, and which was presented to him, he understood, immediately 
upon hi3 arrival. The learned Gentleman t!ien entered into some legal 
objections to the right of tlie Hon. Captain to demand papers or evidence 
from his prosecutors. He did not wish to press this ohjection, but yet he 
wished it to be understood, that he felt it to he perfectly tenable. 'I'he 
leTinicd Gentleman was proceedin;;, when he was interrupted by the Court, 
who told him, that he could not be allowed to go into any observations of 
that nature. 

The Judge Advocate observed, that the letter from him to the Hon. 
Captain, was only meant to apprize the Hon. Captain of the intended 
t; ial, ill order that he might be fully prepared. 

Sir HoMK Foi'iiAM. — " But I only received that note of preparation on 
Thursilay last. I approach this Honourable Court with great deference, 
and I offer my sentiments with extreme ditfidence ; but I must, deprecate 
the learned Gentleman's perseverance in his le;;al discussions. I am sur- 
prised that the karucd Prosecutor should take advantage of the absence of 
my legal friend and adviser, (we understood the Hon. Captain to mean 
I\Ir. Harrison, ^^hu was absent,) to engaj;e in discussions of this nature. 
Although 1 am Ciware, that I am under llie protection of a more paramount 
Counsel, the President of this Hon. Court, I cannot help remarking, tiiat it 
would have been more liberal in the Proiecutor to have suspended, under 
the circumstances I have mentioned, his animadversions upt^n the law of 
e'.'idence. I am, upon sood authority, justified in believing that instances 
b.ive occurred, in which such requests as I have made for paper.s, a;id as 
the learned Gantlcman deprecates, have been immediately complied with. 
Bi^t even suppo ing no precedent had existed, would it be derogatory to the 
diguity of the Ad.niralty, to introduce a liberal precedent in my favoin"; as 
it has ihoDjilit projjer to establi>h a precedent so new, as that of sending 
down the learned Gentleman as the Prosecutor against me; as it has thouglit 
proper to apjioint one, who, independeatly of the advantage derived from 
tiis consu-iations with that lion. Board m London, is also enabled to avail 
liiaiself of the information he had the opportunity of obtaining from the 
ingenuity and profound knowledge of the Counsel to the Adniiraliy, with 
wtjoni no one is more intin.ate tlian the learned Prosecutor.'' But my 
jnca) acity to contend with tlie learned Gentleman, particularly upon (jucj- 
tions of Itgal dithculty, will be >tiil moie evident to tliis Hon. Court, when 
I state, that even here he h-.is it in his power occJtsionally to resort to the 
Advice of the Counsel for the Admiralty; to the advice of one who has 
yover before been heard of in a Court Martial, although, on thid opcasion, 
bis profound juilginent and ele\;Kcd talents can be referred to by the Pro-» 
seciitor, while tli^ learned Counsel is, by the use of a sort of invisible 
ring, concealed from the hglit, and from the avowed knowledge of liu:^ 
Coin-r." 

Tbi; PRE=iDr.\T desired the Hon. Officer would read the list of papers h^ 
^efiiied i;; expedient to hu.vc read to t-ie Court. 



TRIAL OF SIR HOMK rOI'HAM. "2*21 

Sir HoMl. %nve in the list requircil, and after the Court had consulted for 
A tew minutes widi Mr. Jervis, all ^tl■allI:cr^ wc-f oHt-rcd to be cxcludtd. 
The Court was ctuscd lor ab()nt an hour, afur vshich it was ro-opeiicd, 'and 
the Judcrc Advocate read the fwHowiiig decision, addressing hiiustlf to Sir 
Home Popham : — 

" The Coart liavioir taken liito cc)n>i(ltTatinn yoxir app!tc:ition, to be 
allowed until nine o'clock on INIonday uiortiinjx to prepare your DefencF-, 
liave consented to yonr request; but as the principal rea>on yuu have tjiven 
for asking; for more time, is ihe introduction of aqreat variety of new matter 
into the char^'p, the Court tiiiuk it necessary to ob^^erve, iljat be! ween the 
copies of the iiitendcd Charj^e as sent by tlie Sccretarv of the Admiralry, 
and that delivered to vou by liie Jndjjc jXdvocate, tlK-rc is no materiiil 
difference; that no new matter has been introduced, the only ditVerencc 
between them consisting in the insertion of a list of papers intended for the 
support of the charge, and the Court consider it to be more rcL;n!ar to hear 
your Defence before anv other documents itiall be produced." — The Court 
then adjourned to Monday. 

THIRD DAY. 

On the opening of the Court, Sir Home Popham immediately proceeded 
to read his Dpfejiee, in substance as follows :— 

MR. PRtsiPEXT, 

Aftpr havint; devoted the preater part of my life to the service of mjr 
King ,'ind Country, I am broui^ht before you, and tlie otljer .NJcmljcrs ol this 
Honourable Court, to vindirate. my conduct upon a charge as extraordinuiy 
m its nature, and unprecedenfed in the form aiid mode in which it is pre- 
ferred, as perhaps was ever submitted U) the investigation of a Court 
JMartial. — [ am brought to trial by that superior ;uithoriiy to which every 
Oilicci* in His Majesty's Naval .Serxice loolis up for reward and protecti<m, 
for having zcalou-ly, and to the best of jny judument and abilities, 
employed, within the limits of my station, tiic means placed at my disposal 
in making a succcsst'ul attack on a possession bilunging to the enemy, 
instead ofsutYering the squadron I commanded to remain inactive. — I ara 
ehargei! with having withdrawn from the ('a[x: of (Jood llo})e the iiavai 
force with which I bad completely fultilled liic orders I had received for 
Its capture, and xvith having left that loiiqncst unprotected ; thouLih, in tlie 
judgment of tiie very able and distinguished .Military Oliicer commandin; 
there, it was in perfect security; with having acted contrary to the informa- 
tion I had received, though that information was the groundwork of iny 
proceedings; and in the conclusion of the accusation, uiy conduct is pre- 
judged, and circumstances which, in ordinary cases, are stated a-, facts, 
whence the Court are left to draw the inference of guilt or innocence, are 
against me chariitd to constitute a flagrant breach of public duty ; aud, 
contrary to that nniversally-iicknowledged principle of justice, \\hich pre- 
sumes every man innocent till he is [)roved 'o be otherwise, punishment, 
instead of trial and investigation, is, I liumbh conceive, fur the tirst time iu 
the annals of the British Navy, imperiously (len»an>led iVoiii the high tnbu- 
Uid before vv^hich I have n<»w the honour to appear. 

To the ;,;i!bs( quent part of the charge, deiaihng and commenting on the 
fiocumeuts v.hicii are reterrid to in support of it, I r.'.so wish to call the 
attention oftheCpnrt; as J am confident it will appear, thai inuiy of those 
comments ar^' not juAtilied by the liucumeiits professed to be r«citeil ; and the 
Court uiil iia.e perceived tliat many of tliose letters and details were no 
<'\ideiice against me, and that iwany which were so read, as part of tlie 
charge, were not attempted afterwards to be proved at all: — tlie productitm 
^f :ho,e ducuments, or rather the iL.kJii:^^ of theiU; as p-.u't of tiic charije. 



2:i2 TRIAL OF SIR HOME POPKAM. 

makes it necessary that I should comment on them and their STippOSi^d 
effect j and I sincerely lament that this necessity compelled me rnoit 
uimillingly to ask the indulgence nf the Court until this morninj];. 

I am not disposed, Sir, to complain of those who have directed this 
'investigation, for having broui;ht me before you; yet I cannot but think. 
Sir, that I have some little right to complain of not having received any 
intimation, before I left the Ilio de la Plata, of the probability or possibility 
even of my conduct being submitted to this investigation : the silence of the 
Board of Admiralty in this respect has deprived mc of some material wit- 
nesses, and accident only has furnished me witli others^ most important on 
a subject in which my character and feelings are mo5t deeply intcrcslcd, 
I csmnot but suspect that the conduct of the Board of Admiralty must have 
originated in some change of opinion. All the information, and every fact, 
on which tlie judgment of the i5oard, as to my conduct, was to be formed,, 
had long been before them. The re-capture of Buenos Ayres could not 
have produced, on high and honourable minds, any such change of opinion; 
but that some change did take place, from causes I am unable to de\ elope, 
is obvious from the following otlicial letter of the Secretary of the 
Admiralty :— 

[Sir iicjme Popham here read the letter of j\Ir. Marsden, dated Septem- 
ber 25, 180(j, acknowledging the receipt of his dispatches, announcing ths 
surrender of Buenos Ayres. Tliis document concluded in the following 
words : — " I have iheir Lordships' commands to acquaint you, tliat, although 
they have judged it necessary to mark their disapprobation of a measure of 
buch importance being undertaken without the sanction of His Majesty's 
Governniciit, and of your having left the station, which it was your duty to 
guMrti, without any naval delence ; they arc nevertheless pleased to express 
tlieir entire approbation of the judicious, able, and spirited conduct mani- 
iesled by your5elf, the officers, seamen, and marines employed under your 
or(ler:^ on tiic above occasion, and which you, (or tiie senior ofliccr on the 
spot,) will cotnmunicate to them in a proper manner accordingly."'] 

Disappointed as I naturally felt at fmding that the destination of the 
force under ray command met with disapprobation, instead of approval, I 
was in some measure consoled by their Lordships' commendations upon the 
manner in which the expedition had been conducted ; and punished as 1 
^nust be considered to be by their expression of disapprobation, and still 
further by being superseded and recalled, I could not suppose that their 
Lordships meant to bring me to this trial. But I will not occujiy the time 
or attention of this Honourable Court in trncing the casises that may have 
led U) it. In looking round this Honoural)le Court, hi which I see the 
highest ornanu nts of my profession, I am well satibfied that no party or 
political feelings will operate to my prejudice ; and I should not deem it 
Kcspcctful to :i!ch a Court collecti\ely, or to the High and Honouiabie 
Mimbers of ii indivicfually, to aficmpt, by any comments on the elVcct of 
political prejuhces and party spirit, to produce any unrlue impression in my 
favyur. 1 wish io be tried, and to ^I^UKI or f;\ll in the opinion of this Court, 
«f my profes^'M. and of tny connrry — by my conduct as an otliccr; and it 
is in the firm conviction that I shall be so tried and so judged, that I present 
wyseh" i;efore you with conndence as to the result. I will not detain yoa 
1 )nger kjy general observations; but will now proceed to comment upon the, 
ctia.'-ge, the fo'indufion on winch it re^ts, and the grounds on which i rcl}[ 
upon the justice of this Court for my honourable acquittal. 

I will rirst consider tlic nature of the charge generally, which \i, thai 
havuiji hreii mtrustuci with a force for the capture of the Cape, and having 
succteded in that object, I did, with a\iew t) an attack on the Spanish 
settlements in the PlIo de ia Plata, for whirl), it is said, I had no direction, 
or autiiOijty w!*al.e..crj withdraw the whole of the iiuval force frum the 



TUI.VL or sitt HOME popaA^T. 223 

C'npc, nndcr circurriFtaticGs stated in the charge, nliicli I wiil consider 
iiciTaftcr, — 'J'liat I had no positive directions or express autlioiity for such a 
dcstiiiatiou of tlie t'urce under my coiuuuuid, i readily ntiMiit; ihv my in- 
yructions onlaindd no direction vviiatever, in relation to my future conduct' 
after the capture of tlic Cape.^-lt cannot be contended, tlicrcl'orc, that I acted 
coxTU.viiv to orders. What, tiiercfore, is the fair construction on the letter 
and tenor of my orders? What were the ohjccts, which it was my duty, as 
a naval oiliccr, to keep in view i* — I admit to the fullest extent, tliat my first 
object was to be satisfied, that liie cajjti-.red settlement was in a perlect 
state of security iVom attack ; the next, it will not, for it cannot be denied 
to-mc, was the disposal of the force under my command for the t;,ood of l]is 
iMajcbty's service, and the further annoyance of llie enemy within the limits 
of my command. —To the ilcml)crs composin;: this Honourable Cf)urt, it is 
scarcely necessary to point out the coinliination and the variety of unox- 
pected circumstances v/hieh may occur, aiul iinperioiiily dictate tlie 
necessity of advaiitaj^c Ijeing taken of the moment in proinj)tlv actin^ 
aiiainst an enemy. Circumstances may be such, that delay may lead onh' 
to discomlJture or disgrace; and that no time could be spaicd for consulting 
the superior authorities at fiome, or waiting for iheir orders. 

Had such extreme ciuition, such rigid reguluiions, as seem to produce 
die present accusation, been hitherto enforced, tliat daring spirit of cuter- 
prise, that prompt and decisive energy of action which have rai,-,ed tlie Bri- 
tish name and ciiaracter to so proud and enviable a summit of distinction, 
would not only have been checked, but in a great me i sure annihilated; 
iiiid the annals of our history would not have lieen grr.ced iiy so manv gal- ■ 
l.uit actne\cment5, which, though nnilertakcn without orders, ha\e in ge- 
neral been eminently conducive to the interesi and glory of this comitrv. 
ISumerous precedents exist, which fully illusUate the truth of this position. 
i\mongbt otlicrs vvhic:ii present thems-clves to my njetuory at this momenr, 
I shall ijcgieave to iveution the ciwp de main, uhicli put the Ih-iii>li crowu 
in possession of (Jiiualtar. /.diniial vSir Cleorgc lloi;ke had no orders fwr 
imdeittiking that l)oId euierprise, nor was he arraigned by his siipc^riors at 
home for having exercised his discretion on that occasion. On the con- 
trary, Il-er Majesty (jueen Anne did every lionour to his spirited conduct. 
In the American war, Admiral .Sir Peter Parker and (u-neral Sir John 
Dalling, the then naval and mditary Commanders at .famaica, concerted au 
expedition against the Spani>>h settlement of Omoali, which was to a cer- 
tain degree successful. No blame was understood to have ritt;iched to 
either of those othccrs for having directed this Ojicration wit'iout orders. 
At the beginning of the late war, in 179o, Lord Hood entered Toulon, and 
afterwards attacked Corsica, not only without orders, but, in the latter case, 
against the opinion of the General and other military otliccrs, who there- 
fore refused to co-operate with him : he tru.sted to his own resources of ta- 
lent, exertion, and perseverance, and succeeded m his attack. He apolo- 
gizes in liis public letter tor having undertaken these operations; and I'uu- 
lon and Corsica were ultimately evacuated, in consequence of our military 
f irce being iuaderiuate to their prcservatiou; and yet, neidicr this oxer^j^e 
of discretion iu th.e first instance, nor the subsc'iuent mi-fortune s which lust 
f.ho^e places to the British ann^, were ever maile the subject of imputation 
on Lord Hood as an otficer, or of any criminal charge against him, or oi" 
ccnsnre; but, on the contraj-y, his conduct met with the mi;st unriualilied 
approbation of Government and his Sovereign, and tlie highest Jioimur and 
rewards. In J70G, Lord St. \'iucent (then Sir J. Jcrvis) sent tfie heroic 
^cIlou to attack 'l'ene< ifl'e, in consequence (jf information which he receivcc|, 
tiiHl two biiips from the liio de l.i i'iata had landed llieir treaMire there^ 
ilvtry petion is acajiaintcd v.ith the issue of lluU expedui-in, which Joirt to 



22-1 TKIAL or sill JIOME POFHAST. /■ 

the country so many brave men, and in which Lorrl Nelson himself vvn? se- 
verely vvauiidcd. Xutwiili^taiiriiiig the disabtruus result of this attack, which 
wa? undcLtukeii witliout orders from any superior authority, and I believe I 
am warranted in saying, out of the limits of Lord St. Vincent's command, 
no censure was ever understood to have passed on the conduct of that 
otUcer in directing it: certainly no juilicial inquiry or public censure ever 
followed the entcrjirise. Ancjtiier instance I think it necessary to observe, 
of tfiG excrci>o of discretion, wliicii is aftorded to me bv the treaty of el 
Arisch, entered into by Captain Sir Sidnev Smitti with (jeneral Kieber, for 
the return of the I'lcnch ain)y, under the command of the latter, fr(;m 
Egypt to J'rance. This treaty, iis is well known, involving as it did great 
political iiiterest~, was not approved of by tlie Britisli Government ; and 
tiiough it liad been regularly signed and exchanged by Sir S. Smith, orders 
were sent out to Lord Keitii to put an end to tliat treaty, and tu prevent its 
being carried into execution; and aichougii Sir S. Smitli had the inortilica- 
tion of finding his well-meant exertions disapproved of, and cauceih-d at 
home; though they were the source of much embarrassment and imeasincs^ 
to the Government at the time; and, above all, tliuugh he had no separate 
command, l)ut was inunediately under ].ord Keith, then Commander in 
Chief ill the I\Iediterr;uiean, to wiiom the means and opportunity of refer- 
«ice, as compared witii the present case, were siiort and easy: — yet, under 
;dl these circuin'^tances, ti>e conduct of Sir Sidney Smith in this instance 
was never submitted t(j a Court ^Martial. That illustrious character, Lord 
Nelson, has also nfforded to llie navy another strong example on the exer- 
cise of their di-cretion-.iry power, by leuvin<i his station in the .Mcditerrmiean 
to go tt> the West Lidies, under circumstances which I cannci so forcibly 
state, as by quoting his own words, in a letter from him, since published, to 
]Mr. Simon Tavlor, of.lam.'.ica, dated Victoiv, (jff Martinico, June 10, 1805- 
" 1 had no he.-itation in forming my judguiciit, and I llew to the West In- 
dit 5 without any orders, but I think the ministry ca'uiot be tlispleased." 
Leaving, however, it nmst be recollected, (if that judgment had been erro- 
neous,) !iis station without a smgle sinp, and many vulni.'rable points tinpro- 
tected. It is mmeces.saiy to slate, that general and pnl^lic tipprobation fol- 
Imied this I old find judicious exercise of discretion. Captain Y.. 'Ihomp- 
&<m, of the IIya.'iia, with vAhom T served three years as ^Ld-hipman, exer- 
cised !iis own discretic^n, in comnig to England from the West Indies with 
!i. convoy, without any orders foi- tiiat purpose. He wiis tried, in conse- 
cnencc of a letter written by Sir Saunu-l liuod to the then Secretary to the 
^idmiraity, in which that Admiral states, tliat acjthing which Captain 
Thompson had written, can induce him (Sir S. Ihjod) to ajiprovc of hi» 
(CaptJiiii Thoin;)Sun) going to England without orders. Sir bamuel, in his 
letter, repeats the cx;)re«Mon m these words: — " 1 say, without orders, as 
he had none from me;' and finally concludes his letter of complaint to the 
Admiralty thus: ** It is my duty to state facts :is they are represented to 
lae, and it remains for their Lordships to decide upon the propriety, or im- 
propiiety, of a Capt:iin's going such lengths zcit/iout orders." Nothing ii 
more apparent, or can b-e much more strongly ex|jrei>scd, than the impres- 
siion of misconduct on the part of Captain Thompson, which prcdomin.nttd 
in Sir Saniuei Ilofsd's mind, at the moment vshen he wrote the preceding 
letter of complaint: yet the Admiralty Board of that day, notwithstundiug 
the luit'avourable in-pres-ion ceitaiiily intended to be cunvtyeti against Cap- 
tain 'i li<nnpson by Sir Siiuuel ilood, did not, as in my ca^e, prejudge Cap- 
t;)in I'Lompson to rtic; Court, -.'IhI term his conduct, n jlni'/az/t Lrtach of 
dtitij that should rwt pass unjnimshcd, V>nt simply directed tlie C'mrt to in- 
quire into the conduct ot'the -aid Captum Thompson, in luiving left Barlia- 
dutis, and come to England, without ijrdcrs, and to try him for the same au- 



TRIAL or SIR HOME POPHAM. 225 

■cordlngly. Captain Thompson was tried for his supposed offence; liis con- 
duct was declared by the Court to have been necessary, judicious, »nd highly 
meritorious, and he was honourably acquitted. — I uiil relurtu auotht r c;ise, 
which parlicularly applies to the subject ot'tlie present in'.|uny. TheComt 
will iiave oljserved, that in my letters and correspondence with the Go- 
vernor of St. lleicun, I ;tilude to a former intention of makin^i an attack on 
the settlements in the Rio de la Plata from St Helena. I am able to prove, 
that sucli an expedition was discussed and considered by Lord Macartncj 
suid Admiral Chriitiim,, on the su<rL'eslion of Governor Ijrookc, of St. 
Helena, and that without any orders. The objection of liavinf^ no orders 
did not occur to either of ihcm, the olycct being to annoy the enemy within 
the limits of Admiral Christian's command. — Beibre 1 quit this part of the 
subject, r mu>t observe, that it is impossible to confine that wise and stdu- 
tary discretion, vvhicli must in all cases be left to CouTnanders on distant 
forei;:n statioiiS, vviiliin any precise and deiinite limits. T!ie conduct of au 
officer, so ciicumbtaiiced, must in such cases bo tried by the actual situation 
in which he was placed at the time, not by subsequeiit events or facts, whidi 
could not be ki-own to, or suspected by iiiin, much less by change of opi- 
nion, arisHii^ I'roin political chaniics in the superior authorities. Having 
iiivefi a 'zeneral view of the sul»ject, in order to direct the attention of the 
Court tr> the statcmont which I must enter into, and to enable iheni more 
readily to apply the facts. I shall proceed to the circumstances which pre- 
ceded and <:u\e rise to tli€ expeditit)iis to the Cape and Buenos A vies; and 
I must for that purpose <j;o back to the period when I was hrst desiied to 
collect tiie informalion necessary for pi.nming the latter expedition. — Jt 
was in the cud of the year lu03, tliat i first iiad conferences with some of 
the mendjers of the adininistrtition then in power, relative to an expedition 
to the Kio de la Plata, and which was combined with one proposed by 
General .^liranda. I had also frequent conmuinicaiions with General 
?.Iiranda on the subject; and, in fact, towards the close of that ad- 
ministration, some steps were taken for carrying: this projected expctlition 
into eflcct. In the course of the fuil.'»v\ing year, 1804, a change occurred in 
the (io\ernment of the Country, after whicii I was appointed to command 
l.'ie bl(;ckadiiig squadron off Bor.lo-iiie, hi ihe absence of Admiral l.cmis. 
During tliib period. Lord ^Melville, then First Lord of the Admiralty, cor- 
responded with me on the subject of Miranda's plan; and on my comiiiir to 
town in the month of October, in that year, (at which period the probability 
of a Spanish wvsr had increased,) his I.ordsiiip directed me to send again for 
General Miranda, and to digest my ideas on the subject of an expedition 
«gainst the Sj^anish settlements in South America, into the form of a me- 
moir. I'o the best of my recollection, Idelaercd this document to Lord 
Melville on the IGth of October, 1B04: sljortly aflerv.ards 1 was directed 
to attend i\lr. Pitt, in order that he niigi.t conver^^e with n;e on the \arious 
points comprehended in that memoir. — in the inonrh of December, ItJiH, 
the Diadem, to which ship I was appointed, was put into coinmissi(jn lijr 
the ex^rcs^ purpose of my proceeding m her on tlie intended expedition to 
^iouth America; but various circumstHiices arose to retard t'lc execution of 
the project at that time. In July, ]8UJ, when I « as at poit^Tnouth, anxious- 
ly waiting the linal arrangement about South .\iiicrica, I received, by pri- 
vate channels of communication, an account ol the weak state of the gyr- 
rison at the Cape of Good Hope. This intelligence appeared to mc so im- 
portant, not only from the advantage to be d( rived from tlie capture of the 
i'ape of (7or;d Hope itself, but from the facility whicii the f_o>stsbioii of 
4 hat settlement would alford to the proj-cctcd conquest of the defjondencies 
on the east coast of South America, ttiat I lost no time in comini' up to 
town and conimtinicating it to Mr. Pitt. This cciumuaicaiiou was made 

rSat). Q'tjion, QcLXVII. a « 



22.Q TuiAjL 01 ~iiL aoMT, j'oi'u.ui. 

ihro'rtiili Mr. Stiiri^cs noiirno, llii n one of the Sccrctriiiea ot" the Tifn'Si.fy, 
ivlioin I sliall call as a vvidt-^ bel'orc ynu. I c,i:i take iipuu :nc coiifjdeiitlj 
to say, it v. ill appear, tVoin llie t'viilciicf of that i^ciitlcuian, tliat the idea (k' 
s>ii espetlitioii to the Cape "as adopteii by Mr. I'itt, on this suii^i^tioti; and 
i:r tirt: t'oiiFse of a few davs [ recened iiiy iiisti uctions to pri;*i.eil iii tlie 
Dradeiii, :fs Corniiiaiulitig Otiiccr of all His Majesty's ships and vessels des- 
tined for tFiivt service. 

Outhe yWh of July, i;;0:), T took leave of Mr. Pitt, when T had a lon^ 
conversation witii him on the original project of the expedition to SoiitU 
America ; in the course of which Mr. Pitt infoniied me, that from the tlieii 
state of Europe, and the confetleracy in part formed, and fonning against 
Trance, there "as ;t L;re<it uuxiery to endeavour, by fiii. ndly nc^ociation, t'> 
detach Spain from htT conncclion with that pi^uer; and, inilil the result iM 
such an a'ttertipt shouk! l,e kiujwn, it was desirable to suspeiid all hosliltt 
operations in ijonth America; but, in case of failure in *!iis object, it was. 
liis intention ajj;ain to enter on the orii^inal project. I'rom tlie-e circnni- 
stances it v\ ill, I am confident, a|)|)ear manifest to everv Member of this 
Honourable C'ourt, that if the attack on the Cajie of (io(Kl Iloi'e pieceded: 
that of the .Spanish settlements, the priority was the residt of uiy own im- 
mediate suL'Cestion to the late Piinle ^jini.ster. Unhappily for nje. ideatb 
has deprived me of the means of provinj^ the part;iculars of w hat passed ia 
my last interview wiiii that ilhistrious and ever to be lumenled Statesman. 
But I can prove, by the stronge-t preoum;;tive evidence, that one f)f the last 
orders to me, from ^Ir. Pitt, was l(j furnish Air. Huski-soji with a memo— 
ranilmn of the names of the irentlemeu from v\iioin he wiis likely to obtaiu 
any fui rher information he might want on the subject. Our con^ersatiou 
toiAi jdace in Mr. fluskisson's room in the Treasury; and as Mr. Pitt was 
i;o;n_i; out Mr. Huskissoii came in, and to him I inimediately corainunicatet^ 
JMr. Pitt's tlirections to me, and furnished liiiu with the name-; and .Mr. 
Hiiskissou can prove, from subscMjuent conversation with .Mr. I'ltt, that the 
iitimes were so given to him by Mr. Pitt's order. 

I rerpjest, therefore, the .Members of this Honourable Court to compare 
all the circumstances positively proved — rhe plan delivered in — the expedi- 
tion set on toot to carry it into execution — the delay of it — ^thc suhstiiiitiuii^ 
l>y my >tiu.ii;cstio!i,fjf the Cape — and what will be proved by Mr. Hnskisson, 
as to the lust order 1 received relatiiii; to this project; and ask themselves, 
whether it is possible ty entertain a reasonable doubt, independsiis of my 
as->eriioii, of my havin|; been in complete possession of Mr. Pitt''s views 
towards tiiis expcd.tion : — And, in .corroboration of vvhat I have abovQ 
stated, Mr. IJuskisHHi can provejhat active: steps were taken to continue to 
procure further infovmatimi i-u iflation to the Spanish settlements ou the 
east coast of Soutli America. The precise nature of t}ie;\; steps, (as I (lo 
not feel at liberty, even in iny own defence, to make disclosuies whicfi 
miiihr hcreaftei' Iia<iard the persoral safety of others,} 1 cannot state: it 
will be siithcient for my purj'0::e, and suliicient, I irust, for the Court, thart 
steps were lakcn which showed that the object vv:is not lost sight of, tiioujicli 
pi/stponed, from coiihidej'ations con;.ected with tlie; then political state of 
r.uropc, and which ( ircnnisiances L-h+tve noi ius!r;\tion iii savinij were 
the sole cause of my nut having specii'.c instructions uj)exn tlie suh;< ct. 

Early .n Fcljruary, ISOO, I-rtce;ved acfounti of t.'ic teni)inati(;n of the 
war in India, and naturally concliided, that no possible exigeiicv could im- 
mediately arise in tliat countiy, to make it ncccisury for the Go vernor-(. fe- 
udal to apply to the (.'ape for any military su; port. In the course of the 
same montli, I also received tlic uevv; of Lord \el-ou's glorious victory ott" 
Trafdgar, and an uccount of the con'erlerary again't France, i'lu-ni an alii- 
aucc with which power it had not been [; -.tci .'u'ei'j to dctacuSnuLii. Tuwtii'dS; 



Tni VL or siK iioMT. ror'iJAM. 227 

tlip nid of February, ri Danisli ve«sel, whicii nrrived ;it I'lc ( apr, l)nnit;lii 
Kimli^li newspapers, f:i\ ii.12 iiii accomir of the defeat w ciipitiiJariou of tlie 
i\ustriuii sirmv :ir Ulni. I'.v tlie r<ii)tnre of tlio VOJoiitaire rix-iicb fiJiiate, 
Oil t.lie'.Uh of '.M:iicl), ]l!Or.,'l learnt the defeat /^fUie i{u^^■'JiUl ai'iuy at.Xiis- 
ter'Utz, niul tliat liiiojiaparte was in po^^e^»^on of NveiiHi*,. — Tliis UnuouraiJe 
.Court will,'ttieref(>ro, not full to ob>erv«>, tliat tlic cau^e-i ^vlijcli \i:\^ cuntri- 
"buti^cl to suspend ativ e\p:;(iition to South America, a" a matter of prjiicv, 
4ind to clianp- ray orifj;inal destifjatiwu to \.\\c attack <jn the Cape, were f.ul- 
deulv done away. But even under tiac.se inapressions, aud witli si» tavnunte 
uti object of purt^.ui-t''ln'fore mo, I did not at (irst co!),template tlie cxceHtioa 
of it, or the beinj; able to carry troojiB from the C-^ipc for its arcomplish- 
xnent: ou the contrary, I dn-ected ail n;y attention to mcasuK>s of prvec^^.ntiou 
as to the Frencl) fleets wluch w«re at sea, and the protectiqii pf the Cape 
and the trade. * * 

liaviui; tstaMi'-bed these c^eneral principles applicable to the nature of 
the char;:e, and -ituted all the circinnstances which occv.rred previous to my 
leaving i'jjdaud up to the period of the coiniuencemeiit of tl^e expedifioii, 
sft as to put iht (Jourt in full pos-essio!i of tlie i'.npressioas 011 my iriind upon 
the subject^ and also stated my conduct, and the motives by wiiich that 
conduct was directed, up to the period of my coutemplating leavini; the 
Cape, and the exji^jditiou to Buenos Ayr«s, Inow come mure immediately 
to the charge itself. 

The first subject fur cGusirtcration. under all tlie circumsianccs oftliccase, 
wr.fc the safoiy of* the captured settleiueiits, and airan^^craeuts with a view 
to" tlie Freiwh squadrons, and th.c proter tiou of the trade; tlie first of which 
I am cbarsied to have leH utiguar»lefl and open to attack and insult, and 
tho latter to have left without protection. I must here call the attention of 
the Court to the particular words of the charge. [Virie the Admiralty 
Order.] I will now i.t;Ue the intelligence I had received in relation to the 
French squadron, and luy conduct on that iiitellii;ence, as applicable to 
these charges. The first" intelfee nee I collected tVom the ot^icers 0!' the 
VoloDfaJ.'-e,' which w;is captured (.mi the Itii oI'March, 1806, inducc'l nie 
to ap|)rehend an iinmcdiaie attack tm the Cape; or, at all events, that o;;e 
of the divisions of the lircst squadron w(juld put into tlic Cape : this is ap- 
parent froin my fetter /.o the Secretary of the Adniiralty of the 7th of March, 
180(3, drtai1iii;4 Ihe accounts I ha<^ then procured. IJy subsequent and 
iiiore particular inquiiies (jf the otVicers of the Volontaire, stated to the Ad- 
miralty, in a letter of the 2(jth Mii;cJi, t o-athercd such presumptive evi- 
dence respectniii the ulterior destination of VVilleaumez's squadron, as in- 
duced ine strongly to infer that, af^er cruisiui a certain time ou the bank 
of Laj^ul'ilas, he would put into the Brazils for water and ret"re?hmcuis, and 
the.nee proceed to the West Iiidie-- ; more especially alter lie should have 
been iuNirn;rd that the Cape was actually taken by the Britii.h forci-s : in- 
deed so strongly did this presumption tlicn operate upon my mind. ct>u- 
firmed as it was by no enemy ha\ ins; appeared at the Cq^e, that f dispatch- 
ed a ftiiuil copper-bottomed transport brig to Admiral Cocliraue at IJarba- 
does, to apprise him of what I conceived was the most likely course to be 
j),irsued by V\ illeaumez, under every circumstance wliich had reached my 
knowlcd'j;e ifspei-tiuij; the s-'iate of his ?-qu;ulron. I also dispatched the pro- 
fPcto'/ ^un-brii; to Sir Fdwtiril t'ellew iii India, and the flolla brfc, to eii- 
dpavour to fall in with w hatever British S(|uadron nii>:ht be employed in tl e 
blorkade of the iMaiiritiiis. — Fhost; measures of precaution will t-v ince to 
ihis Honourable Court my extreme anxiety to c )mmtinicate to the I 'om- 
ni-mders in Chief of His Majesty's naval forces in cverv fpiarter of the -iiobo, 
and on every station liable to attack from the enemy'- flyiu;; squadrons, 
^Utrti intiilJigoiice as uii^dit best enable tlicm to intercept those squadrous, or 



228 TRIAL OF SIR iro:.iE To^iiAyr. 

to net on the rlcfensivp, anrl aiTord every protection in their power to the 
commcrrc of the United Kins;doin. 

Here. Sir, I must for a mornerit advert to the instructions of the 2d Auc:. 
1R06, ordering; me to send a frigate to crui'^e on the east coast of South 
j'^merica, hetween Rio de Janeiro and the Rio de la Plata. From such an 
order it is certainly pos>ihle to ch-aw tliis inference, that I liad no specific 
directions with relation to the attack of the enemy's settlements in the Rio 
de la Plata ; this I hiive already fuliy admitted. I had no com.munication 
whatever with Lord Barham upon the subject of South Anaerica : altliough T 
knew tiiat la Plata was a part of the Cape station last war, as well as tiie 
Mauritius, yet I douhted whether the last place would be considered so this 
war; and upon writing a letter to Mr. Barrow on the subject, I received 
the letter of the 2d of August, accompanied by a private letter of the same 
date, stating that he had not bgen able to get a bomb allowed, but had sent 
the aiiove-mentioned order for a frigate to the coast of South America ; 
but that it did not appear to be necessary to look out to the eastward, as 
little was to be apprehended from that quarter; and he added, " that it 
" would oiilv create ajealousy in the commanders in the Indian Seas,whoce 
*■' connnands extend at present to the .Mauritius." 

It is publicly knowm, and ofticially to some of the jMerabevs of this Court, 
that, during the lare war, our cruisers were constantly either off the mouth 
of the river, or cnnsinu ab-olutely off Monte Video : one of the very ships, 
indeed, (the Diomede.) which had crui^efl there, was now one of my squa- 
dron ; and, independent of every other consideration, I not only had the 
op'uion of that respectable officer Captain Rowley, who was on the Cape 
station last war, that the Rio de la Plata was considered as a part of that 
station, but it was also the unanimous opinion of every officer under my 
command. 1 beg it, however, to be understood, that these opinions were 
expressed long before our arrival at the Cape. 

[ have entered at some iengtii on tliis subject, because an impression has 
heet! circulated with considerable industry, that I had no authority what- 
ever fo go to the Rio de la Plata ; but it must be evi<icnt, by the letter of 
the 2d of August, that the Admiralty considered that river as an cnemx's 
port, which ought to be constantly watched by some of the cruisers muier 
tlie orders of the senior naval officer at the Cape, and consequently within 
the limits of his command ; nay, if it were possible that it could be con- 
tfnded, that, because the order directed the sending a frigate, I had no 
right to carry there mv whole squadron, I should answer, that the object of 
sendim: a frijratc would be nugatory, unless it was allowed to act on the in- 
telli'jmct; she might bring; fori would ask, whether, if a cruiser had 
brought an account that two of the enemy's line of battle ships had entered 
the river total'v dismasted, and that they were moored off P.Ionte Video, 
and every exrrrion was making to get thein refitted for sea, I should not 
have been jns'itied in sending a force from the Cape to attack them with- 
out a moment's loss of time? 

But CO re^■crt to the military state of security at the Cape : by the weli- 
known zeal, ability, and judgmeut of Sir David Baird, it w;is placed in a 
state of the most perfect safety. The garrison had been strengthened by a 
lew of native militia, nnfl its means of defence were deemed so ample and 
adequate bv Sir David T3aird, whose opinion in such a case I considered 
myself justified in adopting, as he was tlie most competent judce in mili- 
tarv affairs, that this intelligent officer did not hesitate to furnish a detaeh- 
ment of his gallant troops, in consequence of my submitting to him all the 
information I had receiv«^d respecting the defenceless state of Monte Video 
and Buenos Avres, and mv urgent representations to him of the <j:reat ad- 
vantai^es which our country was likely to derive, particularly at ao critical 



TiiiAL or sill iiOMr. roPHAM. 2^ 

a period, from such a valuable acquisition as the conquest of one or both 
of those places. Certain I am tiiat it is not necessary for nie to imjircss on 
this Honourable Court, that the prek rencc felt by the Dutcli colonists and 
natives to the nnld and fo.stcrini; protection of the lirilisii Govc-rnnient, 
would have disposed l!)cm to have lent tlieir most cordial assistance in i-c- 
pclling a French force, if it were possible to ex|)ect such a force ; as, in the 
event of its succeeding in the attack, the colony would have become sub- 
ject to the oppressive exaction and tyranny of tlie French Go\ernment. — 
But if any additional proof wore wantinir of the perfect state of security in 
which Sir David Baird considered the Cape after he had furnished me with 
adetaclunent of his tarrison for the expedition to llio de la Plata, it is to 
be fr>uud in the circumstance of his having reinforced (icncral Ecres- 
ford by a second detachment of his troops. This surely furni-<hes in- 
controvertible evidence that Sir David Baird considered tlie Cape in no 
dani^er from the weakness of his garrison or means of defence ; and shall I 
be condemned fur availinsi myself of that aid, which his superior judgment 
felt could be afforded witli perfect safety ? — Farther, as to the state of se- 
curity in which the Cape was considered by General Baird, I shall prove to 
the sati.ifactiou of this Honourable Court, by the testimony of fvlr. Browne, 
who was ^Jasper-Attendant at the Cape, that, by t!ie construction of several 
additional batteries mounted with heavy artillery, no enemy's ship could 
fairly enter any of the principal bays or harbours in its vicinity, without; 
inctH-ring the danger of being captured or totally dcstmycd. Mr. Browne 
will be able to show to the (ioin-t, that it was the most earnest wish of Sir 
David Baird, that the enemy might make an -'itteinpt to wrest the settle- 
ment from the British forces. He was perfectly satisfied thev would find it 
almost impossible to etVect a landing ; or, if a landing was effected, to suc- 
ceed in reducing the place with an army often thousand men — I must now. 
Sir, particularly advert to a letter from (ieneral Baird to Lord Castlc- 
reagh, dated 5th May, 1806, which has been read as part of the charge, 
but not proved by evidence. 'Ihis letter states, tliat a French frigate an- 
chored in Smion's Bay, and sent a boat on shore ; which boat, with a French 
otiicer and her crew, wrre taken prisoners on their hniding. This letter 
nuist have been engrafted on the charge with a view of supi)orting that part 
v.liich alludes to the protection of the Cape from insult, but more particu- 
larly to what relates to its being left without the means of taking possession 
of any ship of the enemy that might put into any of the harbours or bays of 

. the Cape. It is intended, no doubt, to endeavour to impress the Court 
with an opinion, that if I had remained at the Cape with my squadron, the 
Trench frigate iw question might have been captured. However specious 
such an idea may, ])robably, appear, nothing can be more erroneous. 'I'liis 
Trench frigate is stated to have come into Simon's Bay, where she i-> said to 
have anchored : but I shall prove. Sir, by the evidence of Mr. Browne, 
that she never did enter Simon's Bay, but came to anchor in False Bay, 
and so far out, that when she was fired at from the batteries in Simoifs Boy, 
every shot foil short. >;o sooner did she discover, by the-e discharges of 
cannon, that the settlement was in possession of the British force*, than 
she cut her cables, and made all sail into the oSing. — Now, Sir, upon the 
suppO::itiun that I had received no intelligence to induce me to proceed uith 
the squadron to the Rio de la I'lata, f deny the prol)a!)ility, I might even 
say the possibility, of ray being able to capture this 1 rt nch fri^iate. To 
put the fact in a clear point ot view, so as to convince every Alembcr of 
this Honourable Court that no imputation can possibi , attach to me for her 
escApe, it will .)nly be necessary for me to prove, by tne deposition of tlje 
6 line witness, (Mr. Browne,) that while I was Iving; at am lior in Table Bay, 

with the gioiter part of my squadron, another French ;:;^.tLe (la Picdniou- 



230 TttlAL OF SIR HOME POPIIAM. 

taise,) cl'ased in there n neutral ship, and actually approached the sqiia- 
Hr.iii so near, lliat tVorn the signal statiDn on the Lion's liump, she was clear- 
ly fii^covercd ti> be a cruiser. Notwjtlistandine; that I had received a mes- 
auge to this elu'Ct from the ojficer stationed at tlie >ignal tower, it was ut- 
terly impossible for me to prevent lier from esciping. 'J'l)c treneral state of 
the prevailiiie; m inds ia the principal ancliorapes at the Cape, Sir, is such, 
that the utmo-t efforts of the most skilfuland vigihint commander of a squa- 
dron lying there, would in vain be exerted in attempting to overtalie an 
enemy's ship t!)at should use due precaution in standing in for the land to 
reconnoitre. I'liose who have a knowledge of the bays and anchorages oi 
the Cape, and in the neigiibourhood, w ill be sati^^fied tliat 1 am correct in 
asserting that a British squadron. King in Table Ray, can seldom or ever get 
out between Green i'oint and Robin Islajid, unless there is a strong nor- 
therly wind, by reason of the heavy swell constantly setting m th»re from 
the south-wtst, and the current, ^vhich comes to the southward and east- 
xrard, and sets to the northward between Robin Island and the main; cm- 
scqnently an enemy's cruiser, standing in for that part of the land called 
the Lion's Rump, would, as soon as she discovered a squadron at anchor 
in the bay, be able, under the circumstances before stated, to eftoct her 
escape; because the British fleet would, with the south-east wind, which is 
tiie prevailing wind at the Cape of Good Hope, have to run down to lee- 
ward, that is, to the westward of Robin Island, theieby making a circuit of at 
least three leagues before she could haul up in chase of an enemy's cruiser. 
This, Sir, was exactly the case when la Piedmoutai-e, a Tretioh frigate, hove 
ia sight of the signal post, while 1 was lying at anchor in Table Bay. The 
south-east wind prevailed in theoftiag, whilethf rewas a deadcalm in thcbay ; 
and although, on hearing of a strange sail being in the olhng, 1 instantly made 
a signal tor the Leda and >.arcivsus to slip and cha^e ; yet it was impossible 
for those frigates to get out of the bay till the evening of the follo\\ins day. 
— Now, Sir, let us suppose that I was lying with all, or a |iart of my squa- 
dron, ill Table Bay, may t not come nt^arer the case in Simon's Bay, when 
la Cannoniere was stancinig in; can it be imagined that she would, on the 
discovery of my squadron, have continued to do so, much kss have come 
to an anchor, even out of gun-shot r Independently of which, circumstances 
somewhat similar to these before described, would have opposed any efforts 
I might have made on such an occasion, to prevent her escape ; for the 
winds in Simon's Bay arc, in general, so light and variable, tliat hefore a 
ship of war could have ^lipped and got out of the Bav, the Cannoniere, or 
any other enemy's cruiser standing in t'or the land in tliat quarter, 
would ha\e made so large an ofiiug as to aff<rd no probabihty of success to 
am ship detaclx.d in pursuit of her from the anchorage in Simon's Bay. t 
shall only ;uid, that sliifjs lying at anchor in Simon's liay may be seen at so 
great a distance by any vessels standing iiuo Fa'se l^.av, that there is no 
chance of a capture b'.^iug made of an enemy's cruiser, which could not fail 
to observe any men of war of equal or fuperior force, h; cause she is sure to 
have the bay quite open, in consequence of the necessity of her keeping 
Jii the north-east part, for the purpose of rontiiiuing within the limits of the 
trade wind, and of avoiding the Whith Hock. 

I havf entered into ttiis explanation with a view of removing any unfa- 
vourable impression which tiie circumstances velaii\e to la Cannoniere, a? 
mentioned in Sir David Baird's letter to Lord Castlereagh, dated the .5th of 
]NJay, 1806, are intended to produce on the Court Jn doiuii this, Sir, I 
flatter myself that I iiave also completely answ ered tiiat part of the -accusation 
•which mentions, that I left the Cape '■'■ uiihiiid flu nieuns'oi ta];hi;^ poHsrn-^ 
sioii of uw, atiifix i)f the fiim.y ukich /iiigkt liuvt jutl into atii/ i>f'(/n- buijs or 
harlouj ioj'iht Cq"^, or pur It, aJJuciut.^' 



TUIAI. OF SItl HOME POPII VM. 23 1 

A-: to the Cnpe Imvinj Ijccn left icilhout the mcam of<:ffordhig projection 
h* t/iL tnuk of His Miijcsti/'i suhjccti, in coiiscqu(MiLC of my liiiviii<r sailed 
witd my squ;i(in>n on tl)ec\pcditi:)n lo tiiu Kiodo l;i Plata, I shall also prov^ 
hy the tcstiiauus' of Mr. tlrovviie, that t'le ditfereiit batteries, armed with 
hcHvy camion, arc erected in such (jusitioiis, as to coinuiaiid the aiichuraiie 
ill I'iihlc Biiv and Simon's Cay; so that wliile they threaten destruction to 
any enciiiv's truiiscr that should atlernpt to c()nic within the raiisiC of their 
puns, they Ht the Same ti lie artord to all iiuTchant vessels, sailing under 
the iJritisii llat;, the must complete protection. Besides, at the time v^hcu 
I ieft the Cape the wiiUer season was about to commence, during 
which no ships can lie m Table Bay with safety. Commodore John- 
stone Justly observed, when he was sent into those seas on a secret 
expedition, in 1781, it was deemed unadvistahle by h'm-^elf and Gene- 
ral Meaduui to attack the Cape m that season. Xo attack, indeed, Oii 
this settlement was to be apprehended from an enemy's force, durinir the 
pciiod in which I am charsijed wiih leavins; the Cape exposed to attack and 
insult. — Independently of these circnmstances, I would a->k, how often has 
tlie Ca|)e been left without a iiuiile ship of war to assist in its defence dur- 
ing the time it was in posses-ion uf the h5riti.-.h forces in the late war, and 
the Hul; of the naval conunanding otiicer on the station left tiyiiii^ on board 
a small vessel scarcely c^jjable of makiui!; any re?i->tance r Indi'cd, in the 
iinniediale expectation of the arrival at the Cape of some men of war from 
England, I left an order, dated the llith of .April, IBOti. addressed to any 
naval oiiicer who might arrive there, and be junior to myself; by which 
order he or they were at perfect liberty either to remain at the Cape, or 
follow me to the ilio de la Plata, as should appear most for the benctit ofHis 
IVlaiesty'sscrvice,after a con.-.nlration with Sir David Baird on the subject. 

1 have already, I trust, repelled that part of the charge which accuses me 
©f havinj; " left the Oipc nut onli/ erposcd to (tltmk an! iii'iult, but tvi n 
uitliout the jficuiis i>fti[f'orduii: prot^^elion to I lie trade of His Miijtsti/"!! iul- 
ject.1, or of taking; pussc-sion of anv ships of the enemy that mi;4ht have put 
into any of the bays or harbours of the Cape, or parts adjacent." I must 
now reply to the continuation, or sequel, coupled as it is (in a manner not 
as I coiKX'ivo tlie most candid) with the procedini; parts, which [ have 
answered, and, 1 ho|)t', refuti'd. This sequel runs thus: — " All which he, 
the said Sir Home I'opham, did, notwithstandini^ he had reccivetl previous 
inforuiatiou of a detachmeut of the enemy's ships beiu^ at ■^e (, and in the 
neighbourhood of the Cape; and notwithstanding he had been apj'rised that 
a IVench squadrf;n was CNpected at the Mauritius, of which iie informed us, 
by his letter to owr Secretary, dated the 9th of .April, IBt'J, only four dajs 
prior to his departure from the Cape to the Riode la Plata." — I have called 
the manner in wliich thi-< sequel of the charge is concluded uncandid ; tor 
it conveys to the mind that 1 left the Cape at the very moment when 
detaclnnents of the enemy's ships were expected there, of wiiose arrival iti 
the neighbourhood of the Cape 1 had received previous information. — 'That 
this is not a fair or candid interpretation will be manifest, v\hen it shall be 
seen, by the perusal of the svhole of tnv letter of the ytli April, to yU: 
Jlarsden, and by an eKaniination into the particulars ol' tl:e information 
asserted, or implied, to have been thus i;ivcn by me to the Admiralty, 
respecting rletachments of ti.e enemy's ships, that my expressions, in one 
part of the said letter, esplaiu completely tliosc previvisly uscd, either in 
another paragrajjh of that letter, or sny prior inteiiigencc given by nie 
respecting the enemy's ships in other letters; and tiiat 1 had, in my com- 
Uinnic itions to the Admiralty, fairiy disposed ol UiHeaunie/'s squadron, 
uhich, in fact, was the Irench squadron said to have bet n expected at the 
ilauritius. What, Sir, tan be aioic uncauJiJ tliuti ti;us to idiud'j to a part 



232 thial of siu home pophajt. 

of a letter; and, by not adverting to some other part of tlie said letter, 
make it appear tliat the writer (and that writer the commaiidiiiiJ otKcer of a 
Britisl) squadron in a distant cjuarter) stands, as it were, before liis judges 
self-convicted of improper conduct by his own ofticial coiviniunications? 
My respect to the Court, and the controul which I have endeavoured to 
impose upon my feelings and my language, prevent me from givii;g way to 
the sensations uliich naturally arise in my breast while I am conimentintr 
on sucli a proceeding. Justly as I have a right to complain of it, I shall 
content myself with pointing it out to the notice of the Court, and 
with proving to the conviction of all the honourable Members of which it 
is composed, that there is no just ground for the interpretation which is 
attempted to be impressed on their minds — that I not only knew of the 
expected arrival of detachments of the enemy's sliips at the time when I 
left the Cape with my squadron, but had myself actually given to the 
•Secretary of tiie .Admiralty information to that effect. In the very first 
paragraph of llie letter in question, so far from my saying tliat I had 
received pre\ious information of detachments of the enemy's ships being at 
sea, and in the neighbourhood of the Cape, I begin by stating, — as tlie sea- 
son is very far advanced for lying in Table Bay, and the weallier particularly 
unsettled for the time of the year, I propose quitting it with the squadron 
immediately; — assigning, as an additional reason for my departure, that, 
from the length of time that had elapsed since we heard of i\ilmiral 
VVilleaumez's fleet, it is very improbable, consistent with the situation be 
was in, that he should come here at present. I then proceeded to remark, 
that, " to determine bis position at this moment would be impossible, and 
it would almost be equally ditiicuk to decide on the best mode of applying 
tlie exertions of the squadron the ensuing tv,o montiis to tlie greatest 
advantage." — My next paragraph in the said letter is, " that tlie intelligence 
we received by la \'olontairc, and which has already been transmitted to 
you (that is, to Mr. Marsden,) for their Lordships' information, appears 
materiiiliy to incline to the suj)position that the W est Indies is the di-btina- 
tion of Admiral \Villeaumez's tieet:" but the Court will be pleased, I hope, 
to give the next paragraph their particular attention, v> bile I observe that 
this is the part on which this unfounded interpretation of the letter rests, 
" General Anker, the late Governor of Tranquebar, who is just arrived 
here on his way to Kurope, informed me, in the course of conversation, 
that a Trencii squadron was expected at the Mauritius, but that it was 
impossible for that island to supply any flour to it, without looking to Rio 
de la Plata or the coast of Brazil for a supph'. On which consideration, I 
thinji; employing the squadron in cruising a short time oft" that coast, 
instead of remaining idle, will be a dispoMtion fraught with some advan- 
tages, and which 1 hope will appear so evident to tiieir Lordships as to 
induce them to approve of 'the measure." — Here, Sir, I have stated my 
reasons for suj)p<jsing tluit the ulterior destination of Admiral Wideaumez's 
squadron was. the U'est Indies; and in the same paragra[>h of my letter I 
addril what was mentioned to me by General Aiiker, the late G(n'erncr of 
Tranquebar, in the course of general conversation, respecting a IVeiirh 
squadron expected at the Mauritius. But it is to be remarked, that this 
was not trivcn to me by (leneral Anker, or rej?eated by me to Mr. Marsden, 
as positive intelligence, but merely as a matter of conjecture. — Every Mem- 
ber of this Honourable Court nmst be aware, tliat during the progress of a 
war, a variety of rumours obtain cireuliition, respecting the movt.nnents and 
supposed destination of the hostile naval forces, and that in a di.stant quai- 
U-v of the globe sosne of those rumours are wafted in opposite directions, 
till the event proves that a report concerning the expected arrival of one 
fc^uadrun at a particular place, originated from li.e circumstance of that 



Till* I- OF SIR HOME I'OrilAX. 23S 

>fjn;iflmii haviiiL; fallen in with ti vessel bocintl to thnt [jjace, onrl conreyrd 
tliiMiiuh licT some intrlliizcnce c:ilculatf(J to tlftcive and inisloa;! as to the 
rr;il ol)jc(i of its flobtinatiiia, wliile tliis hilse iiitciiigcnce h:i* the iiii:igii)ary 
c'llcvrt ofdividiii;^ or inultiplyiii<^ this oiiP squadron into two dctuclifnonls, 
aiifl t'ms ci'eiiting a donljlc cau'se cither otaLiiin <jr prcfantion. 'Ihi^ was 
tlic case in the present instance; the j;c|iiad(on alhided tu liy General Anker 
was no otiier than W'illeauniez's squadron, v\hi h, m 1 rightly imagined, 
would either put into the llio dt l;i Plata, or the Brazils, tor wmer nnd 
refreshments, and theti proceed to the West indies; which conjeetuic 
induced mc to dispatch a vessel to Admirnl Coehr.me on that station, lo 
v'uuble him to be prepaied a'jainsr the enemy's arrival. I next informed tlie 
Admindty of uiv then intended disposition of tiie squadron under my com- 
mand, in these icrms: — " As this letter is to be conveyed l)y a foreign shij), 
I shall not enter into any minute detail, but say it i> my intention to pro- 
aecfl off Uio de la Plata, in ttie first instance; to send the ilais(>nal)te to lier 
destination by the time fixed, the iJiomede to Ilio dc Janeiro to procure 
rice for the colony, of wbieh it is in the greatest v\ant, and to retiiin inimi- 
diatcly to False Bav with the other ships, unless I sliould hear that Adnutal 
I.inois is at St. Catherine'.-., preparin'j: to cru si' fur the outward-bound shi]-*, 
in which case I shall endeavour to intercept him, if it docs not infriuLie on 
the time of my return to the (,'ape to receive their T.ordships' commands, 
in consequence of the dispatches conveyed by I'Kspoir." 

Havint; thus brouj^lit this letter of the (»th of April, J806, before the 
Court, [ submit to their consideration, whether, on a candid and dispassionate 
review of its contents, I am not borne out in asseriing, that no pasMisre is 
it can be fairly and justly construed so as to imply that I apprehended or 
expected the arrival of a French squadron at the Ca|)e about the p(;riod of 
my dej)artuie from that settlement on the expetlitioii to the llio de la 
Plata? 

As to the circumstance of my leaving the Cape only four days after I had 
written to Mr. Maisden this letter of the 9th of Aprd, my reasons for so 
doing are fully derailed in the otlicial letter which J addressed to him as 
Secretary to the Board of Admiralty, on the l.'Uh of Aprd, wliich has l)een 
read to the Court as part of tlie charye, and which 1 now request to be con- 
sidered as again read. These letter^ are still more enlarged upon in a letter 
1 addressed to the Admiralty from St. Helena, under the date of the ;!Oth 
of April, to which the letter of that date read on the part of tlte prosecution 
is only an addenda, and therelbre 1 must now desire to ha\e the material 
letter read in this place*. 

If I am asked, v\hy I was so anxious to leave the Cape in such apparent 
haste, as not to'wait for the an ival of the men td" war expected from Knginn I ? 
my answer is this; — that I was apprehensive that any delay in my deparim-e, 
addcfl U) the probable length of the passage to the east coast of South 
America, might defeat the object of the expedition, by retarding my arrived 
in the llio de la Plata until that season which, from the information 1 was 
possessed of respecting the navigation of tliis river, might render it 
impossil/le to ascend it higti enough to attack either oC the settlements of 
IMonte X'ideo or Kuenos Ayres. 

I am now desirous of calling the attention of the Court to the maimer in 
vvhi(;h the Secretary of the Admiralty replied to my letter of tlie 9th of 
April, wherein I api)risei.l thit Board of my intended de()arluro for the lliu 
de la Plata. Thi? leticr is in the following tern;s: — " I have rjeceived and 
communicated to my Loi'ds Commissioners of the Admiralty your letter of 
the 9th of April last, informing them of your intended proceedings with the 

* Xol put ill lh« ^liiiutes 



234 TUIAL OF Sin. HOMK POPHAM. 

squadron under your orders." — Have I not then, Sir, a just right to suppose 
that the Admiralty Board di 1 not disappi-ove of my ha\ing i-ai!ed with the 
srjuacirua from the Caper— ibr cerlainly it is rational to infer that some 
expressiuii of their displeasure would have been inserted in this letter of 
Mr. xVlar^cleu, 1 am naturally led to this construction, also, by the terms 
of iheir leiter ackn.nvlcdging the receipt of ray account of the capture of 
the Cape, which is cuuclied in t'le following terms: — " I have received and 
liijd before mv Lords Comuiiisioners of the Admiralty your letter of the 
IStii of January last, with tiie several papers tiierein referred to, relative to 
the capitulation of the town aiid castle of the Cape of Good Hope." 

Will it n^yt appear to the Court almost incredible, that not only no di.s- 
approLjiion was expicssed as to my intentions siiinihed in the letters of the 
9th, ISth, aiid SOtl'i of Aprii, but that no steps were taken to remedy the 
mischiefs I am accused of havin<; occasioned ; no ships ordered imuipdiately 
to proceed to the protection of the defenceless Cape of Good Hope ; no fast 
sailing vessel to order me back to the duty I had so flagrantly broken, or 
even to supersede me for a cunsiderable leniith of time? I must leave it to , 
the Court to develope these mysteries. But, in truth. Sir, the nnportance 
which tiiC Admiralty now profess to attacli to the Cape seems not a little 
singular, when contrasted with the opinion which, from Mr. ilarsden'§ 
letter acknowledging t!ie receipt of my account of its capture, they 
appeared to entertain of it. Indeed the cold terms of this letter, unaccom- 
panied with any thins; like an e.\pressiou of satisfaction, eit'uer in the success 
of the anas, or in the elforts by which that succe.-s had been achieved, 
would naturally induce an idea that the Admiralty were disposed rather 
to regret the event, than to consider it of any value, either as a conquest, 
or .-H a proof of gall?ntry and good conduct in the officers and men under 
my . ornmand. But, Sir, thoug.h the Admiralty chose not to express the 
smallest approbation of the condisct of ti.e naval force at the late reduction 
of the Cape, permit mc to remark to the Court, that in acknowledging the 
receipt of my dispatches relating to tiiat event, they on tlie very same day 
acknon ledge to me t!;e receipt of ai-iother letter, enclosiug a copy of one 
which I had received from that active and able officer Captain Donelly, then 
of the ]S'arci>sus, (giving an account of his having driven on shore a ITrench 
privateer); and in making this acknov.lcdument they desire me to acquaint 
iiini, that their Lordships higiily approve of his conduct on tiiat occasion. 
Zvlust it not appear to this Honourable Court, and to the world at large, not 
a little extraordinary, that the same Admiralty Board which could liberally 
bestow their applause on the conduct of a Captain of a frigate, in the 
destruction of an msignilicant French privateer, could withhold tiicir appro^ 
bation froui another otticer, who commanded a squadron of His ^Majesty's 
ships, and all those who had acted under him, and were employed in the 
capture of a settlement deemed so imj;ortant, in a luilitary, political, and 
commercial point of view, as the Ca|)e of Good Hope? Whatever might 
have been the opinion of the Government, at the time, of the importance of 
the cafjture of the Cape, with reference to the thanks of Parliament, so 
gratiiying to tho'jc who receive them (t^i which it would be presumption iu 
me to suppose I had any claim), I may vcn;ure, I believe, to state, that this 
is th<;; h:>t iustance of a capture of this description iiaving been nuide by a 
joint arma.nent, in whic'j some expression of approbation a,t lease from the 
Lords of the Admiralty iias nut been bestowed on tho.5e of the Navy who 
have 'successfully performed their orders. For it must be recollected, that, 
as to the Cape at least, the orders wera specific and prgcise, and those con- 
cerned in tlie enterprise werg engaged in tlie strict pertbrmance of their 
duty. And here, Sir, I may be allowed to remark, that tlie withholding 
from those uiulcrmy command this natural and invariable re'vasd^oC^zeui, 



TRfAI, OF SIR IIO.'ME POPHAM. 235 

vnloiir, and perseverance, succesbfunv exerted in tlieir country's cause, was 
t.<) thciu the in:)re mortifying, as the army, in whose ctf;)rts and gallantry 
thi'V f'ullv participated, was cheered by the approl>ati(jn <;f tlieir superiors, 
and h;ul the consolation of being intormeil, that their labours and success 
were acceptable to those on whose approbation tiiey look fur encoi;rai;cincnt 
and reward. ')n this occasion, I hope it will liot appear vanity on my part 
to show the different liah't in which our conduct was viewed by the G^'ver- 
nor-General in council in India, wlio were pleased to transmit to ir.e the 
foilowint; testimonies of their approbation : [Here Sir Home read an 
oiiicial paper, concluding in the tolli)wing manner : — '• vVe request you will 
accept our ackn<iw!ediimcnts for the transmission of a copy of your dispatch 
to his F.xcellecy llear-Admiral ^^ir Edward Pellew, under date Slsc jHUuary, 
conlainii)<f the details of the operations of the naval and milii.arv forces 
under your command, and that of Sir David Laird, employed in ttif late 
"iuccesiful cspcdix:f)n against the Cape of Good H.)pe. On tiiis occasion," 
we cannot refrain from the exprcrsion of our adinir:ition at the ablp dispo^ 
i.tions of ihe naval and military forces engaged m that arduous service, an<i 
the bravery, activity, and exerfion, manifested by the officers and men 
employed on it, which secured tlie conquest of that iinportant coiony. The. 
judjiinenr, activity, and naval skill, manifested by you on tiiirt occasion, are 
consistent with those eminent qualities which have unifoimly distinguished 
your exertuons in the service of your country. We request you will accept 
our cortlial congratulations on the success which has attended His Majesty's 
arms in the important capture of the Cape of Good Hope," &c. 

But to myself and my associates, s-'me of whom had en<;aged most 
actively in the service on shore, not one solitary expression of approbation 
was communicated in the answer of the Admiralty. Yet I am to be con- 
demned for havini; exposed, even to imaginary h;izard, that acquisition 
which appears nut to have been worth those thanks of our superiors; the 
■value of which, though so easy and cheap for them to bestow, I need not 
expatiate upon in a Court of British (Jtiicers, whose actions and whose lives 
would be to tlit world ihe Lest proof of the estimation in which they ar6 
justly held. The importance of the capture was passed over in silence, 
when I and those under me might have been gratified; l.ut it is loudly 
eidianced, and made the subject of a crlmmal charsre, when tiic object is to 
depress me. Whence this difl'erencer — I leave it, Gentlemen, to your re- 
flections — [ leave it to the reflections of my country ! 

I shall next proceed to show, that whatever diesarisracti.ui the Admiralty 
Board (whicli bad succeeded to that Board under who^e orders [ sailed 
from England) thought proper to manifest, for my liaving exeicised my own 
discretion h\ undertaking t!ie subsequent expedition to ti-.c Rio de la Plata; 
yot my conduct, in the execution of tlsat enterprise, was sucli as to draw 
from them the most unqualiiied approbation, as appears from the letter of 
the 2jth of September. The natural inference to be drawn from the 
perusal of that h-tter is, that the Admiralty Board, at the time when it was 
written, considered my recal as a suiHcicnt mark of their disapprobation of 
my having lelt the Cape with my squadron, and attacked Buenos Ayres 
without orders. But the panegyric passed on my conduct, and those under 
my command, strongly marks the high opinion entertained of the importance 
of th^ conquest; for if Mr. Mars-ten's letter of liie 'iotii of September, 
acknowledging the receipt of my account of the surrender of Bucnos Ayres 
and its dependencies, be compared with his letter in answer to mme of the 
13ih of January, announcing to thorn the capture of tlic Cape, it is fair tu 
infer from the circumstance of the Admiralty Board having expressed their 
unqualified approbation of my conduct in tiie conquest of Buenos- Ayres, 
and of li^eir having withheld huiu me every sign of satisfaction iu regard to 



■236 Tin AT 0> ?1R HOME POPUAM. 

my pmcee'lincs in the redtict'nii of tlie Cape, tliat. in their estimation of the 
comparative im porta i ire to flic cuuiitry of tlie two places, they set a much 
higher value 0:1 the acquisition of Buenos Ayres than on that of the 
Cape. 

B:'t, "^ir, if ni^- anient zeal for tlie "service of my country has, in the 
opinion or" any of the ilemhers of this Honourable Court, carried me 
beyond tlie exact limits of unrcstiiLtetl instructions, I siihmir that I have 
nircady sutFcred a mure than adcipKite punislmieut*; not iiieroly hv havin<^ 
b;^cn deprived of niy late conmMud, hut from tlie de^radiui; manner in 
^*hich I \\ as supei-?cde<l and recalled, as must tippear to this Honourable 
Court, when they tiud that my solic tation for the use even of a transport 
was peremptorily refused, and that I was left to take my passai;e to Englaiui 
in a small prize-hri;j;, uith the an^ravatinc circumstance of the few men of 
the squadron put on board to navijiate this vessel home, bein::; taken froia 
l.cr by the (uxh.'rs of my successor, Admiral Stirling, to whom I was scarcely 
known, and to whon thercjfore I could have never given personal offence. 
.— vN'hethcr the per-.on.-> wlio >;avc these orders, or the Admiral who executed 
t!iem, thori!j;ht iliey were tlic best means of upholding the character of a 
British olhcer commanditit; in chief, or whether they or he judged tliis was 
the most proper metij.a! of shoAinj; others their extent of power, I will not 
presume to detennine ; i)nt of conduct so unusual, so unprecedented, and 
so unhand-onie, I assure inyself no iMember of tliis Court, nor any other 
person now pre-cnt, can recollect an instance. — Humble, however, as my 
accommodation was, ami exposed as I was to capture, in a vessel without a 
single gun to defend Iut, I reached this country without accident. The 
delay of Admiral Stirling's arri\al id the Rio de la Plata, owing to the very 
unusual length of his passage, I shall always consider as a providential cir- 
cumstance; for I can assert, \^ilhout fear of contradiction, that his orders 
were to evacuate that settlement; and, but for this circumstance, which 
afforded time for the arrival of the Pheasant ?loop with coimter orders, 
South America would have been at)andoned: v\lie»eas, I now may safely 
vciiture to predict, that the arrival of the force under General Achnjuty has- 
long since repaired the misfortune wiiich befel my gallant friend General 
Beresfoid, by putting the Driti-»h forces in possession of Monte Video; and, 
I trust, not only ri.scucd that <li-;tinguished otHcer and his brave anriy from 
the hands of t!ie enemy, but t'lilly puiiished the perlidy of those men wlio, 
wliilst on their parole of honour and the complete enjoyment of personal 
liberty, violated the one, and availed themselves of the oilier, to combine 
iiieaiis for the attack .n which they unhappily succeeded. Nevertheless, 
^ir, the unhandsome tre;'.''ment which I have experienced, and of which [ 
have just reason to complain, had no influence on my mind when I could be 
lit the smallest deuiee mstrumental in proinoiinsr the good of my country; 
, rthich is tuily shown i^iy my correspondence uith .Admiral Stirling. [Sir 
Home here read a copy of a letter from himself to Admiral Stirling, dated 
Dec. 3, liiOO, tenfierl;;g iiis services in any inauner that might be thought 
most eligible.] 

Having developed all the motives which ur<:cd me to proceed to the at- 
tack of the Spanish settlements on the Rio dc la I'iata, 1 now beg ka\e to 
call the, atteiiti(Mi vi' tliis Honourable Court to the consequence^ which hax e 
alread> ensued from this expedition.— In the first place, then, 1 humbiy 
presume, tliat it is but ftiir to infer, th.at His Majesty's (jovernment, nuL- 
>yithslanduig the cliange which has occurred amour, its Members, highly ap- 
proved of tlie enterpri.',e, from the energy by wliich they are following it up, 
f.ven at this veiy moment, when I am vindicating my conduct in havmg un- 
dertaken If. witiio'ir positive orders. I am naturally led ft thij conclusion 
by thf modf; in wiiich the Board of Admiralty has shaped the cliarge. 1 



TJIIAL OF SIR IIOMi: POPIIAM. 237 

^on notaccascd ofhavinfi, with iiiadequato means and .vith in.^ufficiciit jjrc- 
paratiuu, unticrtakea the attuclc on Buenos Ayrcs; the rt^asoiis lor this wijl 
appear ohvious when 1 cuiiie to comment on the instructions to Sir Samuel 
Achniuty, the olliccr seat out to prosecute tlie enterprise riiat I had so hap- 
pily b'-'^an, and vvhicli otliccr, as already appears to the Court, was rcconi- 
inendcd to His Maje^t\'s JMiiiisters by (lencral Baird as a proper pcr.-oii to 
he emph>yf d on this service. In these instrnetiuns to (Jeneral Achiuuty, 
the utmo.--t anxiety is expre.-s^cd by His ^lajesty's present Minibters, in t;ie 
eveat of anv mislbrrane ],avin<; ha|)pened to (n-iura! Bereaford, to obtain 
such a footini!; oij the Continent of South AuKTica, ciiher in tlie same, or 
in some adiaceut part, as may enable him (General Acnmuty) to w;iit tl)e 
arrival of a further force, and that force consistinji of ;>0U0 men; \vl;ich is 
stated 71U/: U> have been intended orif^inally as a reinforcement to General 
Bcrcsford, but tor a service of very considerable importance, but wliicJi Lc 
is authorised to detain until his object is attained; and, in a preceding part 
of tlie instructions, ( Jeaerul AcJjjnuty is enjoined not ton hastily to abandou 
the attempt of iiainijj.!; a I'ooriui; in Sontli Aujcrica. — Is it possible tor me 
to avoid fceliiig (jr eKprcssinir some satisfaction, when I reflect tliat, not- 
withstanding tlie reverse of fortune which liad occurred, i !iad anticipated 
not only the wishes of the last, but also of tiie present Adnfinistrati'm : t!)at 
I had secured a very strong position, suited to the views of His Majesty's 
Government, and had thus obtained a larm tbotijig on the C-)ntinent of 
Soutli America; that (ientral Adinmty would find the object of his expe- 
dition, iii a threat measure, Ciunpieted before his arrival; and that the 3(!00 
men, destined to another object of very considerable importance, would he. 
in consequence at liberty to pursue their original destination. — Nex-er, Sir, 
could I for a moment contend that success could justify neglect or breach 
of duty; but onscious as I am that I am not open to such a charge, it is 
jmpoasible for me not to feel gratified in rcllecung on the cncumstance 
vvliich 1 have ju'jt stated, 

^Moreover, Sn-, the proclamation issued on the 17th of September, IGC-fy, 
snfticiently shows the cncom-agement which the ^Members of His Majesty's 
Government were anxious to give to the spirit of our commercial men, de- 
pressed beyond example at the un|)recedented measures taken to exclude 
their exports from the Continent of Europe, and the readiness with wliicJi 
they were pleased to meet my ideas on this particular point, by inviting all 
Britiah subjects to trade with Buenos Ayres, and the other settlements tm 
the iiio lie la Plata, under the favour of His Majesty's said Proclaiaation, 
In regard to tiie value attached to the conquest of Buenos Ayres in a poli- 
tical point of view, and which, as I have before observed, was oi;e of the 
principal motives I hat urged me to undertake the enterprise, I cannot viu- 
dicate its in»portance more clearly and undeniably, than by quoting to the 
)io!iourable Court the language used by Lord Lauderdale, His Majesty's 
P!enip:»tentiary at Paris, during the late negotiation for peace, to Moijs. 
Taileyrand, the French Minister for Foreign Afiairs. In a note writtcu by 
Lord Laudeidale to the said Minister, on the 19th day of ;?eptembcr, ISOti, 
his Lordsliip says, '■ When the undersigned reflects that he came to Paris, 
authorised lo conclude peace upon terms understood to have beou proposed 
by France; that ni/twithsiandiag the refusal of His Imperial Majesty of all 
the Russias to ratify tiie Treaty signed by i\L d'Oubriel, and the sulendid 
mcceas ti ubiaincd bi/ Hia MaJLHii/'s arms in South Ar.u-na, he was autho- 
rised to give assurances, (as he had the honour of doing to his lixcellency 
The Minister for Foreign Affairs.) that the demands of his Court in its owu 
favour, would not in C!)nsefpience of these bU cesocs be materially in- 
creased." Is not this, I ask, language of which I ha\e reason to be proud, 
iaaS'jiuch a? it convevs^ in a uuumer tiie most J'ueU and un'jualillfd, thfc 



23$ TRIAL OF SIR HOME POPIIAM. 

opinion entertained by His ]\Iajesty's Government, of tlie successes, in the 
plan and uccomplislinicnt of wliich I bore so active luid so considerable a 
share? If Lord Lauderdale calls the successes splendid, in an official note 
to the French Minister, surely it will not now be contended that they were 
not so considered by that cabinet which deputed him to negociate the late 
projected treaty for peace ! and though iiis Lordship adds, that the demands 
of his Court in its favour, would not, in consequence of these successes, be 
materially increased, yet this tone of moderation diminishes not their splen- 
dour ; nor does it in the smallest degree detract from the merit of those by 
whom they wore achieved. If, however, the late negociation had termi- 
nated in a peace, upon terms honourable and advantageous to Great Bi-i- 
tain, it will not be denied that tiie character of those terms would have been 
influenced, at least in some degree, by the success of His Majesty's arms m 
South America. 

Bctbre I conclude, I must comiilain of the mutilated state in which the 
Admiralty Board has presented to the public my letter of September last, 
giving an account of the recapture of Buenos Ayres ; most unfavourable 
opinions and prejudices have been excited against me by these mutilations. 
In fact, several persons liave called on me for an explanation of the last- 
hientioned letter. I am compelled to notice the circLinislance, not only in 
justice to myself, but also to that gallant officer Genci-al Berestbrd, who, I 
trust, has long since been released from captivity through the success of 
:ilis Majesty's arms. The coniparison can only be made by reading my 
original letter, and the publication of it in the Gazette*. 1 here beg Irnve 
to read my last letter to the Governor of .Monte Video, on the infraction 
of the treaty under which General Beresford surrendered. — I must now 
advert to the papers of the 14th of September, 24th of September, and ^Ist 
of November, and the enclosme in that of the 24th of September, which 
have been lately introduced into the charge. The latter 1 never saw, or 
heard of, until read in Court; nor was I informed, until my arrival at 
Portsmouth, that any of these papers were to be brought against me. The 
object of this attempt was, I presume, to show the sentiments of the Go- 
vernment under whose orders I sailed, on tlie subject of the future destina- 
tion of my force; but it was known to my Prosecutors that I never received 
any of these papers; as the Belle packet by which one of them was sent 
was captured, and the Thalia, which conveyed the others, never went to the 
Cape; but. Sir, the subsequent opinion of the Government, founded also 
on subsequent hasty, and, as it afterwards appeared, inaccurate informa- 
tion, could not in any case be evidence against me, or implicate me in 
having used my force as I did; having, as it has been shown, no orders for 
my directions after the capture of the Cape; more particularly as the pro- 
bability of such a destination, as it proved to have been the wis!) of the Go- 
A'ernment at that time, in certain events, could not in the most distant way 
iiKve been in contemplation when I sailed, and the possibility of which I 
could not suspect. In addition to which I might observe, that, before I 
could by any possibility have received tiiese orders, I knew that the intelli- 
gence on which they were founded was wholly false, and that peace had 
been made in India. [In proof of this, Sir Home Popham here read Ge- 
neral Baird's letter to Mr. Windham, in answer to the dispatches which he 
received on this subject.] 

I am aware. Sir, that my justification has already extended to a great 
length; yet, as I coiiceive it to be incumbent on me to omit no circum- 
stance that can at all tend to illustrate the views which intiuenced my con- 
duct during the expedition to the Rio de la Plata, I must solicit the in- 

* Read in Court, but not put in tlie Minutes. 



TUIAI- OP SIR HOME rOPIlAM. 239 

Hiilj^ence of the Court, while I state, as briefly as posiihlc, a few facts which 
may serve to show, that in the whole course of iny proceed! u^s, as Com- 
niaiidiig Officer of the squadron in that river, I was never actuated hy any 
selfish consideration ; but that, from the time of the surrender of Buenos 
Ayres to His Majesty's arms, until the period of its being wrested from our 
possession, I made every sacrifice wiiicli miglit convince the world in 
general, tiiat tiie good of my country was my sole object in having under- 
taken this expedition without po-itive orders. I am the more anxious to 
establish this, because I iiave had the mortification to hear it said, since my 
return, that sordid, instead of honourable, motives, operated to indjce me 
to undertake this expedition. I am proud to have it in my power, not only 
to rescue my own character in this respect, but to prove that I luive not 
degraded the profession to whicli I belong, by permitting unworthy motives 
to operate on my conduct as an officer : I should not have wanted prece- 
dents to hear me out even in such conduct ; but though I have quoted [irece- 
dents for mv justification, as to the exercise of my discretion, I should dis- 
dain to avail myself even of the same authority, to palliate cupidity or in- 
justice. In proof of my conduct in this respect, permit me, Sir, to recal 
v.o tiie attention of the Court, tliat immediately on the surrender of Buenos 
.•\yre3, all the property aiioat contained in upwards of one hundred and 
eighty vessels, to the amount of at least a million and a half of dollars, was 
given up to the proprietors by proclamation — an evident proof of my sincere 
inclination to concihate the minds of t!ie inhabitants of every description, 
and to convince them that the expedition was undertaken with views dia- 
metrically opposite to those which attach to a predatory incursion. If it 
should be suggested, that I could not have manned even a very small pro- 
portion of those vessels, I would reply, that I might have disposed of them 
at an inferior price to their respective proprietors. — I acted with the same 
disinterested regard to public service in relation to large quantities of 
quicksilver and i)ark to the amount of upwards of three millions of dollars, 
in small and very convenient packages, which were in the castle near the 
quay, and might have been embarked in the course of three or four days; 
but I would not suffer any of the valuable merchandize whatever, which 
might be considered as appertaining to the captors, to be shipped, before 
the squadron should be completely victualled, in order that I mig'it be en- 
abled more effectuall'- to blockade the river in case of a reverse of fortune; 
and the whole of which j)roperty was ultimately recovered by the enemy. 
Moreover, I proposed to the Captains and olTicers of the squadron, and 
it was eenerally agreed, that we should present to Government whatever 
armed vessels mii^ht be captured, and be deemed fit for His Majesty's ser- 
vice. Among these was the Neptune, a tine ship of twenty guns, which 
had been formerly a Liverpool privateer, and had been taken by the Spa- 
niards, together with several large armed scliooncrs and gun-vessels. 

J have at length concluded the statement of facts, and the obsorvatioiis 
which were necessary to enal;!e the Court to form a competent judgment 
of my case; and in doing which, I have unavoidably been obliged to occupy a 
cons'dcrable portion of your time. It may, however, be said, that in my 
letter to the Admiralty, I did not fully detail all the motives which had 
led to my undertaking the attack of Buenos Ayres. If the statement 
of these reasons should appear less ample and less fltiailcd than those 
which I am now laying before the Court, it is becau^-e I conceived that I 
was addressing them to those with whose general views and intentions 
on this subject I was already acquainted, and who were well aware 
of the inducement to this luulertaking. From tlujse by whom my 
letters were in tact received, no intimation ever reached me that these 
reasons were insufficient, nor has any su[iplementary exphuiatiuu been re- 
quired. 



210 TniAL OF sin home /'orjiAsi. 

Before I finally close, T must a<:ain shortly revert to the point moEt, jrn- 
yoitant, bcc.'Juse it does not apply to my case only, but to that of every 
otftcer in the Navy — I iiienn that of the ciiscrcrionary use of aulhority 
wid.\)Ut precise orders. Indeed, if an officer, commanding in f(nx'i;;n pari?, 
is never to avail himself of information which lie may receive, never to use 
his own discretion, or to unficrtake an expeditioi> against an enemy's pos- 
sessions without precise and innnediaite orders from home, which cannot 
arrive until the moment for action shall have elapsed ; if tiiis is to he the 
rule and limit of aii oihcer's exertions in a situatio!i of h;!;h trust and confi- 
rfence, the result will, I confidently forctel, be ruin to the Hriush Navy; — 
it will lead to the entire cessation of all acts of enterprise, and to the 
total extinction of that <iaiine spirit uhich has so long hid defiance to 
all opv'osition; because an olUccr will be cfelcrrcd by the reflection, 
that for venturini: to attack or annoy the enemies of ids country with- 
out positive instruc'ions, his conduct may be prejudged by a superior 
atrthority at home, and (as in the order for hoidaii^ the present trial) it 
may he stitfiiiatised as (tJla^Tcnt breach irf puhltc dulti ifiat ahould not pu£S 
vnpunhhed. 

I must now, Sir, before I end my defence, and put myself upon tlie 
judcrneiit of the Court, draw your attention, in a few woi-ds, to wiiat I 
htnubly conceive are the points for your consideratlijii. — On your decision 
now depends the future conduct and enterprise of the Navy of Great 
Britain; always bearing in mind, that I stand before you, not for having 
faiiled in the fuUllment of orders, but for having done more than my strict 
duty against the common enemy. The interest that I have in the result, 
tJeep as it is, is triffiiig compared with that wiiich must be felt by every 
officer in the Navy — I may say by the nation at large. My case must be 
(fecided on general principles, totally unconnected with any feelings which 
reltite to me personally; and it is for yon, Sir, and the Honourable !Mem- 
bers of this Court, to determine whether an oflicer, circumstanced as I was, 
employed as I lun'e been on previous occasions, led on by a singular and 
connected chain of circumstances, to consider this enterprise as a favourite 
object, not of my own ambition, but of the niv|iesol"a great and distin- 
guished minister, on whose approbation would luive f(jllowed, not merely 
protection, but proijably coniimiuiation, honour, and re\vard, having been 
criginally, and so lately, appointed to carry it into execution, diverted from 
it only by my own suggestion of an intermediate expedition; having a full 
and confidential knowledge of all the circumstances, which for a time de- 
layed the execution : and hearing in a distant part of the world, without 
means of immediate conmiunicutiou, that all t[:-ese obstacles had been done 
away ; having also means at my disposal adequate as I thought to the end, 
and believing that the then state of Europe, and particularly of my country, 
the inunediate execution of thrs plan v.-as most important. It is for you, 
Gentlemen, I say, under all these ciicumstances, to determine whether I 
ivas justHied according to my orders, or whether I am not to stand excused 
for having hazarded this exeici~e of discretion. — In your hands I put, with 
confidence, my ca-e; satisfied that the importance of it, and the attention 
1 have received, will ens'ire me the benefit of all the circumstances I have 
stated, and of the arguments I h.a^e urged. On these grounds, I humhlv 
liope and trust that I shall receive from ihejusticeof theCuurtan lIo^ofR- 

AHI.F. Acf^UITTAL. 

The Court now proceeded to the examinatif>n of witnesses. lord 
Melville was the i!r^:c examined. The principal questions put to his Lord- 
ship by the prisonier were, as to the confitlential eoinmunii:atioiis from time 
to time made to him by .Mr. Pitt, as well a- by his Lordship, on the subject 
of I'^otitli America, particularly relative to some proposals made to Go' 
\eifciu€i!t bv Geuerai Miraufi-i. in whieu ( uuummictuiun *Sir ll(>ii!e hoit 



IRIAL OF SIR HOME POPUAM. 241 

a conspicuous part, being at one time left in company with General 
Miranda for the express purpose ot" ascertaining minutely all the Genemi's 
plans; and afterwards, by his Lordship's direction, drawintr up a nienmir 
und projct, vvlsich were submitted for the consideration of Govcnnneiit^ 
His l.ordshij) distinctlv admitted, that he had fret|uently turned bis serious 
ihougLts to the 3ui>ject of South America, vvith a view to the arlvautages 
which rnjght Le derived by obtaiuinii a footinjf in it for the introduction of 
our manufactures. When he heard of tlie capture, he considered the 
acquisition oi" Buenos Ayrcs as hiy;lily beneticial for this purpose, lie stated 
that Sir Home had certanily been employed at diifercnt times by the 
Govci-uincat on contidt-ntial services, and luivl gi\ en satisfaction by the ^vay 
in'whicli tiiose services hnd been executed : b\it his Lordship's evidence did 
not go so far as to siiy that Sir Home had been autlionzed to make an 
attack upon the settlement of Buenos Ayres, 

Mr. SroRGf.s BouuNE was tlie next witness called. His testimony went 
principally to prove that .Sir Home I'opham had had interviews with Mr, 
Pitt on the subject of the Cape of G^od Hope, and that in consequence of 
.some coniinuuication made tiySir Home Pop.ham to Mr. Pitt, liidarter had 
directed the v.-itncss to make further iufjuiry and take some ste^s, the 
residt of whicli completely confirmed the information given by Sir Home 
Fopham. 

Mr. Hlskisson, who was next sworn, starod tlie different interviews 
which Sir ilome Popliam had had with tlie late Minister and himself oii the 
S'lbjec* of South America, and the anxiety expressed bv Mr. Pitt to make 
use of the naval superiority of the country, for the purpose of otjrainio}.'; an 
advantage tfiere, an<l admitted that it harl been constantly an object that 
was deemed very ilesirable. Buenos Ayre.s, in particular, had been the 
subject of some conversations between himstli' and i\lr. Put; and he had, 
by Mr. Pitt's directions, made very particidar inquiries, aud liad t ikeii some 
measures »liercon ; but he was not aware, that an attack upon Buenos 
Ayres was in the actual CiH.templalion of Mr. Pitt, at llie time \v!ien Sir 
Home sailed for the Ca[)e of Good Hope;--yet he adnnlted, that, in the 
summer of 1805, a 'step was taken, with a view to prepare and facilitate 
the execution of any attempt that miglit be made upon that seitlemenc, la 
which by their signature the Lords of the Adnuraity were accessary. 

FGURTH DAY. 

Tno-vf.vs Map.sden, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty; and Thom-s 'Vrr,. 
SON, Esq., a Merchq,nt of London, were called in ami sworn ; out iJic/r 
evidence was not important. 

i\lr. Browne, late Master Attendant of tiie Cape of Good Hope, was next 
called in. He delivered liis testimony at cousulerable leaiitli, fully c<in- 
firinini: the s'atcments of Sir Hona: Pupham, as to the perfect safely of the 
("aj)e at i!ie time of his departure for ttie Kio de la Plan. He was present 
at the arrival of the Cannoiiiere French frigate, and assigi id reasons why 
Sir Home could not possibly iiave captured her, had his squadron been 
either in IVule Bay or in Simon's Bay. He vvas certain, that the Piciinon- 
taisc, had she not heard of the English being there, aud had she ventured 
in, might have effected her escape, after discovering our ships at anchor iu 
Tai'Je Bay. She might have anchored l)eyond tlie reach oi the batteries, 
and beyond the reach of the guns of the shipping. Iroin ttie siluali-m of 
the spot where the Volontaire anchored, she must have bten sunk, or biowu 
np, before she could have get beyond the reach of the guns, had she 
attempted to escape. By being properly moored, cither in Simon's liay or 
Table Bay, the merchant ships miglit" lie ia safety, completely protected 
from any insult of the enemy. 

Tiie evidence of Captain Iu.ng, of the Djadtfiu, the last \vitne"5» 



21.i TKI VL OV 6111 IIOMK POl'H.VM. 

exainiiu-d, was extremely iiiiportant to tin; case of Sir Home Pophnrn, as Tt 
went t.> <;oiiliri!i the wlioic of liis Sitatenifiit.s, rt.spectins; the .safc-ty of the 
C;ipo, ami of' v\ h;it<ivpr lutTchaiit slii^AS iiii^ht he i\inn tiiere ; thf impra( - 
ti(;ahility of a sucfesstul attack hy the tiieiny; the deatiaatiou of the I'reiich 
s>f|iiaclri)iis, (live. It had uUsavs l»een uiidcrbtonci, that IJiiL'uos Ayv»s tonncd 
a part of the Cape Stat'iDti, He stated, tliat Sir Uome I'ophain, hy his very 
htrict atlcmiuii to his profes-^ioiial diities, in not sntVeriuj^ any of the eap- 
tiiiid I'voperty at Buer.os .Ayres to be shipped, until the s(jiiadron Inid been 
completely re-victuiilled, sustained a pecuniary loss of at least i!0,000/. 

riFlII DAY. 

On the npervinp; of the Court, Sir Home Popham stated, that he hr>d it \n 
his powertoaHd several other witnesses, particularly ( aptains Edwards atid 
Parker, and Lieutenant Madden, who could corroborate the testimony of 
Captain King; but trom an imu illiniiucss to trespass furtiier on the atteii- 
tiini of tlie Court, he would decline any further evidence, if the Court should 
not think it necessary. 

'i'h(! Piii:siD>M and the other Members expressed their readiness to 
attend to any witnesses the llouourafjle Captain mitiht feel it advisable to 
brin^ forward; but declared it as their ntianimons opinion, that tiie evidence 
of (Captain Kiiiir required no corroboration whatever, and that if the other 
witnesses were meant to apply to the conduct of Sir Home at Buenos 
Ayres, or to the motives which actuated his prr)ceedii)ti;s, it was perfectly 
unnecessary to resort to them, as no ojie could ascribe uny sinister moti\e 
to the liononrahle Captain. 

Sir lIoMK PoPiiAM tlicu gave in tltc following Paper :-^ 

*' MK. lliESIDr.NT, 

" [ fiere close my defence ; and T throw myself upon the wisdom and 
justice of tills Honourable Court; my feelings ancl my character ha\e 
suifcred severely, but 1 trust to yoiir judgment to relieve the otw, and to 
rescue the other. It' I have, in tiie exeicise of my zeal, exceeded tin; 
strictest honnds of discretion, I hope it will be evident, 1 have been actu;itcd 
solely by a desire to promote the honour, the interests, and the glory of my 
country ; and if, in the prosecution ot' those great objects, aided by mv 
gallant tVjltowcrs, and fostered by the sujxrintending hand of Pro\ ideuce. 
It has been niy good fortune to be put in the possession of the t\^o capitals 
of twd quarters of the glol)e, I trust it w ill be found, upon a close examina- 
tion of my defence,* that the very head and front of my ott'ending hath this 
extent — no more !' 

" HOME POPHA-'\I." 

The Coiirt was cleared, and agreed that tlie Charges had been proved 
against the said Captain Sir Home Popham. — That the withdrawing, without 
Ordei-s so to do, the whole of any naval force from the place where it is 
directed to be employed, and the employing it in distant operations against 
t!ie enemy, \t ore especially if the success of such ojieiations should be 
likely t(t prevent its s[)ee(iy return, isiay be attended with the most serious 
inconvenience to the puhbc sei'vice, as the success of any plan formed by 
His Majesty's Ministers fi>r operations against thc^ enemy, in which such 
iui\ai fo;ce might be intiuded, may by such removal be entirely prcventi-d. 
And the Court furtiier agreed, that the conduct of tlie said Captain Sir 
}b)me pinhani, ;n the «ithdr;iwin'j: the u hole of the naval force under !iis 
coiinnuml iV'jnt the t'atte of </ooil Hope, and the proceeding witii it to the 
}{,io de la "'lata, was inp,hiy censurable ; but in con.-ideration (jf cncuiu- 
ftaiu pf; did atJ|udj;e him tJ be oxlv siviriELY iiKPr.i.MAXJiLD. 

Tlie ( Durt vMis again opened, Captiiiii Sir Home Popliain bionghl in, and 
4udicnce admitted, uud siuteuce passed accordingly. 



213 



NAVAL LITEKATURl'. 

The Buftlc of TraJ'dlgar, a Poem. To xJu'c/i /s achlcd, a Sclrx- 
tiun of Jutgidve Pieces. Chkjfi/ zir///cn at Sea. Pi/ Lar.rcrfe 
Jlalluran,) D. D., late Chaplain to the Pritannia.^ and Secre- 
tary to Rear- Admiral the Earl vf y<ort]iesk.^ K. P. 

^ir^HIS Poem, whicli, the aiitlior informs iiq, " was written oa 
-^ the Scene of Action, sfiortly affcr the achiovimcnt of the 
glorious Victory of Trafalgar," is introduced to the notice of tlic 
reader by the following exalted tribute to Rear-Admiial El ab 
IJarvey :— 

" SIR, 

" AVhrii on the cver-mcmorable twciity-fir^t otOctol^cr, I sawyouplnce 
the TpMKKAjuE between tzco of the enemy's line of battle ships, and cap- 
laic tbcni l)()th, I exultingly said to niy-^olf, * I'his is truly a brave man.' 

" At the various Cftnrts Martial, which 1 have attended, and upon which 
you have sate as a ^lember of the (.'ourt, 1 have been no iniitteiui\e ob- 
server of your jud<j;inent and discrinnnalion in investigating trutli : nor bave 
I been unsitfocteti Ijy the mildness and iunnanity yon liave invariably ex- 
biiiited towards the unfortunate prisoners ! On such occasions uiy heart 
has again sngij;tsted, ' This is truly a benevulent, good man.' 

" lo such a character it lias been my ambition to address this Poem, — 
nnitijlucnced bif Ike bias qt'prtviitclrit'iic/i,f,i/i or pcrsoiud intlmnci/ ; — and by 
Fuch inducements, strengthened by the consideration, that it is a faithful 
record of achievements, ' (jiiorum pars ti^opiu fiiiall^ I am encoiu'a»ed to 
place tlie publication under the protection of your name ; — tissnred, that, 
ttiDUf^b it cannot confer, it must recL-ivc distinction, if honoured by the 
patronaj^c of a l;rave and good man." 

It is not a little extraordic.ary, that, in honour of tlie Victory of 
Trafalgar — one of the most gloriouij victories ever obtained, in any 
country, or any^ age — though we have had an abundance of rhjmep^ 
we have had but very little poetrij. With the evceptiou of '• Ulm 
AND Tr viAi-GAU*," this production of Dr. ilallpran's is the only 
one, at all worthy of the subject, that has met our eye. That the 
present writer is adequate to the task which he has undertaketij 
■Bill be obvious on perusing the succeeding passage, the lirsl part 

• Of the liltle poem here mentimjed, thegeiieral compusuion is attribut- 
ed to Geori^c t'anniui;, Ksq., M. P.^ but ujany of the l.nes are said to have 
bt:eu the production of the late lliiiht Honourable William Piu, iluiihu. fiis 
iasi illness. This circumstauce, alone, niUii aitacb an. adduioUci vivlue ta 



244 \AVAL LITERATURE. 

of which is descriptive of llie scene that presented itself on the 
morning after the battle : — 

" Now, from tlic eastern wave emerging slow, 
As backward to re\isit scenes of" woe, 
(Wliile clouds and sioiins his genial influence mar,) 
The slsrouded sun arose o'er Trafalgar. 
Disastrous d;iy ! how dilfeient from tlie past. 
Whose op'ning horrors man beliolds aghast ! 
Where yestcrmorn two mighty squadrons rode. 
In martial grand«ur on the tranquil flood ; 
Now, o'er swoln surges, by t!)e southern gale 
At random driv'n, their scattered relics sail I 
Dismasted hulls are seen on every side, 
And groan, and labour through the boist'rons tide. 
These, as their prows arc vainly turn'd to sea, , 

Insidious shoals attract beneath their lee ! 



the work ; from which we have much pleasure in transcribing the following 
truly beautiful and expressive apostrophe to our departed Chief; — • 

" Lamented Hero ! whfn to Britain's shore 
Exulting Fame those awful tidings bore, 
Joy's bursting thoul in wfiehning grief was drown'd. 
And Victory's self unwilling audience found ; 
On every brow the cloud of sadness hung, 
The sounds of triumph died on every tongue ! 

" iSot joy thus doubtful, sadness thus sincere, 
Siiall grace, erewhile, the tyrant-conqueror's bier : 
Vt'hether with undiscrirninuthig sweep 
The scythe of ^'ur, amid the mangled heap. 
Shall lay him low; or lone corroding care, 
U'ithout one heart to pity or to share, 
A'.id cheerless toils of solitary sway 
Shall waste his with.ering frame with slow decay; 
Come when it will, from Ileav'n's all-righteous hand^ 
"I'o save, or to avenge each iqjur'd land. 
Nations shall kneel to bless the welcome doom. 
And France, unfetttr'd, trample on his tomb, 

" But thee, lov'd Chief! what genuine griffs bemoan ! 
Fleets, cities, camps, the cottage, and the throne ! 
Round thy throng'd hearse those mingling sorrows flow, 
And seek faint solace in a pomp of woe ! 

" Yet not the vows thy weeping country pays, 
Not that high meed, thy mourning Sovereign's praise; 
Not, that the great, the beauteous, and the brave, 
Bend, m mute reverence, o'er thy closing grave; 



NA-VAL LITER ATUnE. 215 

And, hoart-appalling sight ! tlie slain— the diown'd. 
And wrecks, and corses fioat, promiscuous round ; 
Wliile from charg'd ckiuds the rain incessant flows, 
As Nature's tears for liaplcis mortals' woes. 

*' The victors now, impell'd by anxious care, 
Tlielr wounded masts and shatter'd ludls repnir; 
Close the wide leaks aj^ainst th' invading tide, 
And, cautious, for the <;rowin^ storm provide : 
Some, more eflcctive, instant signals urge, 
To tow the helpless prizes thro' the surge, 
With Icngthen'd hawsers, westward guide their prores, 
From dcstind shipwreck on' the hostile sliores ! 
These cares discharg'd, each mournful crew attends 
The last sad duties of their slaughter'd fi ienrls ; 
Consigns the bodies to tiieir watery graves, 
And blends their streaming sorrows with the waves! 

" Nurs'd mid rude billows, cradled by the storm; 
Still their firm souls can feel th' emotion warm ; 
For still to pity bravest hoaits incline, 
And, ' \'alour's breast is Mercy's loveliest shrine !* 

** Thus, for their comrades, while their tears o'erflow'd. 

Too acti\e Fame an added pang bestow'd ; 

When weeping Pity bade her sorrows tell. 

How gallant Cooke and Duff in battle fell ! 

Lamented Chiefs ! whose fate too early prov'd, 

They died regretted, as they liv'd belov'd ! 

But, ah! what equal language can impart 

The boundless grief, that wrung each seaman's heart, 

When thro' tiie (leet ihe fatal news were spread. 

Their much lov'd Chief, their godlike Ni:lsox dead ! 

Then, from each bosom burst afflictive sighs; 

Then, streams of anguish, gushing from their eyes, 

That with such grief as bathes a kindred bier, 
Collective nations mourn a death so dear ;— 
Not these alone shall sootlie thy sanitcd shade, 
And consecrate the spot where thou art laid ! 
Not these alone : But, bur^tin^ through tlie gloom, 
With radiant glory from thy trophied tomb, 
The sacred splendour of thy deathless name 
Shall grace and guard thy country's martial fame; 
Far seen, shall bla/e the unextinguisti'd ray, 
A mighty be;icon, lighting Glory's way; 
With living lustre this proud land adorn, 
And shine, and save, through ages j'etuuboui !'' 



£45 UAVAI, tlttRATCIir. 

Peclar'd, in bitter agony of tliought, 

* Their glorious conquest waa too dearly bought.' 

" Ves, lov'd, heroic Nelson ! o'e: thy bier 
Thv faithful seaujen pour the artless tear; 
Teel their stern breasts with pangs unwonted torn, 
Am]^ though victorious, 'mid their triumphs mount; 
"NVIiile the whole Navy shares their {generous pain ; 
Its truest Friend, its brightest Glory slain ! 
Nor less thy country's grief, thy worth attest ; 
Her pitying Genius droops her plumed crest. 
With mournful cypress twines her laurel wreath, 
And weeps bright chrystal on thy urn beneath -. 
White, from the humblest cottage to the throne. 
The land emits one universal groan ! 
Not with Biore grief, with more distracting woe, 
Pevoted Ilion's tears were seen to flow ; 
When she beheld, before her sacred wall. 
Her bravest son, her godlike Hector f;\U ! 
In whom, as in thy noble breast, combin'd 

* The gentlest manners with the bravest mind; 

* To whom her safety, and her fame she ow'd, 

* Her Chief, her Hero, and almost her God !' 

" Yet Nelson! if unequall'd honours paid, 
If deathless praise can soothe thy mighty shade ; 
Thy Prince embalms thy memory with his tears; 
Th-v grateful Isle a Mausoleum rears ; 
Crests the tall pile with Glory's brightest wreath. 
And bids around perennial fragrance breathe; 
While Fame's loud clarion, to each distant 7one, 
Has made thy Name and great .Achievements known ! 
From where the Ganges rolls his ample streams, 
To the far goal of day's declining heams; 
From realms, by suns of fiercest fervour cross'd. 
To polar regions of eternal frost. 
Skill thy proud Fame, through every age and clime. 
Imperishable, mock the rage of Time ! 
While, ev'n this humble tribute Fkilndship pays, 
Too just for censure, t!io' too mcmi for praise, 
Grac'd by thy Name, may, not ephemeral, bloom; 
But gain one wreath of laurel from thy tomb." 

We had rather quote beauties, than dwell upon defects : T)ut, 
had M-e been disposed to cavil, the following lines, ^hich con- 
clude the Poem, would have disarmed our severity :— 

" Ye learn'd dispensers of poetic bays, 
Ah ! censure not these unaspiring lays ; 



NAVAL LITEKATURn. 217 

Alike, ufikiiown to Fortune and to rainc,' 
No patron '5 smiles, no laurel-wreath 1 claim ; 
But, exil'd lorig from literary ease. 
And forc'd, reluctant, on tlie taitliless seas, 
Too happy, it' to life's approaching close 
Rolentin^ Fate a calm retreat beslou s ; 
\Vhere, unobtrusive from the ' haujjhty Great,* 
Irom ' Wealth's contem[)t,' and ' Grdiidexir's idle state,' 
With ruy lov'd children bless'd, f may retire. 
And view them, smiling round my evening lire. 
There, when I read this rude, incondite lay. 
Their fund attentions shall my cares repay ; 
Wliile my lov'd Laura, bending o'er the page, 
(Pride of my youth, and solace of my age,) 
Reverts to long past sufferings and toils, 
And checks a tear jubtgiist'ning thro' her snii!es. 
Would piiving Heav'n, fur all my gricf'> and care, 
(And Heav'ji is witness I have had my share, j 
On life's decline a ray of comfort beam, 
And realize fond Fancy's soothing dream; 
Then, the bright evening of a stormy day 
Should injurdj'iitndiitip's poignant pangs allay \ 
Then fiJi'd where vice and folly rie'er intrude, 
01)scurely useful, and in secret good^ 
iV[y hearc oivce more to social scenes might wa!;e, 
Once more its lost domestic jo vs partake ; 
Ah ! then a Monarch's state I could contemn, 
And feel more than a Monarch'^ bliss in them, 
Whose love can every absent good atone, 
r»Iy wealth, tiicir virtues; ajid their hearts, my throne !" 

From the smaller poems, in this volume, we shall, at a future 
period, make one or two extracts. 



i^atal poetry 

The heart's remote recesses to explore. 

And touch its Springs, when Troie avail'd no more. 

2;'Ai.covEir. 



(From Tnmslations chicfli/ from the Greek Jnihohgj/, zsith 
Tales and mixctlluncuus Potim: 180t).^ 

^^{T^^^ ^'^*^ smooth Main when scarce a zephyr blows, 
^VJ^ 'J'o break the diirk blue Ocean's deep repose, 
I seek the calmness of the breathing shore, 
Delighted with the ficUl* and woods no more. 



548 NAVAL POETRY, 

But when, white foaming, heave the deeps on higli^ 

Swells the black storm, and mingles sea with sky ; 

Trembling I fly the wild tempestuous strand, 

And seek the close recesses of the land. 

Sweet are the sounds that murmur thro' the woody 

While roaring storms upheave the dang'rous flood : 

Then, if the winds more fiercely howl, they rouse 

But sweeter music in the Pine's tall boughs. 

Hard is the life- the weary fisher finds 

Who trusts his floating mansion to the winds ; 

Whose daily food the fickle sea maintains, 

Unchanging labour, and uncertain gains. 

Be mine soft sleep, beneath the spreading shade 

Of some broad leafy plane inglorious laid, 

Lull'd by a fpuntain's fall, that, murmuring near. 

Soothes, not alarms, the toilsome labourer's ear." 

THE NAVAL SUBALTERN ; 

OR, who's AritAID ! 

I EN Block was a veteran of naval renown, 
And renown was his only reward; 
For the Board still omitted his service to crown, 
And no int'rest he held with my Lord : 

Yet bravo as old Denbow, Avas sturdy old Ben, 

And he'd laugh at the cannon's loud roar; 
When the death-dealing broadside made worms' meat of men, 

And the scuppers were streaming with gore. 

Nor could a Lieutenant's poor stipend provoke 

The staunch tar to despise scanty prog ; 
But his biscuit he'd crack, turn his quid, crack his joke. 

And drown care in a jorum of grog. 

Thus year after year, in a Subaltern state, 

Poor Btn, for his King, fought and bled, 
'Till time had unroof'd all the thatch from his pate. 

And the hair from his temples had fled. 

When, on humbly saluting, with sinciput bare. 

The first Lord of the Admiralty once ; 
Says his Lordship, " Lieutenant, you've lost all your hair. 

And the v'»iads mustaissail your poor sconce ;'" 



NAVAL POr.TRY. ' ^i9 

*^ Why, my Lord," repliod Ben, ''' it with triiih may be s;ild, 

" While a bald pate I long have stood under, 
'^^ There have so niany Ca-iitaitis zcalk^d over my head, 

" That to se.- me quite scalp'd 'twere no Monder.'' 



A Sailor's Diiscriptton of the House of Comjiovs, rcrilien 
upon the Preseniatiuri of the Captains'' Petition J or an Licreuitf 
of their ila'f-pai/, the Wih of Februar^j^ 1773. 

HEARD a Petition was go'iiu; to be made 
la favour oieach Man of VVi;r ; 
So I haiil'd up my bowlines, and to the wind laid, 
To stand by each brave brother tar. 

Through Westminster Ilall I first pass'd with surprizcj 

Of which, too, T ften h;ul hoard ; 
It look'd like a barn of a wonderous size. 

Where the owls wlic not fcather'd — but furr'd. ' 

Up ladders and step^- and up ratlines and stairs, 

We pass'd, the great cabin to gain, 
Like beasts to the Ark who ^irs* march'd up in pairs^ 

To take a short criii ' on the main. 

Beasts have left off suc-j tricks, now a days they're more wise. 

All the live stock we carry is prcst ; 
Unless some few Monkios, with tails of such size, 

They look as if made lor a jest. 

^Vhen the gall'ry we boarded, egad I was 'maz'd, 

To look at the orlop below ; 
Where, lo ! in a chair, Mr. Parson was rals'd, 

And he seem'd the great man of the show. 

The rest were all sweet little quarter-deck beaux, 

AVho loii'd on barge-ciisliions at ease ; 
And if I might judge by the cut of their clothes, 

They had not been much on the seas. 

But one hungry wolf in sheep-clothing I twigg'd, 

All iiid in a Captain's boat-cloak ; 
I tij)p'd him the hip — that he might be umigg'd; 

But the lubber would not take the joke. 

/9au. (Iljron. QXoLXVII. k k 



SoO NAVAL rOETRY. 

lie said he'd come up too, and order me out, 

Unless I sat decently still ; 
I cried, " JMaster Hans — but pray don't go about, 

i'or you may get up by your bill *." 

The PrioHt, from his look, I thought promis'd great things y 

But he was a mere Moggy Lauder ; 
For to tho'^e who were all stuck with stars and with strings 

He kept baw ling eternally- — Order ! 

It look'd like a school when the master's away^ 

When the over-grown boys get to tricks; 
So, when pussy cat sleeps, the little mice play, 

As these, for the want of their licks. 

At length a magnanimous Admiral rose, 

No gallanter boy ever swam ; 
He has oft given a dressing to old England's foe?, 

And to each jaliy sailor a dram. 

His sp'^^-cli it was good', and recetv'd with applause. 

For he's a true Tar of the ma-In • 
To Engknd an honour — a friend to the cause, 

And a foe both to Franec and to Spain. 

No sooH&r he'd done, but the wind rose at North^ 

And began for to damnably blow ; 
Now send to the helm a good steersman of wortiij 

Or the vessel will soon pitch below. 

Con Phlpps, in a trice, like a hero appear'd. 
And, in spite of this squall from the clouds. 

He cunn'd, box'd the compass, and gallantly stecr'd'j 
Nor strain'd a small yarn of the shrouds. 

Into harbour he piloted safely and well, 

This tight little smack, caU'd Petition ; 
Had it not been for him, she had founder'd to heS } 

But now — she's in special condition. 

After bowing, and calling each other oft o'er 
All the n;imes keen inveiition con'd rest on> 

The word Honourable soon healM up the sore, 
And they boldly bawl'd out for the Question. 

* 'ibis Gciulciuau's luce is of tin- parrot make. 



NATAL HISTORY OF TUE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 251 

The Question briiii; put — '(was a Quosiion of want ;— 

*' Shall these Sailors all starve while alive ?" 
One hundred and fifty-four souls said — '• They shan't/' 

While " Yes," said the dogs forty-five. 

I out with my reefs, and my steering sails too, 

And roij'd like a god 'fore the wind ; 
I damn'd Forty-five, boys, from earing to clue, 

And my messmates were all of my mind. 

TuiJiCULO. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

(February — March.) 

PvETROSPECTIVE AND ailSCELLANEOUS. 

A SUBJECT of the utmost National Iinportaiice was discussed in tlie 
■^ House of Commons, March the 5tli, on the Motion of Lord llovvick, 
Tliat 

CATHOLICS MIGHT BE ENABLED TO HOLD COMMISSIONS IN 
THE NAVY AND ARViY. 

We do not presume to give our crude and jrjutic ideas ou so bold an 
innovation ; but give it a preference to any other event in our coneise 
History. It recjuires the heads of the most cool and experienced Statesmeu, 
and was admirably answered by Mr. Pcrcival ; who in the course of his 
speech observed: — It was not so mucli to the individual measure that lie 
objected, but to the system of which it formefi a part, which was growing 
day after day, and threatening to cxpauil into the most alarming magnitude. 
If it was desirable to preserve any of our ancient and venerable esta- 
blishments, it could only be elFfCted by making a stand against cvei-y fresh 
attempt at iimovation. lie had as great a regard for true toleration as any 
man. He would never restrain the free exercise of religious worship in any 
individual, for he could not conceive tiiat one man could commit a greater 
crime against another than by sucli an interference. — (Hear! hear !) But 
however strongly he might feel this sentiment, the application of it to any 
particular measure was a very different consideration. The Noble Lord 
ptoposed to open the Navy and Army to persons of all icligions, and he 
founded this proposition on the Irish Act of 1793, ami on the incongruity 
which this Act produced. To this he could not bring himself to consent 
without a much stronger case than that which was made out l)v the Noble 
Lord. If tiie grievances which had been stated by the Noble Lord ever 
existed in possibility, they bad at least never been experienced in practice. 
There was not an instance of a single individual having been injured, or pro- 
secuted, ill consequence of tliCin. The No))le Lord had declared, that he 



262 NAVAL HisToriy of the present VEA/t, 1807. 

apprehended no inconvenience front this nnprecedented tolc .;riim in the 
Navv. No inconvenience ! Suppose the Captaui and crew of a man of 
war were Roman Catbolicr., diey must have a Roriian Catliolic Clergyman 
— (A ay of' No .' No !) — '^'V'hy, as a Captain of a man of war had a right 
to appoint his Ciuiplain, if he were a Ronian Catholic, he would scarcely 
appoint a Protestant Clergyman. Perhaps it v. as intended that this should 
be determined by the Admiralty Board. But it wmdd be diliicult for that 
board accurately to ascertain the proportion in a crew between the Catho- 
lics and Protestants. This too he would maintain, that, hi case of any in- 
vasion of Ireland by a French lorce, the commander of which should isiue 
a proclamation in support of the Roman Catholic religion, that invasion 
would not be so vigorously repelled by a Roman Catholic CapLam and crew, 
as by a Protestant Captain and crew. 'I'hcse were considerations, which 
ought to excite the jealousy and apprehension of the House and of the 
country ; but he was not so anxif)us to call their attention to the particular 
measure now proposed, as to the principle of innovation which was 
gradually increasing ; and was much more formidable, thus stealing on by 
degrees, than if it were fairly exposed in all the magnitude to wluch it 
seemed intended tliat it should arrive. In that case, the notice of Parlia- 
ment would be strongly attracted to the subject; it would take it up in an 
extensive point of view ; it would determine upon it deliberately, and he 
trusted wisely. The consequences of a storm he should not be apprehensive 
about; but these gradual approaches were dangerous, because each by 
itself was not deemed worthy of notice. It should be considered, however, 
that even if they were little in themselves, their consequences were not so. 
Por his own part, he vv^s satisfiecj that if I'arliament allowed their accu- 
mulation, it would ultimately ha\ e th;it extorted from its weakness, whicU 
its wisdom would be desirous to witlihold. 



Letters received at Piymoutli, dated i:i December last, from our fleet in 
the Dardanelles, state the f;illowirg interesting particulars of tlie state of 
affairs at that period in Turkey ; •• i'he Canopus, ?A guns, Rear-Admiral 
"Loui?, the Euciyraion, 44 guns, and another frigate, are stationed di- 
rectly opposite the Grand 'Siguior's seraglio, or palace. The Thunderer, 74 
guns, and Standard, ^1 guns, and two tiigates, are anchored to comuiand 
tilt passaiie of the DardaaclKs. A few days bei'ore these letters came 
away, a Russian frigate from the ^Mediterranean passed the Dardanelles 
■withoiit molestation from the Turkish batteries; but Scba^tiani, the in- 
trifiuing ambassador from rrance to the Ottoman Porte, inndea violent rc- 
'inonslrance at this frigate passing the Dardanelles ; but could get no redres«, 
as our Knvoy, Mr. y\rbuthiiot, gave in a representation of the business, and 
placed it in its proper point of view, to the satisfaction of tiie Turkish Go- 
vernment. 

There arc twenty sail of the line and fit'tcen fiigatcs in the arsenal, but 
jiot five ol" thcni are half iiianned. Our sliips are all m high order and ciis- 
cipbne. The Tiirks treat our pe<>])lc udth tlie greatest eivihty and attention. 
Refresh, rents of all kinds are sent on board our men of war. Our galhuit 
Admiral and his ofhcers, and the Captain? and oiiicers of the other iJntish 
men of war, tieoumtly diiie on sliore witli Mr. Arbuthtiot, whose ;^ood 
gcnse and manlv cuiiuiict are uiucii admifed. 



KAV VT, TriSTOT'-Y 0>' THE PHTTJEXT YEAR, 1807. 253 

Dcuf, Fttiuary 35. 

Bctwo.! ,;; aiu' S€veM o'clock tliis inorninfj; a vessel was rliscovi-rcri on 
the O'joc'A-ir, 5:' ii.Lis, about h-ilf a niilf! from the South Sauds lica.l, rinng 
signal ^Mi- !.r distress ; upoi» the wcatiier clearing away a little, she ap- 
peart'l t(. oe a vessel of war. One of our boats uniHCtluitely put olf to her 
assist... ,ce, and was soon followtid by three others; at the same tMie tiie 
Spcjculator lui^ifer, LieutcuLiiit M'Creedie, got under vveij,li, and saileu to 
the back of iie (joodujii, iu order to be a'. i:aud iii alFording sucii assistance 
its the dauoerous situatiuii oi tne vessel deiufcinded. I'lie weather was tmck 
and squally, the sea runnui:: very high, and continually breaking ove. the 
ship, ^o that It made it dangerous tor boats to approach her; nevertheless, 
our boatme !. with their usual iiitjepidity, auu set":iig danger at detia;ice, 
got alongside and took out the distressed crew ; and, with the assistance of 
the boats vvliicii came up in succesiiun, succeeded in getting the vessel ofi^ 
iintl are no.v procetdmg witu her to llainsgate harbour. 

Three o'cloc' . I'. M. — 1 have just learned that the I'cssel above racn- 
tiocc ! is His aUajesty's gim-brig Virago, of 12 guns, Lieutenant iJanclu-r, 
from tlie Iri.-.h -lation. She be it so violently while ou the s.uids, as •••■ un- 
ship lier rudder and start her sternpost, and is otherwise s> much dam iged, 
that it will lie with considerable difficulty slie is kept afloat to reach ttaiUi- 
jjate harbour. 

Plmnou'!i, March 7. 

Came in the Insolent irnn-brig, 13 guns, with French pnsun<.-rs fro;!i Fal- 
mouth, which were landed at Alill Bay As soon as that fine ship the 
Hibernia, Captain Osborne, was passing down between the Island and 
the Main for Cawsand Bay, while the boat with French prisoners lay lui 
their oars, the Frenchmen were so struck with the grand appearaiici. of 
the ll.l)enjia majestically gliding down the Sound, ttiey one and all ex- 
claimed, '■■ Tliee iioesthc i'j-und coup tie grace of BuonapiirLe f Siie got 
to her mooring.; at three P.iM., and was saluted by hearty cheers f om all 
the ships as t>he passed them, her own. band playing several M)'.pro:jnate 
tunes on the quar'cr deck, which were answered by respoasive national 
airs from the bands and drums of the Royal Lancashire, assembled ou 
the Pranks at Devjl's J^oint for the occasion. 

The Monitfur gives the following li>t of English vessels driven on sliore 
on the French coast, from the ISth to the 22d of February ; 

Near O.il end. — The brig i riends, of Northumberland, of 170 tons, laden 
with ditfcrent merchandize ; the brig Merchant, of Loudon, Captain R, 
Acheson, i)i 130 tons. 

Near Dieppe. — A vessel of 200 ton'?, laden with conls. 

Near St. Fallen/. — The Ocean, of 100 C(;ns, part ef the crew perished. 
—A brig, of l.")0 tons, with no person on board; the Emily, of ItJO tons, 
with coals; and the London packet, of 200 tons. 

P/Les. — At flushing, tlie Royal I'orrester, taken by the Chasseur corsair. 
At Calais, the James, of Sunderland, with coals; and the Experiment, of 
1 JO tons. 

The other papers, in mentioning the immense damage done by tb.e late 
Storins, state the ibllowing English vessels to have also wrecked, viz. 

Two JMiglish vessels, names not stared. The Europa, of 140 tons; 
Ceres, 190: Bacchus, 100: Bretby, ifO; Fox, a ship of 300 tons, under 
Fort lleiirt; Selby, 250; a sliip of 250 tons, near Dieppe; two other 
ships dismasted; and towed into Dieppe; a ship of 300 tons sunk opjjosite 
Boulogne, crew saved ; a brig of 18 guns and sixty-si.t men, thirty were 
saved near Suttevdlc; two brigs lost, one at iWeldckerke, the other at 
Wcndcnc; the Good Iniention: six other vessels had anchored near 
Duiikirk-r-tliey were taken by embarkations from the shore — their names 
are, the Iriends of London, 2.'0 tons, laden with navnl stores; ihe 
Koguistitn, of 70 tons; iAIediator, 250; I'eel, li30; Speculation, 200; Uie 
Commerce, of Bristol, with port wiuc, got into Uoscof. 



254 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEARj 1S07. 

ORDER OF COUNCIL. 

At the Court at the Queen's Palace, 26th March 1807, present, 
the King^s Most Excellent Mujesly in ConncU. 
IT is lliis day ordered by His Majesty in Council, that all ships and 
goods belonging to the inhabitants of ilaniburgh, ."ad other places and 
countries in the North of Germany, iiow in the possession, or under the 
controul of France and her Allies, which have been detained prior to the 
3st of January last, :hall be restored, upon being pronounced by the 
High Court of Admiralty to belong to the inhabitants aforesaid; and" that 
the ship', ;inl floods shal! he permitted to proceed to any neutral port; 
and all such ships and goods captured on or after the said first of January, 
and pronounced in like manner, shall be detained (save and except sliips 
and goods engaged in a trade to or from tliC ports of this country,) until 
larther orders ; and the goods shall be sold by the claimants thereof, under 
a commission from tlie Court of Admiralty, to be granted, upon notice 
given to liis Majesty's Procurator-General; and the proceeds, after de- 
ducting the claimant's advances in respect thereto, bhall be paid into the 
Registry of the said Court, and shall be invested in Government Seciu'ities, 
until His Majesty's further pleasure shall be signilied thereon : and the 
llight Hon. tiie Lords Commissioners of His jNIajtsty's Treasury, the Lords 
Conanissioners of the Admiralty, and the Judge of the High Court of 
Admiralty, are to give the necessary directions herein, as to thern n^ay 
respectively appertain. 

STEPHEN COTTRELL. 



3lfcecrs; on ^ertiice, 

Copied verbatim from the London Gazette. 

[Continued from pngc 171.J 

ADMinAMy OFFICE, FEBRUAtlY 24, 1807. 

Copt/ of a Lc'tcr from Vicc-AcJmhal Dacret, Commander in Chhfof His Ma~ 
jestifs Ship!, and Fe.'-'iels at Jamaku, to William Marsdcn, Esq.; dated at 
Poit Royal, Januait/ 12, ia07. 

Mr,, 
~[F ENCLOSE to you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of 
•J*- the Admiralty, a list of men of war and armed vessels captured by the 
.-;qnadion under my command between the 1st of January ICOd, and the 1st 
of January, JB07. J am, &C. 

J. R. DACRES. 

A List (tf Men of War and prini'e armed JVs."r/s, captured and dcs'roj/rd In/ 

the Squcdro'i on the Jamaica Station bctueen the 1st (>/' January, 1806, and 

the 1st of January, 1807. 

Spanish brig Ilaposa, of 12 guns and 90 men; captured by the Fran- 
chise, Charles Dashwood — now m His Majei-ty's service. ' 

Spanish schooner el Carn-ien, of 2 four-pounders and eighteen men ; cap- 
tured by the ?>Iagicienne, Adam M'Kenzie. 

Spanish schooner St. < hristi \ rl Pana, of 1 cightcen-pounder and 2 four- 
poimders, and torty nu ;i; captured by the Serpent, John V, aller. 

.Spanish sciiooncr Cscilia, of 4 guns, and '■■0 uica; captured by the Elk, 
Georiie ilorris. 



^AVAr> HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 255 

French bri<^ Phaeton, of 16 guns and 120 men; cnplured by the Pique, 
C B. II. Ross — now ill His Majesty's service. 

Freticli brig Vokigeur, of 16 i^uns and 1^0 men ; captured by the Pique, 
same CommaiKler — now iu His Majesty's service. 

Fit-nch brig Dilifi;t'nte, of 16 guns and 126 men ; captured by the Ilenard, 
Jeremiah Cogliiaii— now in ilis Majesty's service^ 

SpanisJi ship Pomona, of "8 guns and 3-17 men ; captured by the Arethusa, 
Charles Brisbane— now in liis Majesty's service. 

Dutch sliip lialstar, of 36 guns, men uncertain ; captured by tlie Are- 
thusa, Charles Brisbane; Latona, J.A.Wood; Anson, C. Lydiard; and 
Fisgard, W. Bolton. 

Dutch ship Surinam, of 22 guns, men uncertain; captured by the same 
ships, and the same Commanders. 

Dutch scho(iner Flying Fish, of 14 guns, men uncertain: captured by the 
same ships, and the same Commanders. 

A Dutch schooner, name unknown, guns and men uncertain ; captured by 
the same ships, and the same Commundei's. 

French schooner Regulateur, of 3 guns and 80 men ; captured by the 
Wolf, G. C. M'Kenzie, and sunk. 

French schooner Napoleon, of 5 guns and GO men; captured by the Wolf, 
same Cummundor, and sunk. 

French schooner Creole, of 6 guns and 59 men; captured by the Rein 
Beer, John FyiVe, 

A French felucca, name unknown, of 1 gun, crew escaped; captured by 
tlie Wolf, G. C. M'Kenzie. 

Spanish felucca Santa Clara, of 1 nine-pouiulcr and 28 men; captured by 
the Pique, C. B. II. Ross. 

Spanish row-boat Cubana, of 1 gun and 7 men; captured by tlie Ellc, 
W. F. Wise. 

Spanish schooner I'Aimablc Theresa, of 2 howitzers and 18 men; cap. 
tured by the Cerberus, W. Sclby. 

French schooner Grand Juge Bertolio, of 6 guns and !>1 men ; captured 
by the Fortunce, Henry Vansittart. 

French schooner, name unknown, of 2 guns, cvcw escaped; captured by 
the llercule, B. Ducres. 

Spanish schooner el Carmen, of 1 gun and 34 men; captured by the 
Franchise, C. Dashwood. 

Dutch schooner Brutus, of 20 men; captured by the Franchise, same 
Commander. 

French schooner laLurtc, of 2 guns and 47 men ; captured l)y the Morne 
Fortunee, Lieutenant Rorie. 

i'rcncb schooner I'Aimable Jeannette, of 2 guns and 20 men: captured 
by tlie rNioine Fortunee, same Commander. 

French privateer Alliance, of 5 guns and 75 men; captured by the Elk, 
George Morris. 

A French brig, name unknown, of 4 guns, crew escaped; captured by the 
Bacchante, James II. Dacres. 

Spanish letter of marque le Sebastian, of 1 gun and 20 men; captured hv 
the same ship, and the same Commander. 

Spanish privateer Desiade, of 1 gun and oO men ; captured by the same 
ship, and the same Commander. 

Spanish privateer Marscllois, of 3 guns and 55 men; captured by the 
Penguin, (Jeorge Morris. 

A Spanish guii-boat, of 1 thirty-two-pounder and 40 men ; dcslrovcd by 
iht: Supericure, Edward Rushwoith. 

A Spanish gun-boat, of 1 thirty-two-pomider and J.'> nuni : destroyed h'f 
the £am{; sl:ip, and the ;r»ine Commander. 



256 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT VEAR, 1807. 

Spanish letter of marque St. Joseph, of 5 guns iind 30 men ; capturec] by 
the Port ?.Iahon, Sanuiel Chamhers. 

A Spanish sclioonrr. name unknown, of 10 guns and 60 men; captured 
by the Serpent, John Waller. 

Spanish schooner St. John, of 3 guns and 32 men ; captured by the Fis- 
gard, William B )!ton. 

Spanish schooner le Napoleon, of 1 gun and 14 men ; captured by the 
X5Higente, W.S.Hall 

Spanish schooner St. Jos. y las Animas, of I eight-pounder and 15 men ; 
captured by tlie Hunter, J. S, Inglefieid. 

French schooner Suneib of 14 guns and 05 men; captured by the Pitt 
schooner, lieutenant I'itton. 

A French felucca, name unknown, of 1 gun, crew escaped; capturtd by 

the Siiark, le Geyt; Superieurc, Edward Rushworih ; Flying Fish, 

liutenant Price; and Pike, Lieutenant Otley. 

A French privateer, name unknown, of 4 guns, crew escaped ; captured 
by the same skips, and the same Commanders. 

A Spanish vessel, name anknown, of 1 gun, crew escaped; captured by 
the same ships, and the same Commanders. 

A Spanish vessel, name unknown, of 1 gun, crew escaped; captured by 
file same ships and the same Commanders. 

A Spanish vessel, name unknown, of I gun, crew escaped ; captured by 
the same ships, and the same Commanders. 

A French privateer, name unknown, of 2 guns, crew escaped; destroyed 
by the liein Deer, Joim Fyffe. 

' French privateer Vengeur, of 1 gun and 50 men ; captured by the Success, 
John Ayscough, and sunk. 

A Spanish brig, name unknown, pierced for 12 guns, none mounted, crew 
escaped; captured by the Pique, C. B. II. Ross. 

A Frencli felucca, name unknown, of 2 guns and 26 men ; captured by 
the same ship, and the same Commander. 

Spanish schooner Susannah, of 4 guns and 20 men ; captured by the Or- 
pheus, Tiioraas BriijGis. 

J. R. DACRES. 

Shcnh, Fort Royal, Jamaica, 
January 12, 1807. 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral Yotaig, Commander in Chief of Hi^ Mujea- 
tifs Stup!> and Vesseh a Plymoiiih, to Wiltii:m Mars/en, Esq. ; dated ok 
hoard the Salvador del Mundo, in llumoazc, the 'ilut Instant. 

SIR, 

Herewith T transmit a letter which I have received from Captain Carteret, 
of His Majesty's sloop Scorpicni, acquainting me of t!ie capture of le Hou- 
E;ainvillc French privateer by that sloop, which I request you will lay before 
the Lords Commissioners of tlie Admiralty. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

W. YOUNG. 

His Mqjestifs Sloop Scorpion, Scilly N. E. . 

SIR, Four Leagties, Feb. 17,1807. 

Yesterday evening, after a long chase and a slight resistance, the 

Bougainville French brig privateer, twenty-three days out from St. jMa- 

loes, having sixteen guns and ninety-three nien, was captured by this 

sloop, I am, Sir, (&c. 

PHIL. CARTERET. 
2o IVilliain Young, Ei^q., Admiral of the 
Blue, <;>(■. 4<-". <SiC. ^ 



JTAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT lEAR, 1807. 257 

FEB. 9.8. 

jTo/??/ of a Letter from the Ili<;hf Hououruhle Lord Keith, K.B., Adnilral of 
the Whtie, lVc, to Wii'/i/irn Mursdcn, -Eyj. ; dated on board the Edgar, off" 
liiit/isgate, the iiht/i Inataiit. 

SIR, 
I transmit, for their Lordiliips' information, a copy of a letter whicli I 
iiave received from Captain Farquhar, of llis I^la)l•^t)''s ship tlie Ariadne, 
■reporting the cuptuie of the French cutter, letter of marfjue, \c Cliasieur. 
V'ice-Adiairal Duugias acquaints nie "ih.a this vessel is a pri\atcer. 
I liuve the honour to be, &c. 

KEITH. 

, His Majes'y^s Ship Ariadrie, at Sea, 
MY LOKD, Februinij 19, l807. 

I have the honour to acquaint your Lordbhip, that I have this day cap- 
tured a French cutter, letter of marque, le Chasseur, of 32 tons, two 
carriage jiuiis, and 36 men, commanded by Pr. Callicr ; 24 men only were 
i(Aind on board, twelve havini^ been sent in prizes. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

A. FARQUIIAR. 
Admiral Lord Keitli, K.B., S^c. 

Copu of another T/:tter from the Right Honourable I^ord Keith, K. B., Ad- 
miral of the White, ^c, to William Mursden, E^q., dated on board the 
Editor, off' Ramsgatc, i'ebjuur// 2(3, 1807. 

SIR, 

J have tiie satisfaction of traiismittiiiii', for their Lordships' information, a 
*fcopy of a letter which I have received i'roni Lieutenant Ramsey, cominand- 
iiig llis Majesty's cutter the Carrier, acquainting me with die capture of 
another French privateer. 

I have the hoiio »r to be, &c. 

KEITH. 

His Mdjcdi/'ii Cutter Currier, at Sea, 
MY i-ORD, Eebruari/ 20, IBUf. 

I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship, that having yesterday 
chased le Chasseur, French cutter privateer, into the hands of Captain 
I'arquhar, of llis Majesty's ship Ariadne, 1 was this morniiiy returning to 
my station, accompanied by tlic Princess Aui;usta cutter, when at nine 
A3L, Coiee bearing •'5. by K. d>ttant ten leagues, we discovered a buspicjous 
sail on tiie N.E. quarter, steeriiiL; in for the Dutch coast, to which I imme- 
diatcly gave cliase, and at two P.M. came up with, and captured the FrencU 
schooner privateer le Rugotin, cominanded by Jaques Jappie, mounting 
ciglit <iuns, which were thrown overboard in the cliase, with a complemeiiC 
of 29 men; eight days from Dunkirk, witiiout having made any capture, 
and this being her lirst cruise. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

R. RAMSEY, 
Lieuleuant uud Cumin binder. 
Admiral Lord Ktith, K.B., ^c. 



258 NATAL HtsTORY OF Tlii: PliESENT YEAR, 1807. 



Copy of a Letter from the Rinht Hononrahle Lord Gardner, Admiral of 
ike White, ^-c, to Willia/ii Marsdcn, Esq.^ dated at Cork, February 25, 
i807. 
SIR, 

I beg you will lie pleased to lay before their Lordships the enclosed copy 
of a letter from Captaia Maling, of the Diana, givins; an accuunt of the 
capture by that ship, on tlie 18th instant, of the French ship privateel^ 
la Charlotte, of St. Pvlalocs, pierced for twenty gnns, but only four- 
teen mounted, and having a eoinplement of one hundred and eighteen 
men. 

I understand from the officer who delivered to me Captain Maling's let- 
ter, that the above privateer was fallen in witli by the Diana^ about thirty- 
leagues 3. W. of Scilly. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GARDNER. 

ilis Mnjcatys Ship Diana, off' Cork 
MY Lor.t), Harbour, Feb. 25, 1807. 

By following tlie track pointed ont by your I^ordship as the most likely 
to find the enemy's cruisers on, I have the satijfaction to acquaint you, thaE 
the frignte I command fell in with and captured, on the }!!th instant, the 
Trench privateer ship la Charlotte, who being deceived by the sail we were 
under, bore down nearly within eun-^iiot uf us, befcjre s'le discovered her 
mistake; it was then too l;jte to escape : after a doubtful chase during five 
hours, the gale freshened, and we out carried her. She is pierced t'uc 
twenty guns, has only fourteen mounted; was commanded by Mons. 
Quimper, Lieutenant de ^'aisseau, and had a complement of one huiKlred' 
and eighteen men, fitted out at St. Maloes, but last from Nantes, out 
twenty days; and though formerly successful, has oidy captmx-d a Swedish 
baik and ship, and recaptured a chasse raaree, pri2e to a Jersey priva- 
teer, since her Uist leavingport. I rejoice at having made this capture, the. 
more as we probably have saved three valuable Liverpool ships we met with 
the next day. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

T. J. MALTNG, 
Admiral Lord Gardner, yc ^'C £)C. 

MARCH C4. 
Copy of a Lefferfrom Rear-Admiral Sir FdaardFelIao,'Bart., Commander- 
in Chief of His Mnjtsty' s Ships and Fessels in the F.ast Indies, to Williain 
Marsden, Esq.; dated on board the Culloden, in Madrax Roads, the '29th 
August, 1806. 

SIR, 

The enclosed letters from Captains Plampin and Lord George Stuart will 
convey to tlieir Lordships intelligence of the capture of la JBelloue, la lieu- 
riette, .and I'lle de France, privatefers fri;m the ^lauricius. 

I reflect with much pleasure on tlie capture of la Bellone in particular, 
as well from her superior sailing, as Ler uncommon success in the present 
and preceding war against the British commerce in the Indian and Euro- 
pean seas. The commercial interests of this coutitrv are particularly seemed 
by her capture, which could not have been expected bat under very favour- 
able circumstances. 

I have the honour to be, &c, 

E. PELLEW. 



NAVAL laSTOUY OF THE PRESLM YEAR, 1807. 259 

His Miijesti/s S/iip Powerful, B'^ck Bay, 
siRj Tiincomate, idih Jui^,l806. 

I have the honour to inform you, tliat on Wednesday the 9th instant, 
beiniz at anchor in this bay, I received inlbrinatKjn, by a ship from Co- 
lonil;o, that hi i'cllone privateer had returned to her old cruising ground, 
off Dondra Head ; in cons( qnence of which f instantly put to sea, and sent 
directions to Captain iJabXard, of the llattlesuake, (who was in the inner 
harbwur, tal;iiig in the iron ballast of tiicSheerne-s, agreeably to your orders,) 
to folloa-, and join me off the Basses, wliich he did the next niornmg at 
dayiio;ht. iV'ly intention was, if possible, to beat up «s tar as Tengall, into 
wliicli place la Bolloue had chased the ship above mentioned ; but on Sa- 
turday inorninj:, being to the soutliward of the Great Basses, I found so 
much wind, and such a heavy sea, that the crippled state of my masts 
obhged me to bear up and run for the Little Ba-ses, intending to keep close 
in shore under their lee. The mnrnaig being very tiiick, the Rattlesnake 
had fortunately separated in t!.e afternoon; about a quarter past three, 
being about seven 'miles to the northward of the Little Basses, a ship was 
discovered on our weather beam, steering free, with steering sails set; we 
uere soon convinced it was la Bellone, and very shortly at'ier we had tlie 
pleasure to see the llaitlesnake broad on iiis weatlier qaarier, so th.at he 
could not haul his wind frain us, without beng forced to action by lier. he 
therefore preferred the chance of crossing between us and the sliore, having 
at that time a strong land wind, and we lying nearly becalmed ; in this hope 
lie was deceived, ar.d was by five o'clock within gun shot of us, at which 
time he hoisted his colours, "and tired a broadside at us and continued a 
running fire until a quarter before seven, at which time, finding there was 
1)0 possibility of getting from us, lie struck his colours and brouglit to. 

1 am sorry to add, we had two men killed and eleven wounded; the ene- 
my acknovvledi:e only one killed, and six or seven woundtd. 
1 have the honour to be, 6:c. 

R. pla:\ipix. 

Rcar-Adittiral Sir E. Fcllezc, Bart. &;c. 

His Majesty's Ship Fozcerful, Buck Bay, 
SIR, 'Trincomale, June 15. 1806. 

I have the honour to inform that, pursuant to ycur orders, I left Madras 
Roads early on the 4th instant, and arrived at this anchorage in the fore- 
noon of the ilth. Having received inteiiigence that the privateer, whose 
description you favoured me wit!i, had been seen lint a few days since in- 
the neighbourhoovl of Batecato ; I put to sea again in the afternooii, and 
being close in with the land, abreast of Friars Hood, the f). lowing evening, 
I continued staiding to the «t)uthward, under easy sail, all nisiht; at day- 
break of the 13th, ue discovered a ship on the lee quarter, with tie courses 
up, on the opposite tick, and had soon t!ic pleasure to be convinced, !>y her 
appearance and mana-uvrcs, that it was the sl.ip we were in search i;f. 
After a ciiasc of eleven hours, during the last hour of which she continued 
firing her stern-chasers over us, (happily without effecr,) Uie enemy struck 
bis colours, and brought to. The sliip proved to be la iU nriette. momiting 
twenty guns, four twclve-poimder carronades. Two nine-pounders, nnd 
fourteen six-pounders, (four of the latter were hove over during the ciiase,) 
having on board one hundrrd and iwenly-f.ur men, including ofhcers. She 
Bailed from the Isle of France on the 7th of April. 

1 have the honour to be, S<.c. 

R. rLAMPIX. 
To Kcar-Admiral Sir Edward Pdlew, 
Bart,, 4t. <5c. 4c. 



260 NAVAL HISXORY OF TUE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

ffis MaJesU/s Sliip Di/7rcan, off the Isk of 
STB, i'tunce, April 29, 1806. 

I have the honour to inform you, after having spoke His Majesty's ship 
p?yclie, and delivci-ed your orders to Caplain Wooldridge for his further 
proceedings, on my return to join you, I fell iu with and captured, on the 
8th instant, (after a chase of five hours,) the French hrig privateer I'Ue 
de France, rnountujg six twelve- pouudL'r cap-onadee and two long brass 
nines, .the former of which she hove overho,Ard diirin,:; the chase,} manned 
■with sevcntv-one men, and tiad only been out twenty-four hours from Port 
Is\ VV. Slie is a very line vessel, almost new, cupper-bottomed, and well 
found in every thing (bound to Ifidia). 

I have tlic honour to be, &:c, 

G. STUART. 

Captain Caulfield, His Majesty s Ship 
Ruisei, Sj-c. 4c- 4<-'' 

Cop7/ of another Letter from Rear-Admiral Sir Edrcard Fellrw, Bnrf., to 
iVthiam Marsden, Esq.; dated on board His Mujrslfs Ship Cullodut^ 
Madras Roads, October I,,iaO«). 

SIK, 

You will do mc the honour to lay before their Lordships the enclosed ex- 
tract of a letter from Capt;un Cole, of ills Majesty's ship Culloden, stating 
the capture of the Frcucii corvette I'Emilien, of eigliteen guns and one huu-^ 
dred and iifty men. 

I have the hon(jur to be, &c. 

E. PELLE^V. 

Extract of a Letter from Cajiialn Christopher Cole to Rear-Admirnl Sir E. 
Fel/ezo, Bart., Commander in Chief, ^5 f . ; dated HisJilaJestfs Ship Culloden, 
at Sea, September 25, 180(3. 

I have the honour to report to you the cafiture of rEmilicn ship corvette, 
of ei<zhteen guns and one hundred and fifty men, by His Majesty's ship under 
my command, after a chase which lasted two days and i\ night. At two 
A.M. on the 251 h, wc got possession of her close oH' the shoals of Point Gua- 
riaveri. We found tliat we IukJ driven her on shore the night before, and 
that she liad hove overboard twelve of licr guns, and had lost her anchors 
and bf)uis before she got afloat again. 

L'Emilien was formerly His Majesty's sloop Trincomale, is copper fas- 
tened, anil was considered to bi- one of the linest ci-uisers out of the l.-^ie of 
France. — She has heretofore annoyed our trade by the name of la Gloire; 
but has made no captui;ci since leaving the Isle of FVance, two months 
ago. 

Copu nfario> her Letter from. Rear- Admiral Sir Frlrt-ard PeUerr, Bart., tn 
iViilian Mursdtn, Es:/.: dated on board Ha Mujestfs Ship Roiceifil, 
Madras Roads, September 24, 1806. 

T have the honour to enclose a letter from Captain Cramer., of His JMajes- 
ty's ship Concorde, stating the cnpture of a small French brig pnvateer, at 
Muscat, mounting two eightecn-pounders. 

1 have the honour to be, &C. 

E. PELLEW. 



KAVAL IlISTOKY OF TUE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 281 

His Mujesifs Ship Concorde, Muscat f 
SIR, JulijUl, 180G. 

1 have the honour to inform you, that on my arrival ar this place I found 
a Frcncii privai<j(;r lirii; lyiiii in the Cove, hsivinti been there nearly five 
wc-eics, ami re ritting for a cruise. I immediately represented to the Sultan 
how wroD!^ it wa ■ to allow Frencli privateers to come into his port, and 
to retit their vessels to cruise against tlie Euiilibh, and requested he \v<^uli 
send her out: after remaiuiug there three days lie promised, if I would <^o 
out of sjoht for twenty-four haurs, he would send her out, which I accord- 
inply did; but in ttie dn-k of the evenin;; sent all luy boats in, under the 
orders of Lieutenant Hideout, who fell in with her at daylis^ht, wlien sha 
hauled down her colours. She is called tlie Vigilant, mounting two ei^hreen- 
pomiders; has been cruising five months in the Arabian Gulf, and hul 
captured one vessel, belonging to Surat. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

J. CR.IMEH, 
Jlcar-Admiral Sir Edward PtUciCj 

Bart., <.yc. SiC ^x. 

31mpfrial p^arliammt. 

HOUSE OF L0RT3S, Fjiiday, MAncir 13. 

THE Thames Polire Bill, and the Sierra Leone Transfer Bill, ivcreroatS 
a tliird time and passed. Tlie latter of tliese Bills, on being scat 
back to tlie Commons, was throv.n out, on account of some alterations 
made in it by tlie Lords. A new Bill has since been brought in. 

TtESDAY, MARCH 17^ 

The Marine Mutiny Bill was read a third time and passed; and the Royal 
Assent, by Commissiun, was given to the Newfoundland Fishery Bill, ami 
the South Sea Navigation Bill. 

HOUSE OF COMMONS, Tuesday, Fed. 24. 
The' Royal Naval Asylum Bill was read a first time. 

MOiNDAY, MARCH 2. 

MESSAGE FROM IJIS MA.7ESTY. 
Lord HoKick presented a Message from the King, which was read by tbe 
Speaktc, and which was as follows: — 

"C. R. 

" His Majesty thinks proper to acquaint the House of Commons, that a 
Treaty of Peace has been concluded between His Majesty and the King of 
Pru>sia; a copy of which, as soon as the ratilical ions have been exchangc'd, 
shall lie comriumcatcd to the House; and His Majesty also thinks iit fur- 
ther to apprise the House, that His Majesty's Minister, by whom the Treaty 
was signed, in consecpience of authority from His Majesty, and the urgency 
of atVairs on the Coiuiucnt, has taken on hiniselt to advance to the Pnissiaii 
Government a sum of money amounting to about (30,000/., which advance 
His Majesty 1ms been pleased to ajjprovc; and His Majesty trusts, that tbe 
House will enable him to make good the same." 

On the motion of Lord Hmoick, His Majesty's Message was ordered to ba 
referred to the Committee of Supply. 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 4. 

Lord Iloa-ick, in a Committee on the Slave Trade Abolition Bill, brouglit 
up several Rcioiutions for gianting bounties for the captuj-c ol' slave sinps 



252 NATAL HISTOHY of the rUES'VT YEAH, 1807. 

after the periods sho!)!d expire when that trnfSc shall end; viz. to the 
caotws of such ships the sum of 40/. ; for every male slave 30/ ; for every 
ieuiale slave 20/.; and for every child under fourteen years of age, found in 
such ships, 10/. For die conviction of persoiis dealing in that trntlic, on 
the coa>t of Africa, for every male, 13/.; every female, 10/.; and every 
child, i)/. For every person in the colonies so dealin<!; after the period slipu-t 
iated, 20/. for each male, 16/. for each fem de, and o/. for every child. — • 
i\gre€;d to. 

TUURSRAY, MARCH 5. 

Lord Honic'k brought in a Bill, the object of whicli was, to allow all per- 
sons who proi'e-s tlic- Roman Catholic Religion to serve iiis lUajcscy m the 
Kavy and Army, with the free exercise of that rcli>;ion. 

Mr. Pcrcival opposed the measure, a5 it would operate as a partial repeal 
of the Te-t x\r,\ — The Hill, honcver, was road a first time, and hxcd f(n- a 
second reading; but it is understood, that, in consequence of the decided 
opposition wliich tiie measure l»as experienced from Iiis Majesty, it has 
since been j^iveil up. 

MONDAY, MARCH 9. 

The R'larine iVIutiny Bill was read a first time. 

On the motion of Lord Ttnri/c, a Eill for regulating tlie Sourh Sea Fishery 
was ordered, couforiuaLly to the ilesolutioirs submitted and a(j;reed to m 
the Committee. 

On the report of the Comniittec, on the SUue Trade Abolition being 
brougtit up, !.,ord Howick stated, thai as several Gentlemen considered 
sonic parts of the premnhle very obnoxious, thouii,h friendly to the remain- 
der, he had thouj^ht it expedient to alter that preamble, and remove those 
expressions from it which seemed to give such cause of complaint. He 
therefore introrluced the iiew preamble, excluding the terms so obnoxious, 
viz. " founded on principles contrary to justice, humanity, and sound 
policy," and using others of a more moderate tendency. — H;s Lofdship also 
hrou;;:ht up some clauses for preventing black soldiers and apprentices from 
becoming burthensome to their respective islaiKh;, which were agreed to. 

MONDAY, MAP.CII 16. 

Sir Ilnmc Pophrvri took the usual oaths and his seat. 

The 8iave Trade Abolition Bill was read a third time and passed, without 
a division, and sent back to the Lords. ' 

ttj'esd.ay, march 17. 

Earl Pern/, concei\ing that the abolition of the Slave Trade could not he 
complete,, without the ultimate einancip-.ttion of the Negroes, moved for 
k-.ne to bring in a ?)ill, t"ur what he termed the gradual abolition of the 
Slave Trade in the TV'est Indies. 

Lord Henri/ Petty expressed a hope, that the nolde Earl would not press 
the matter to a discussion. The Al)olition of the Slave Trade, and the 
P.muncipation of the Negroes, were difterent things; and the latter such as 
he considered not within the power of the House to le»i->late upon safely at 
this juncture. 

Earl Percy, however, would not consent to withdraw his motion; in con- 
sequence of which the previous qnesiion was put; and, after the House 
liad remained for some time in debate, it being discovered that there were 
not 40 Members present, an adjournment took place. 

WEDXr.SDAY, KAPCH 18. 

A Bill, for the better regulation of Pilots^ was brouglit in and read a first 
time. 



NATAL HISTORY OF TUB PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 563 

TRIDAV, MA'UCII '20. 

Mr. Sherk'an, pursuant to noiice, brou^^ht in a Bi'l Lr the farther recru- 
lation of tlie office of Treasurer of His Majesty's Navy. 

IProtnotions ann appointmenw* . 

Captain W. Croft is appointed to the Alacrity; and Captain G. Lan<T- 
ford to the Sappho. 

Ilis Majesty lias been pleased to promote Lirnre'iant Peebles, (senior 
ofticer,) of tlie Koyal. Marines, to the brevet-rank of a Captain, as a testi- 
mony of Iiis approbation of the brave conduct of that corps in the capture 
of Curacoa. 

Mr. Wood is appointed Surgeon of ei Corfu; Mr. James AVilkcs, to 
tlie Mary Yachf ;. Mr. Snook^ assisting Surgeon ;it Haslar Hospital, to he 
X)ispenser at Mill Prison. 

Captain Cumberland is appointed to the I.evden ; Captain G. Scott to 
.the Inflexible ; Captain C. Stuart to the St. Alban's. 

Lieutenant Love, of the Hon. Admiral Berkeley's flag-ship, is promoted 
to be a Commander, and appointed to the Obsorvator. 

Captain G. J. Honey is appointed to the Heron, wee Edgecombe, iiL 

Mr. T. Young, Purser of the Nemesis, is appointed to the Stately; and 

Mr. Guy is appointed to the Nemesis. Lieutenant \Y. C. Hart is 

appointed to the Nemesis. 

Captain C. White is appointed Conunissioncr of the Naval dock-yard at 
Antigua, vice Lane. 

Captain Acklom is appointed to the Recruit sloop. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Chatham Church, H. H. Spence. Captain in the Royal Navy, to J.Iisa 
Lowry, daughter of C. Lowry, Esq., of His Majesty's ship Giorv. 

JMarch 11, Captain Surridgc, of the Rt)yal Navy, to Miss Varlo, of 
Southvvicki 

OBITUARY. 

Suddenly, about the middle of the month of I\Iarch, at Lon^don IlaJl, 
near Wimbury, Devon, Charles Holmes Kveritt Cuhnady, E-^q., Admiral of 
tlie Blue Squadron, Tiiis gentleman was made a I'ost (Captain on tlie Tth 
of September, 1777; a Rear-Admira! on the 2.1d of October, 1791 ; a Vice- 
Admiral on the l-lth of February, 1790; and an Admiral on the I'Sd of 
April, 1804. — As we are not accurately acquainted with the professional 
services of Admiral Calmady, we sli.dl feel ourselves obliged to any 
Correspondent, wlio can lavoui' us with an account of them. 

March the 16th, at his house, Great Cumberland Place, Sirllvde Parker, 
Knt., Admiral of the Red Squadron.— Sir Ky(.\e was the second son of tlje 
hite unfortunate Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, Bart, supposed to have 
perished at sea in the year 1733, by Sarah, daughter of Hugh Smitlison, 
Esq. He was born in the year 1739. and marric!, iirst, Anne, daughter 
of .Totin Pulmtr Botcler, Esq., of Henley, by whom he had three sons, 
Hyde, John, and Harrv. He married, secondly, a daughter of Admiral Sir 
Richard Onslow. — Sii' Hyde entered very youri!, iijtu tha Navy, ijf ^ 



201 NAVAL HISTOriY OT THE rilEsENT TEAR, 1307. 

Lively frifrate, under his father; served as Midshipman, or Mate, on boar(} 
the .Squirrel, in 1757 ; was made a Lieutenant in 1768; was present at the 
reduction of ^»Jani!ia; and was afterward^ er.-awed in the pursuit and c^'^p- 
tnre of the Spanish Acapulco ship. On the 18th of July, 17(5^, he wa* 
made Post; acquitted himself with L'rcat ^aHantry and '^ood conduct, ia 
Various services, during the Americui war, for whicli he recei^'ed the liouour 
of knighthood ; was fir&t Captain to the fleet, in the Mediterranean, under 
Lord Hood, in 1793; at which time he was made a Rear- Admiral ; after- 
wards commanded a division of that fleet; was made a \'ice- Admiral in 
1794; commanded at Jamaica in 1796; was made an Admiral jn 1?99; 
Citnie home in 1800, and was appointed second in command of the Channel 
fleet; in 18ul, he commanded the fleet in the Baltic; at the pftack of 
Copenhaiien ; and in May, the same year, he resigned the command. Sir 
Hyde Parker was formerly a Colonel of Marines. — For a detailed account 
cf the professional services of this officer, rlie reader is referred to the 
tifih Volume of the Naval Chronicle, pa<;e UQl, 

J. Slade, Esq., Cashier of Ilis Majesty's Navv. 

On the 3d of March, Mr. Marr, Boatswain of His ]MajC;ty's dock-yard at 

Plymouth. 

On the 6th of March, at his father's house at Peckhnm, Mr. Richard 
Sause, son of Captain Sause, wfio commanded la Sensihie, under Sir Ilomft 
Popham, in the Red Sea. He was the only officer woimdc-d in the Orion, 
in the dorious battle of Trafalgar ; since which time he has lingered of his 
wound. He was a most e.xcelleat otiicer, and died in ttie 20Ui year of his 
ago, greatly regietted. 

Lately, in. the W-est Indies, of the yellow fever, Mr. 'A". 3Larshall, late 
Captain's Clerk of His Majesty's sliip Wolie, and foi meriy one of the jjupils 
of the Benevolent Society under the care of Mr. Hocomhe. The rising 
abilities of this youth appeared to he an honour to that institution, when, 
alas! he was early snatched to the silent tomb. 

Lately, Lieutenant P. Helprnan, (1st) of the Royal Navy. 

At Boston, America, Mr. Thomas Parker, aged oO, an active N^aval 
Ofiicer in the Revolutionary War. The following is an extract from hi.s 
i>jg-book: — Fi.'if. part of the voyage, pleasa.it, with fine breezes and free 
winds — all sads set— spoke many vessels in want of provisions' — supplieU 
them freely. — Middle /3«s.*rf^'f— weather variable— short of provisions- 
spoke several' of the above ves'sels our supply had enabled to refit — made 
signals of (hstrcss — they lip helm, and bore away. — Z,(/^/cr/?w7-^— boisterous, 
with contrary winds. Current of advei'sity setting hard to leeward. 
Towards the end of the passage cleared up, with the quadrant of honest ij, 
and an elscrvation corrected arid made up my reckoning, and, after a passage 
of lit'ty vears, came to m MortitUfi/ lload, with a calm unruflled surface of 
the ocean of eternity in view. 

Lately, at p.dinburgh, John In.^is, Esq., Vice-Admiral of the Blue 
Squadron. This gentleman was made a post Captain on tlie 23d of August, 
1781; and distinguished li.m^elf; as Commander of the Belliqueux, which 
ship sustaiised a loss of 25 killed, and 78 wounded, in the celebrated battle 
of Camperdown, in 1797. He was made a Rear-Admiral on the 1st of 
Januaiy, 1801; and a Vice-Admiral on the 9th of November, 1803, — Vice- 
Admiral Inglis, we believe, was a relation, probably a son, of Rear-Admiral 
Charles iugiis, who died at Sumiyside, in October, 1791. 

Late!}', at sea, as he was comingHiome sick to the Royal Naval Hospital 
at Plymouth, Lieutenant Lloyd, of the Nile cutler.— liis remains were 
coiuiuiued to the deep, with uuliLary honours. 




Ws.c^jf't^'f- 








JhiUthtd .pnl OOiBoy. b%- J.&cU lC>:>.S/u>e Lane. Fleet Street. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

CAPTAIN RICHARD BLDD VINCEX'i', 

THE GALLANT COMMANDER. OF THE ARROW* 
SLOOP OF WAU, 1805. 



** C-'iptains of ahips deserve more praise for any particular detached 
fiction with tlie enemy, than those Captains who are ijerving in a fleet, and 
only obey the orders and signals of their superior officer." 

(General Smithes Speech in the House of Cmmnons, 
April 4, 1795.— iVta-. Chron. VulXVI,p. 43.) 

'nr^IIIS gentleman, who had the honour of serving unvkr Lord 
Nelson, is a native of Newbury, in Berkshire, "where iiis 
father is a Banker. Having when very young shown a predi- 
lection for the British Navy, his father indulged his son's wish, 
by entering him, in the year 1781, on board the Britannia, of 
lOOgiuis, Vice-Admiral Barrington, Captain Benjamin Hill ; in 
which ship he remained nearly two years, and had an early oppor- 
tunity- of seeing service, when the grand fleet under Lord Howe 
engaged the combined fleet of the enemy, after the memorable 
siege and relief of Gibraltar. 

At the conclusion of the war in 1733, we find him on board 
the Salisbury, of 50 guns, Vice-Admiral Campbell, Captain 
James Bradby, on the Newfoundland station ; and also during 
the peace, in the Trimmer sloop, on the coast of Wales ; and in 
the Pegase and Carnatic guard-ships. 

L^pon the armament taking place against Spaiii in 1 790, Mr. 
Vmcent joined the Prince, of 98 gmis, Rear-Admiral Jervis, 
Captain Josias Rogers ; from which ship lie was promoted, 
on November the 3d, in the same year, to the rank of 
Lieutenant ; and was appointed to the Wasp sloop. Captain 
Thomas Lee, in the Channel. 

In the year 179-^ '^^ was appointed third Lieutenant of the 
Terrible, 74 guns. Captain Skefllngton Lutwidge, then fitting 
at Chatham for the Mediterranean, whither she proceeded, with 



* Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. XIII. page 222, 
fSar^. CtJTon. iHoI.XVIJ. m n 



265 



piocuArnicAi. ]«t:moiii op 



the squadron under Vice-Adniiial CosIjv, inlMay 1793. In this 
ship he was at the takins; posscssior., and evacuation, of Toidon, 
and various services attending the siege of Consica ; during Mhich 
time he rose to be lirst Lieutenant of iier. The Commander 
in Chief, Lord Hood, soon after returning to Eiiglaiid, fell in 
v\ith the Terrible in his passage down the Mediterranean; and 
was induced to remo\e Lieutenant Vincent into his own ship, 
the V'ictory, for promotion, and bron;;hl him home. Li the fol- 
lowing spring, howe\cr, in consequence of his Lordship's flag 
being une'spectcdly struck at Spithcad, jMr. Vincent, as being 
rated 10th Lieutenant, was discharged ; and lost thereby that pro- 
spect of promotion, which, had the Victory with his Lordship's 
flag returned to h.er station, lie liad every reason to expect. 

It nevertheless appears that he was not long unemployed; 
being soon afterwards appointed second Lieutenant of the 
Triumph, of 74 guns, Captain Sir Erasmus Gower; and was 
present in her at the celebrated retreat of Admiral Cornwallis 
from the French fieet off Belieisle, on the 17th of June, 1795. 
1 he I'iiumph was afterwards employed on a cruise oil the 
\Vestcin I.^les, and in the Nosth Seas, attached to a squadron 
under l.,ord Hugh Seymour. 

Diu-ing the mutiny in 1797, tlie Triumph was for some time 
entirely under his charge; during Mliich he considerably 
repressed the spirit of insubordination tliat prevailed. Lieute- 
nant Vincent was unfortunate in leavhig the Triumph (being 
then senior Lieuter.ant) only a fev>- days previous to Lord Dun- 
can's engagement with, ajid signal victory over, the Dutch fleet 
on the 11th of October, 1797: for having removed to the 
Zealand, Captain T. Parr, at tlie Isore, at the particular appli- 
cation of Admiral Lutwidge, Lieut. Vincent lost both the honour 
or sharing in the glory of that celebrated aiu! important victory, 
as well as in the promotion that succeeded. A circumstance, 
however, soon after seemed to promise him a recompense 
for this disappointment : for being sei.'.or Lieuienant of the 
Zealand, then the tiaj;-sliify at the Nore, at the time Ilis 
Tvjajesly expressed his intention of visiting tlie Dutch prizes at 
Shccrness ; he was tialiertd with the e\| eaatiou of llmt pre- 



CAPTAIN' niniAUD ET'DD VtXCrNT. '207 

ferment, wliich had bteil i!suolon such occnsioDs : Initliere again 
his hopes were destroyeil by a gale oi' wind, wliich came on at 
E.N.E,, and bk)wing right up the Thames, rendered it totally 
impracticable for His Majesty to fuliil his intention on the day 
appointed: the Visit was accordingly relinquish" d, and thus 
Lieutenant Vincent had the mortitication to experience a second 
disappointment. 

Admiral Lutwidge being after this removed to tlie Downs 
station, lieutenant Vincenf: lelt the Zealand, and followed him 
to his fiag-ship the Overyssel!, and sailed in her on the expedi- 
tion to Holland ; where another instance of precarious hope 
occurred, arising from an expected engagement with the Dutch 
fleet in the Texei ; but the enemy surrendering at tiie very 
moment of actioii, no promotion took place. — The Overyssell 
resuming her station in the Downs, Lieutenant V'incent continued 
in her, until she vas paid off in January, IBO'i; and ailerwards 
followed Admiral Liitwidge's tlag to the Amazon, and St. 
Alban's, until the conclusion of ih.e war. 

In the iiavill promotion which took place on the Peace, 
Lieutenant Vincent was made JMaster and Commandci-, April 
Qf), 1802; and on the i'/th of May following, he was appointed 
to the command of the Arrow sloop, at Sheeruess, to cruise in 
the Channel, and was stationed on the coasts of Dorsetshire and 
Devonshire, under the orders of Captain O. Maysfield, of the 
Alalante, for the purpose of suppre^smg smuggling, Sic. But 
tiie peculiar construction of the Arr(AV m her external Hpi)eav- 
ance, soon became an object of caution to smuggleis, \\ho ea^ily 
recogmsed her at u distance. He was then appouiled to the 
Downs statK n_, but una'jie to cruise for want or" men, the p-e- 
judices of seamen preventing then-eiueriiigon boani a si',!!): v. ! 
bore an appearance vmhke everv other vessel ; n 
her interior construction, which was novel ih' 
Tebruary, 1B03, she was sent to Portsmouth and : 

On the fst of March following, Cuptai: 
appointed to the Arrow; but she not bemg a .^ . 
volunteers, he obtained pernnssiou from Lofl 



268 BIOGRAPmCAL MEMOIR OF 

Port Admiral, to send his officers out in the offing, in Revenue 
cutters, to procure men ; by which he picked up some ser- 
viceable hands. He was then sent by his Lordship m ith a con- 
voy to Guernsey and Jersey, and afterwards to cruise in the Chan- 
nel to complete his complement of men ; but without success. 
In July he received orders to refit for foreign service, and was 
completely manned for that purpose. He sailed the same 
month, in company with the Seahorse, commanded by the 
Honourable Captain Courtnay Boyle, and Wasp, by the 
Honourable Captain Aylmer, for the Mediterranean, with the 
Trade bound to Oporto, Lisbon, Gibraltai", 8cc., and arrived at 
Malta in September. He ^^ as then dispatched with the Trade 
bound up the Adriatic, where particular services detained him 
till December, during which time he visited Trieste, Venice, 
Corfu, and Fiume ; which gave him an opportunity of carrying 
from the latter place Prince Luis Lichstenstein and suite, to 
visit Pola and the Istrian shore ; also of landing at Corfu Mr. 
W. R. VVrif^lit, from Trieste, who had been appointed Consul 
to the Seven Islands. After returning a second time to Malta, 
where the Arrow was refitted, and the damages she sustained by 
the bad weather she experienced in the Adriatic being repaired, 
(particularly the tanks she was fitted with for holding water,) he 
sailed for Palermo, and returned from thence to Malta with a 
convoy, the COlh of January, 1804. He then went to Naples 
with a convoy ; and from thence, at the requisition of the 
British Minister, to Cagliari in Sardinia, w ith an officer charged 
with dispatches to the Commander in Chief, and returned to 
Malta on the 7th of February. In the same month he proceeded 
with a large convoy under his charge, bound to Constantinople. 
On his entrance into the Dardanelles, the Turkish Castle on the 
European shore fired several shot at the Arrow and convoy. 
It blowhig very strong at the time, it was impossible for Captain 
Vincent to fend to the Governor, to demand an explanation of 
the insult oft'ered to the British flag ; but on his arrival at Cim- 
stantinople he represented the circumstance to the English 
Charg^ d'Atfaires, iSir. Straiten, who laid his representation 



CAPTAIN niCHARD BUDD VINCENT. 269 

before the Divan ; by whom the Governor was mulcted in a 
very considerable sum for his misconduct. 

The folh)wing letters from Lord Nelson to Captain Vincent, 
will further illustrate this part of his iife_, and impart aa addi- 
tional interest to the narrative :— 

sm, Victory, at Sea, January 21, 1804. 

BY the Termagant I recelrcd your letter of the 19th iilf., 
giving me an account of your proceedings with the Trade fro.n 
JMalta i;p the Adriatic, and the protection allordcd them from 
thence to Valette harbour. Also transmitting me coi)ies of the 
several leffcrs, &c. therein referred to, together with a log of your 
proco?dirigs, and a list of the convoy under }«iir charge. In 
answei' to which, I very much approve of the whole of your con- 
duct on fhis occasion; and am much pleased with your attention 
to the Government concerns up the Adriatic, under the direction 
of i\ir. Leard. who has communicated to me the object of his 
being there; and transmitted bills of lading of tlie stores sent in 
the Mentor Giuro, and Imperial schooner Hungary, which last 
mentioned vessel I hope may arrive at Malta safe; as the stores 
she has on board are more particularly wanted than any of the 
others. 1 am, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

NELSO.N & BilONTE. 

Jl. B. Vincent, Kfq., Commander (yf 
His Majestys Sloo^j Arrow, 

SIR, Victory, ojjTonhn, June 8, 1804-. 

I HAVE received your letter of the Gth of April last, acquaint- 
ing me with your return from Smyrna on the 5th of that month, 
with such Trade as were ready to accompany you to Malta ; and 
that you were about to proceed again to Smyrna, with two English 
vessels and transports, under the charge of Lieutenant Woodman, 
which you mean to escort into the Dardanelles, and afterwards bring 
the Trade from Smyrna to Valette harbour. In answer to v, Idch^ 
I approve of the line of conduct you mean to pnrsue in the 
e\'^cuiiou of your orders ; and also of your correspondence with 
his Excelh^ricy, Mr. Stratton, our Minister at Constantinople, 
relcitive to the conduct of the Governor of the Castle on the 
European side, on entering the Dardaiiclles ; and make no doubt 
that the Ottoman Government will snilieitntly account for the 
conduct of the Castle's tiring upon the Arrow and convoy, and 
juake the necessary reparation to our Miiiistcr for the insalt. 



2*0 BlOGRAPlIlCAr. MEMOIR OF 

The two letters, Szc. from Mr. Thomas M'Gill, mpntlor,c(l in yonrs 
of the 6th April, have also been received, and 1 observe with some 
degree of surprise, the protection aiforded the French at Ancona, 
contrary to the laws of neutrality. You have done perfectly rig'iit 
in ciiC'.'.hiting the information of the privateers and corn vessels to 
all the Captains on your station, and hope they may be inter- 
cepted. I have also to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 7th April, Avith the list of vessels captured and detained, as 
therein mentioned. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

NELSON & 13U0NTE. 
JR. B. Vincenty Esq.^ Commander of 
His Majesty's Sloop Arrou; 

Sli?, Victor]/, off'T<'iiIoJi,Jiine8, 1304, 

I HAVE received your letter of the Uth ult., addressed to 
Ciiptain Cracraft, of the Anson, together witu the defects of His 
Majesty's sloop Arrow, under your command. And I must desire, 
en your return into Valette harbour, that you will pat her in a 
state for being hove down, or otherwise as the builders may think 
necessary, to repair her defects. If the tanks cannot be repaired, 
water casks must be substituted in their room. I have sent an 
order to the master shipvright for this purpose, and must desire 
that every exertion which depends upon you to facilitate her 
cqiiipment, mi\y be used; that the service of this country may not 
be deprived of so fine a vctsel but for as short a time as possible. 
I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

NELSON k BRONTE. 
J?. B. Vincent, Fsq., Corjimander of 
His Majesty s Siuop Arrou:. 

In his passage through the White Sea^ Captain Vincent met 
V ith a heavy gale of wind, with snow^ which dispersed his con- 
voy ; and tJie Arrow, after being nearly lost, obtained an anchor- 
age under the island of Coutali alone ; however, all the Trade 
arrived safe at their place of destination. During his stay at 
Constantinople he was visited by the Capitau Pacha, and all the 
naval oflicers there; the |)eculiur constiuctiou of the Arrow 
being an object of general curiosity at all llic foreign ports at 



CAPTAIN RICIl-VRD BUDD VIXCEXT. 271 

which he touched. The Capitan Pacha sliowed him much 
tlatterlng attention, and presented him with an elegant sabre, in. 
Jctuni for a pair of pistols; whicl), from the admiration ihey 
attracted, were given to His Highness^ who allowed Captain 
'\ incent to visit the Arsenal, and men of war in t! e port. On 
his return to Malta he called at Smyrna^ and took a convoy 
from thence. After which he was again sent to Smyrna wilh 
tlie Trade recently arrived from England^ and returned to iialia 
with another convoy. 

Having been placed under the orders of Giptain Cracraft, 
of His Majesty's ship Anson_, Captain Vincent was directed 
l^- that otiicer to cruise from the mouths of the Archipelago 
along the Adriatic^ as far as Ancona, to keep the Adriatic 
open to the trade of His Majesty's subjects^ and to prevent 
the enemy sending in their cruisers, or conveying troops across ; 
and also to keep off the coast of Calabria, as senior oificer 
of the division of cruisers, during the absence of the Anson, 
w'hich was to be docked at Constantinople. In this cruise 
he visited the islands of Zante and Corfu ; and at the latter place 
received a requisition from the British resident Ivlinister, Zvlr. 
Forestij to follow to Valona a Turkish squadron, under the 
command of Capitan Seremet Bey, which had not many hours 
left Corfu ; and demand from him the restitutir.n of the cargo of 
an English brig, which had been stranded in the neighbourhood, 
as well as two seamen, who had deserted from a transport at 
Corfu, and iled to the coast of Albania, and were reported to be 
in tlie district of Berratt. On the 'Silh of May he oves took ti-e 
Turkish Admiral, geneniUy called Patrona Bey, at Valona, and 
went on board his ship, who promised to obtain for him the 
objects of his demand, which was made in strong terms. Kot 
being able to see the Vizier of Berratt, who vs as in the interior, he 
w cut oft" Otranto, with the Arrow, to reconnoitre that port ; and 
on his return to Valona Bay, found that the V'izier had informed 
Seremet Bey that the vessel was stranded in the district of 
Durazzo, under the govenunent of Ibrahim Bev ; that the 
deseiters had been converted to Mahometism, and were in uie 



272 BtOffRAPHICAT, MEMOIR 0? 

same district : lie was never enabled to gain any furtlier 
intelligence of them, although the Admiral as8ured him that 
they, as well as such materials of the brig as could be recovered, 
should be conveyed to Corfu. 

I'he following Letterj fiora Lord Nelson, is dated Victory, 
at Sea, G8th July, 1804. 

SIR. 

I YESTERDAY received your letter of the 13th ult., acquaint- 
ing me with your proceedings, in consequence of the letters 3'ou 
received from Captain Cracraft, of His Majesty's sliip Anson. 
That you had visited Zante, Corfu, Valona, and Otranto, 
agreeable to his directions; and that on your arrival at Corfu, you 
had received a letter, with an enclosure from Mr. Foresti, acquaint- 
ing you with the loss of the Merchant brig, General Moore, near 
Valona, 011 (he ISth of November last; and also with the treat- 
ment the Master and crew of the said vessel had received from the 
Bey and Vizier of Berratt- In answer thereto, I am very much 
pleased with the whole of your conduct, and hope that your 
remonstrances will not only induce the Vizief to deliver up the 
English subjects, but also make sufficient reparation for his treat- 
ment to the Master and crew of the said vessel, as well as for 
having detained them and others of His Majesty's subjects. I am 
very much obbged for your communication of the different circum- 
stances that are passing in the Adriatic, mentioned in your said 
letter and log book, which have been received, together with 
copies of Mr. Foresti's letter, and the paper which accompanied 
it, also the list of vessels boarded by the Arrow, as stated 
therein. 

I am. Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

NEJ.SON & BRONTE. 

3?. B. Vincent, Esq., Co7nmandir of 
His ALiJcsfj/s Sluop Arrow. 

» On leaving Valona, ^t was Captain Vincent's intention to go 
off Tarento, nud ascertain the state of that place, but it blowing 
strong at N.N.W., he could not beat into the Gulf, therefore 
bore up for Cape Spartivento : in his way thither he received 
intelligence of a French privateer cruising off Cape St. Mary'si; 
in consequence of which he pursued her to the island of Fano, 
where he destroyed her, as described in his letter to Admiral 
Lord Nelson, the Commander in Chief. 



fcAPTAIN KICIIARD BUDD VINCENT, 273 

llis Majcstt/s Sloop Arrozc, at Sea, 
aiY LORD, June 5, 1804, 

Having heard by an Imperial vessel wliich I examined off 
"Cape Stillo the 1st instant, that she had been boarded tlie evening 
before by a French privateer, off Cape St. Mary's, monritinir six 
guns, with about 70 men, and rowing 24 oais; I imn^eJ ateiy 
determined to look out for her, and in my course to the eastward 
got intelligence from a P.agusian brig, that she liad seen the above 
vessel at anchor under the island of Fano. The same evening I 
made that island, Avith a strong wind at N. by \V., but haviog 
sprung my fore-top-sail-yard, I stood otf to shift it ; and ow ttie 
morning of the 3d rounded the island to the eastward, and at half- 
past nine saw her at an anchor in a cove to the southward. Ou 
her perceiving us she trippi-d her anchor, and began moving round 
the wcathermost point of the cove; her crew, who appeared to be 
numerous, and mostly on shore, getting on board in her boat as 
fast as possible. As soon as she got round the point, she palled 
direct to the northward and windvvard, and at half-past ten made 
sail on the starboard tack to the westward, being then about two 
miles to Avindward of the Arrow. As soon as she was at a sufiicient 
distance from the island to prevent a breach of neutrality, I fired 
two shot toAvards her to oblige her to show her colours, but with- 
out ellect. About 11 she tacked, and 1 expected she would wea- 
ther the island : but as soon as she got in shore, she bore up close 
along the rocks, and anchored in the same cove about noon. I 
kept plying the Arrow to windward; and as I closed the island, 
observed a great number of her crew on shore upon the cliffs, all 
with muskets, and others carrying arms aud ammunition from the 
vessel to the shore : the privateer being hauled close to the beach, 
under a cliff, with colours and pendant flying, moor. d with throe 
anchors, and a hawser from the mast-head to the cliff above her, 
and her guns pointed to the sea. This disposition induced me to 
attempt cutting her out; conceiving the olleusive arrangements 
made by the enemy to" be a sufficient indication that thoy meant not 
to claim the neutrality of the island, but had by their present 
operations grossly violated it. About half-past two I biought the 
Arrow to an anchor within gun-shcit, and sprung her broadside to 
the shore; then sent the boats armed under the direction of 
Lieutenant Cuthbert Fcathcrston Daly, with orders to bring her 
out : but very soon, after the boats put off from the sliip, gi;.i)e and 
musket shot were fired at them from the privatcerj and shore. I 

m^t), €|jron. ©oI.XVII, n n 



274 BioGnApmc.vr. memoir o? 

then supported the boats by a brisk fire from the Arrovr, and 
Jyieutenant Diily succeeded in boarding the privateer, cut her 
adrift, and would have brought Iscr out, but her rudder being 
imhunsc and ashore, she soon after grounded, within pistol shot of 
the beach. I judged it therefore expedient to set her on fire, by 
which she was totally destroyed. Not having made any of her 
crew j.risoners, I did not learn hor r.ame, but have sinre heard she 
was called the Rachalc, Biaggio MarccHione, Master, a Corsican ; 
she was a tartar, mounting 4 long guns, having about 74 men, 
rowing 24 oars, anew vesssel, fitted out at Leghorn, and had done 
some mischief. 

I cannot but express to your Lordship the very high sense I 
entertain of the conduct of Lit-utenant Daly, the ofiirers, and men 
employed in the boats on this occasion, for their spirited resolution 
in boarding the privateer, amidst a heavy cross fire from the priva- 
teer, cliffs, beach, and houses. I have to lament the loss of Mr. 
Thomas Patterson, Master's Mate, a fine promising young man, 
and one seaman killed, and several wounded, one of which is since 
dead. 

I beg leave to enclose your Lordship a paper saved from the 
privateer ; it is part of a Code of Instructions ; and shows how 
ready the Vice-Consuls of Spain are to become agents of the 
French Republic. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lord, &c. t&c. Sec. 

R. B. VINCENT. 

To the Right Honourable Lord Vkcount 
Nelson, K. B., Commander in Chief\ 
SfC. ^c.^c, Mediterranean. 

In executing this service, an instaJice of determined intrepi- 
dity occurred, too hojiouruble to the cliaracter of British tars 
to be passed unnoticed. When the French privateer had been 
driven close under the island of Fano, her crew, expecting an 
attempt would be made to cut her out, had secured her by 
anchors and warps, and by an hawser from her mast head to the 
cliffs, that towered above the vessel, on which the enemy w as 
stationed with musketry. Being boarded by the Arrow's boats, 
, t«iie was cut adrift; but on finding she was still lield by the liaw- 
ser, a sailor, named Mordecai Betty, climbed with the greatest 
coolness to the mast head ; where, amidst a shower of shot, he 



CAPTAIN RTCIIARn BliDD VISCCNT. 275 

deliberately drew out his knife, cut the hawser, aiid descended 
unhurt. The privaleer was then brought ofi* and burnt. 

The following is the answer which Lord Nelson sent to the 
above letter from Captain V^incent : — 

SIR, Victory, al Sea, 28th Ju/j/, 1C04. 

I IIA V^E received ynnr Ictfer of the .5th June_> giving an account 
of your hauiig, on the 3(1 of that nion^th, destroyed and set fire to 
a P'rench privateer, undur the island of Fano. The destruction of 
the enemy's privateers, (which are so numerous in these seas, and,, 
contrary to all known laws of neutrality, shelter themselves, and 
make a convenience of the neutral territory of the powers in amity 
with Great Britain, from whence they commit the most un- 
warrantable depredations on our commerce.) becomes an object of 
serious consideration, and certainly justifies an attack upon these 
pirates. 1 therefore feel pleasure at your conduct in the de- 
struction of the privateer before mentioned, and shall write to 
Mr. F'oresti, His IMajcsty's Minister at Corfu, (if necessary,) to 
remonstrate against the conduct of those unprecedented and 
sanctioned pirates, as I did in the instance of the Thisbe : for cer- 
tainly the neutral territory that does not afford protection, cannot 
be allowed to give it to the original breaker of tiie neutrality ; and 
therefore from the offensive state of the privateer in question, and 
her firing upon the Arrow's boats, I cannot but approve of your 
having destroyed her ; but I must beg to be perfectly understood, 
that 1 would on no account have the neutralify broken or dis- 
turbed, hy His Majesty's ships or vessels under my command firing 
upon any of the enemy's privateers, or endeavouring to d stroy 
them under the protection of a neutral port; unless such privateer 
shall first use offensive measures, and fire upon His Majesty's sub- 
jects, in which case they forfeit the protection of the neutral port, 
and ought to be destroyed if possible. I am sorry for the Arrow's 
loss in killed and wounded on the occasion, as stated in the list 
which accompanied your said letter. The p^jpor of instructions 
saved from the privateer before alluded to, has also beeu received. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

iSELSOxX & BRONTE. 

JR. B. Vincent, Efq., Captain o/ 
Jits Majesty^ Sloop Arvua:. 

From the island of Fano Captain Vincent put into Svracuse 
to get refreshments for his wounded raeU; and returned to IMaila 



276 BiOGUArincAL memoir of 

the 13lh of June. In his way thither he fell in with three Nea-. 
politan frigates, off C ;pe Spartivento, cruising against the Al- 
gerines ; and, though every signal was made to them, they did 
not show their colours, but chased the Arrow until they hauled 
ailci a vessel under English colours, which they brought to. In 
this ciujse he obtained !i)t< li. genre that there were no French 
troops at Ancona or Urindisi, and that their head quarters were 
at Capua. After having landed his wounded men, and refitted, 
he sailed again on the IQlh on a cruise, taking under his charge a 
convoy bound to Constantinople, and Charles Lock, Esq., Con- 
sul General of Egypt, who having occasion to visit Constanti- 
nople, requested to be forwarded in the Arrow. On the 2d of 
July, Captain Vincent anchored in the Dardanelles, under the 
old European castle, where he left the convoy in safety, as his 
instructions did not allow him to proceed further; Mr. Lock 
^vas forwarded the same day in a Turkish boat, procured from 
the Governor of the castle for that pinpose. Captain Vincent 
then cruised off the Morea, and arrived at Zante on the l'2th, 
where he rendered some assistance to Mr. Wright, the British 
Consul, who had been treated with disrespect by the Pritano or 
Governor. It is customary when a Consul displays the flag of 
his nation, to have it complimented by tlie government of the 
place looting its own standard: Mr. Wright found that this had 
been duly observed by the Pritano in compliment to the French 
Consul, an hoisting the flag of his republic. On the 2d of June 
he informed the Pritano that he intended to display the English 
flag on the 4th of .Tune, at his consular residence, and expected- 
the compliment of the colours being hoisted at the castle and. 
fortress ; but noUvith.-itauding they had been flying three succes- 
sive days before, they w eve on that day discontinued to be shown : 
Mr. Wright waited upon bini to complain of this marked disre- 
spect, and to insist upon some reparation : Ynany trifling excuses 
were made, and a promise to comply with these observances 
upon another occasion. This ofl'ertd when the Arro'A' arrived, 
and the morning after was appointed for the display of the Bri- 
tish flag, which was saluted by the Arrow, but continued unno- 
ticed^ bv the Governor^ and the remonstrances that were mact^ 



CAPTAIN RlCllAno nUDD VINCENT. !i7? 

proved unavailing. On the 19th Captain Vincent andiored at 
Corfu, where he laid a representation of the conduct of the Go- 
vernor of Zante before Mr. Foresti, His Britannic ^Majesty's 
Minister to the Seven Islands, that an exposition of tlie trans- 
action might be made to the Settinsular Senate. Captain Vin- 
cent heard at Corfu, that nothing had been accomplished re- 
specting the deserters, that Seremet Bay had promised if pos- 
sible to procure ; and also that the name of the privateer he de- 
stroyed at Fano w as I'Active, and not Rachalc, and that five of 
her crew v,ere killed and several wounded. At the requisition 
of Mr. Foresti, he proceeded to Venice with a Russian courier 
for St. Petersburgh, and with dispatches .for the British Minis- 
ter at Vienna. Having set on shore the Courier at Venice, he 
sailed for Trieste to land his dispatches, but in his way fell in 
with His ISIajesty's brig Morgiana and a large convoy from the 
latter place. Captain Raynsford having represented to him that 
several French privateers were said to be looking out to attack 
this convoy. Captain Vincent took charge of it, and sent the 
Morgiana back to Trieste with the dispatches, and orders to 
rejoin as soon as possible : but no privateers were seen in his 
passage down the Adriatic. Daring this trip he had ascertahied 
that there were no French troops at Ancona, nor any vessels 
collected for embarkation, as had been reported. On quitting 
the Adriatic he sent the Morgiana with the trade bound to 
Malta, taking with him the vessels for Zante and Cephalonia^ 
after which he proceeded to Corfu, in consequence of intelli- 
gence of die enemy having laid an embargo upon all vessels on 
the coast of Puglia ; where he was informed that no such event 
had taken place. He then returned to Malta for provisions, 
where he received the Commander in Chief's directions to heave 
down the Arrow if necessary ; but she was found so w cak from 
the bad weather she had frequently met with, that on consulting 
the Builder, it was declared not advisable ; that nothing service- 
able could be done to her for want of materials, and it was re- 
commended to send her to England to be docked. Several of 
the tanks for water were removed, by which many interior parts 
i)f the ship were discovered to be so rotten and defective, that 



27S BIOGRAPIIICAI. MEMOIR OP 

»he was reported, upon a survey of carpenters, to be sea-wortliy a 
few months only : however, every thing was done to her that 
her state and construction admitted of. 

JLord Nelson, in the following letter, notices the manner in 
M'hich the Laws of Neutrality continued to be violated by the 
privateers of the enemy; and the conduct which he, in conse- 
cjuence, wished his officers to adopt : — 

SIR Victor)/ at Sea, Qd of September, lfiQ4. 

I have received your letter of the 8th of August last, Avith the 
several enclosures therein mentioned, and very highly approve of 
your complying with Mr. Foresti's request in conveying his dis- 
patches (o Venice, and landing the Russian Courier at that place. 
1 am very much obliged by the information contained in your said 
letter and enclosures; and particularly satisfied with the whole of 
yoiir'proc^^edings, with respect to the line of conduct necessary to 
ha observed in the destruction of the enemy's privateers. I must 
I>cg to remark to you the same as I have done to Captain Rayns- 
ford, viz. " It is impossible for me to name any precise mode of 
proceeding; for if the Laws of Neutrality are not adhered to and 
enforced by the powers in amity M'ith ail the Morld, it will I fear, 
if remonstrances are not attended to by those powers, become ne- 
cessary to destroy the enemy's privateers, wherever they may be 
faunil ; but this measure must not be resorted to, until proofs of 
misconduct on the part of our enemies have been made manifest. 
In that case, I am clearly of opinion, that on the spot where the 
breach of neutrality has been committed by the JVench, that the 
enemy has no right to claim the protection of neutrality, if ho 
should be overpowered. I am sure it is the furthest from the wish 
of our government to break the neutrality of any state, although 
the French may ; but it is no longer a neutral spot, if the French 
are permitted to commit hostilities against us." 

I am. Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

NELSON & BROxNTE. 

jR. B. Vincent, Esq., Coitnander of 
His MoJLsli/'s Sloop Arrow. 

On the 17th of September, Captain Vincent proceeded on a 
cruise, and reconnoitred the ports of Otranto, and Tarento, and 
the coast of Calabria ; he visited also Valona and Messina. On 
the 18lh of October, being at sea. Cape Spartivento bearing 



CAPTAIN RICHARD BUDD VINCENT. 27S 

N. W. six leagues, tlie Arrow was surrounded by heavy dark 
clouds, whence torrents of rain fell, accompanied with dreadful 
thunder and lightning ; the latter struck the main-mast, which 
with the top-mast and top-gallant-mast was shivered to pieces ; 
tlie sails being clewed up and wef, did not take fire, and very for- 
tunately not a sail was hurt, although die top-mast, 8cc. came by 
the board. The lightniisg was found to have gone through the 
launch's bottom on the booms, and to have escaped by one of 
the ports. He arrived in Malta harbour the next day in a 
very crippled state, where he got a new mast, and refitted. He 
then proceeded to Palermo and Gergenti in Sicily, and returned 
to Malta with a convoy from those places, the 17th of Novem- 
ber. After this he was dispatched on secret service to Messitia, 
Palermo, and Naples ; and, while at the latter place, he received 
orders from the senior officer at ^lalta, to repair to that island 
immediately, for the purpose of taking charge of a British con- 
voy bound to England. He left Naples on the ] Cd) of De- 
cember, 1804, and arrived at Malta on the 20th, where he re- 
ceived from Captain Schomberg the Commander in Chief's 
order, to take under his charge the convoy collected for England, 
but to wait the arrival of the trade from Smyrna ; also to take 
mider his' orders His Majesty's bomb Acheron, Captain Arthur 
Farquhar, to act under his directions for protecting die trade 
during the passage. 

Captain Vincent, during bis continuance in the ^leSiterra- 
nean, had the satisfaction of having his conduct fully approved 
of by the Commander in Chief. Tlie following extract from a 
letter of Lord Nelson's to him, may serve as a testimony of his 
Lordship's honourable consideration of him : — *' I take this op- 
portunity to convey to you my full approbation of your zealous 
activity in the various services performed by His Majesty's sloop 
under your command, and am sorry that the state of that ves- 
sel deprives the station for the present of your further ser- 
vices. 

On the 2d of January, 1 805, the Jalouse brig arrived at Malta, 
wldi the Smyrna trade. On the 4th the i\rrow sailed for Eng- 
land, accompanied by the Acheron; and His Majety's brig Ja- 



±80 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 01^ 

louse, which was directed to see the convoy to the westward bf 
Sicily. 

On the 7th the Jalouse parted company. Captain Vincent 
finding several brigs of the convoy to be very bad sailers, made a 
disposition for their being taken in tow, and attended to by the 
fast sailing ships ; and some further regulations were adopted for 
the better conduct of the convoy. On the 14th, a ^Maltese brig 
bound to Gibraltar, which had sailed with the convoy, parted 
company ; it blowing strong at W. S. W; On the l6th Minorca 
Was seen, on the 17th Cabrera and Majorca. It blew strong 
from the W. S. W., and two of the convoy sprung a lower mast 
each ; but at noon all the convoy were in company. On the 
<21st it blew hard from the S. W. ; they saw P'ormentera, and 
stood with the convoy to the southward ; at nine A.M. it blew 
almost a hurricane, but at 10 the wind nearly died away, and 
shifted to the northward, the sea breaking in every direction. 
They now saw the land about Cape St. Martin's, and Alicant 
N. by W. to N. W. by W. At noon, only 19 sail were in com- 
pany. On the 'i2d the wind drew round to the W. N. VV. blow- 
ing hard ; another of the convoy sprung a lower mast ; they this 
day stood to the northward, with 18 sail in company; among the 
missing vessels n\ as the Acheron. On the 23d, they saw several 
sail to the eastward, which proved to be the above ship and the 
missing part of the convoy ; on their joining, found that two brigs 
had separated during the gale, and that many had suftered da- 
mage : the land about Cape St. Martin's was in sight. On the 
morning of the :jOth, the ]Master of the brig Sally informed Cap- 
tain V^incent he had seen a brig of the convoy on her beam ends, 
which foundered in a squall during the night ; discovered the 
ship Dutchess of Rutland and the brig Union to be missing ; and 
as the latter was not seen afterwards, she was concluded to be the 
vessel that foundered. On the Cd Feb. fell in with the Spanish 
ship Gravina, prize to His Majesty s ship Amazon, bound to !Mal- 
ta ; but directed by Captain Parker to take benefit of convoy to 
England, in case of falling in with such. Captain Vincent gave 
the officer instructions, and took lier under charge. — Having thus 
briefly related the circumstances which occurred to the convoy 



CAPTAIN UICIIARD nUDD VIXCEN'T. 281 

up to tlie morning in which the enemy's ships appeared in sight. 
The subsequent events, and the account of tlie action, will be 
best detailed by a copy of the narrative which Captain Vincent 
road, at the Court Martial held on board His Majesty's ship 
Gladiator, 17th of June, 1805. 

GF.NTLEMEX, 

In detailing the proccc(rm";s relative to the capture of His Ma- 
jesty's late sloop Arrow under my command, I beg leave to pre- 
face, that in pursuance to an order from the Right IIoiioiiral)le 
Lord Viscount Nelson, K. B., to take under my charge the trade 
bound from Malta to the United Kingdom of Cireat ikitaiu and 
Ireland; I sailed from that island on the 4th of January last, with 
a convoy of thirty-four sail, having under my orders His IMajesty's 
bomb Acheron, and His Majesty's brig Jalouse, directed by the 
senior oflicer at Malta to see me to the westward of the island of 
Maritimo. 

The first part of our passage was favourable until we reached 
the westward of the island of Ivica, when we met with strong 
westcrl}' winds, and a series of bad weather, by which the convoy 
sufl'ered some damage; one vessel was supposed to have foundered, 
and two others separated; but as the dauiage sustained was not of 
serious consequence to delay the convoy, I was urged to jnir'^ue 
the voyage, with the anxious hope of soon having an easterly wind 
to carry us through the Straits of Gibraltar. 

Early on the morning of the 3d of Februar}-, per log, the 
Dutchess of Rutland transport, which had been missing some 
days, joined. The weather was then quite moderate, with light 
breezes from the N. E. At 8 A. M. 1 made the signal for the 
convoy to steer W. by N. ; Cape Caxine in sight, bearing south ; 
the Acheron and 32 sail in company. At half past, altered course 
to W. N. W., being well to the southward, and made the signal for 
the sternmost ships to make more sail. Two sail !iad been ob- 
served drawing up astern, bearing E, S. E. ; I had hopes tliey were 
the missing vessels, but soon perceived they were large. At half 
past ten I asked the Acheron (who had been enforcing the above 
signal, and was then the sternmost ship) per ttrlegrapli, " wliat 
they were?'' on answering my signal, she immediately wore, stood 
toAvards them, and made the private signal ; which not b^'ing an- 
swered, she told me " they were suspicious." At a (piarter past 
11,1 made the signal for the vessels of the convoy on each quarter 
to close; the Arrow then leading the convoy with the brig Adven* 

a^ai?* eri;ron. aiobXVII. o o 



282 BIOGRAPHICAI. MEMOIR OF 

ture in tow. This vessel was leaky and her rudder shaken almost 
to pieces; wc were heaving part of her cargo overboard in the 
hope of stopping her leaks, and if possible, by lightening her, to 
unship her rudder and repair it on board the Arrow. At fifty 
minutes past, she made the signal " they were frigates." At noon 
Cape Albatel bore S. by W. f VV. ten or eleven leagues. 

On the 4th, at 2 minutes past noon, I slipped the Adventure, 
wore, and hauled the wind on the larboard tack, for the purpose 
of joining the Acheron, which had wore, and was returning to the 
convoy under all sail with light winds. At ten minutes past, made 
the Dutchess of Rutland's signal " to lead the convoy, steering 
the same course, &c." and " the^convoy to follow her motions, 
though the men of war acted otherwise." At a quarter past, made 
the. signal " for the convoy to make all sail possible." About 
one, I tacked to the northward, and shortened sail fpr the Acheron 
to close rtic. At a quarter past she made the signal " the strange 
ships were enemies;" ditto, made the signal to the convoy " that 
an enemy was in sight, to make all possible sail, and proceed to 
the appointed rendezvous ;" which was enforced by several guns 
at different times, and repeated by the Acheron in the same man- 
ner; also by Lieutenant Coggan, Agent of transports, in the Triad 
brig bomb tender, which remained v.ith the convoy. At 2, the 
Acheron closing but slowly, brought to for her, tlic frigates con- 
tinuing their course about W. N. V{. under all sail with light winds. 
About 4 the Acheron joined me, and Captain Farquhar came on 
board the Arrow. I consulted with him the best means to protect 
the convoy, and we determined to keep between them a,nd the ene- 
my, (which had not siiOAvn any colours, nor altered their course to 
chase the Acheron when reconiioitring them,') for the purpose of col- 
lecting the vessels oi the convoy, having guns on board, a,nd to form 
a line of battle as soon as possible, agreeable to an order and form 
previously given out to the farmed vessels of the convoy. At this 
time the enemy were about five miles from us. At 5, the convoy 
all becalmed, bearing N. W. by W. three miles, the land between 
Cape Albatel and Cape Tennis S. S. W. |- W. eleven leagues. From 
this time until 10, light airs and calms; the ship's head round the 
compass, w hen it sprang up a light breeze from the S. W., the ijody 
of the convoy W. N. W. four miies ; the frigates N. N. E. three 
miles, steered for the convoy, but the Acheron having increased 
her distance to the southward, I tacked to close her, and at half 
past tacked again ciose to her, and hnikd Captain Farquhar to keep 
close to the Arrow, and shortened sail to her rate of sailing. At 



CAPTAIN niCllAUD BUDD TINCENT, 283 

aldnight light breezes from the S. W. steering W. N. W. but broke 
off gradually to north. About 3 A.M. passed the two sternmost 
brigs of the convoy, to leeward of which tljc enemy had passed 
without firing at, or taking any notice ot" them. Three quarters 
past, perceived that one of the frigates had tacked, and was Hear- 
ing us on the starboard tack. About a quarter past 4 one of thom 
hailed me in English, when I asked " what ship it was?" and was 
answered by desiring me to h.ohA my boat out, and come on boaid. 
A few minutes after she was hailed-by the Acheron, when the fri- 
gate opened her lire upon her, which was immediately returned by 
the Arrow and Acheron, until she passed ; the other frigate by the 
light baffling winds had been somewhat separated, but soon closed, 
passed under our lee and went ahead of us : however, the Acheron 
lired several guns at one ol' them with eli'ect. About this time 
two brigs of the convoy passed through the men of v,ar to the 
northward. As the night had been very dark, I was anxioiis for 
daylight to ascertain the general position of the convoy, that I 
might act in the best manner for its defence; seeing the action was 
inevitable, without being able to get to my assistance the aitned 
vessels as intended. The frigates stood from us to the westward, 
and at dawn of day the wind being light and variable, their heads 
to the southward, I observed the headmost with French colours up, 
and she soon after hoisted a broad pendant at the main. At 6 I 
made the Dutchess of Rutland's signal '•'for action;" and the 
Acheron's " to close." The former being the most effective ship of 
the convoy, probably would have been of service, had she immedi- 
ately obeyed the signal and bore up, by the very appearance only 
of coming to my assistance ; but she did not even answer it. I 
then made sail on the starboard tack, to get between the enemy 
and protect the rear of the convoy ; the former were to the east- 
ward, andliaulcd on the larboard tack, apparently with the inten- 
tion of engaging us to leeward. Bent and set the spanker, to keep 
the ship to, the wind being very light, to prevent their passing 
ahead and raking us. About seven, the headmost in passing us to 
leeward gave us her broadside, when t!>e action conuncnctd : at 
this time the Acheron was close on our starboard quarter, and the 
body of the convoy to windward, bearing N. VV. four miles, mostly 
on the larboard tack, much scattered and making all sail to the 
westward. As the enemy passed, the action was kept up on both 
sides at the distance of half a cable's length, when they wore and 
give me the opportunity of raking them, and the action continued ; 
but the. wind borame so light, the Arrow would not steer, which 



281 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOin O? 

li't't nic much oxposed in dilfercnt positions to their joint fire. 
i\boat tliis time the Acheron passeil under our stern, and Captain 
Farquhar hailed me, but it was iin possible to make out what he 
said. Soon after she passed, the larp;cst frigate hauled after her, 
but not until we had received much of her fire in our starboard 
quarter. Wc were then left to the ather frigate, which I continued 
to enc;ai::e closely for some time: but our running rigging being 
cut to pieces; the impossibility of managing the ship; the lower 
masts being badly wounded ; the standing rigging, yards and sails 
being much cut; many shot between wind and water; four guns 
dismounted (Hi the starboard side; the rudder machinery being 
disabled ; thirteen men killed and twenty-seven wounded ; induced 
me to cause the colours to be struck about half past 8, after an ac- 
tion of an hour and twenty minutes, to the French national frigate 
rlncorruptibIe,jMonsicurBilliet,CapitainedeFregate, Commander, 
of 42 guns and GoO men on board, including troops: conceiving 
from the above disabled state, that further resistance would only 
increase the loss of lives, without tlie hope of saving His Majesty's 
sloop from such superior force ; particularly as she was making 
considerable water, and before the surviving officers and crew 
could scarcely be removed from her, she settled on her beam ends 
and slink. 

When I Avas under the painful necessity of thus yielding to Tin- 
corruptible, the Acheron was standing to the southward towards 
the land under all sail, the large frigate I'Hortense in chase ; and I 
cherished the hope that if the breeze had freshened, she w ould be 
able to outsail the enemy and draw him to a considerable distance, 
or get in with the land so as to defeat her falling into his hands : 
Imt she M'as obliged to submit to the same fate as the Arrow, and 
was afterwards burnt. At this time the convoy were considerably 
to the westward, and windwardj eliecting their escape on dilierent 
tacks. 

I cannot conclnde this narrative without rendering Captain Far- 
quhar my fulK'st approbation for his able and steady support; and 
particularly for his leading away THortense in a direction from 
the convoy. Nor can 1 omit this opportunity to give my public 
testimony of the good conduct and bravery displayed by the offi- 
cers, crew, and passengers, on board the Arrow; who by their ex- 
ertions on this occasion surprised the enemv bv a resistance which 
} appriihend was but little expected : aiid though His Majesty's 
sliips felfa sacrifice to superior furce, 1 liave no hesitation in be- 
lieving the damage and delay caused lo the enemy by tliis eveatj 



CAPTAIN RICHARD BUDl) VINCENT. 2S5 

afforded the greater part of my charjjc time to effect their escape. 
And when I reflect that three vessels only were captured by them 
out of thirty-t^¥"0 sail, I cannot but express my admiration and 
thanks to the officers, crews, and passengers of llis Majesty's ships 
Arrow and Acheron, for their zeal and courage in so unequal a 
contest; and attribute the preservation of the convoy to their man- 
ly and united efforts, by which the ultimate object of my wishes has 
been fnl tilled. 

R. B. VINCENT 

The last person who quitted the Arrow, was !Mr. Edward 
Elers, the second Lieutenant*; who was since on board the 
Orion, in the memorable victory oft Trafalgar, as one of 
her ofticers. These Trench frigates formed part of a squa- 
dron which had sailed from Toulon, with troops on board, 
bound to the westward ; and in the rough weather that 
had prevailed previous to the action, they had separated 
from the other ships, which returned to port. They were 
extiemely large ships ; I'llortense carrying 48 guns, and I'lncor- 
ruptible 42. The Arrow had 28 short carronades, and a crew 
of about 120 men; which, with some officers and men return- 
ing home as passengers, made up a complement of 132 men at 

* Lieutenant Edward Elers, second of the Arrow, joined her at the com- 
mencement of the present war, and after distinguishing himself in the above 
action, happened to be one of the last ofticers who left the ship. In the 
harry of gettingintoone of the French frigate's boats, lie fell overboard, but 
was providentially saved by the presence of mind of an English sailor. This 
efficer, who has been thirteen years in the service, had the satisfaction also 
of sharing in the glorious action of the 14th of February, 1797; and 
served as third Lieutenant on board the Orion, Captain Codrington, in the 
more recent victory otf Trafalgar. — Tlie names of the other olVicers and 
passengers were — C. F. Daly, ist Lieutenant; Nathaniel llanicd, Master; 
John Shaw, Surgeon ; John V.". Meadows, Purser; Richard Godden, Gnn- 
ner; JohnNicholasandTliomusIlobins, Midshipmen; Thomas Everitt, Boat- 
swain; Gray, Carpenter; John Shepheard, Master's Mate; Thomas 

Watson, Assistant Surgeon. Passengers— Captain John Parry, Royal Ma- 
rines ; Lieutenant Samuel Simpson, R. N. ; Henry Lewis and Charles Green, 
Midsliipmen. — After tlic Court ^Martial for the loss of the Arrow, Lieutiv 
nant Daly was appointed to the Diadem, and went out to the Cape of 
Good Hope as first Lieutenant. Wlien the Cape wns in o>u- possession. Sir 
Home Popham sent him to England with dispatches, and he '.vas in conse- 
quence made Conimanuer. 



286 BTOGRArillCAI, MEMOIR OP 

quarters. The Acheron carried 8 guns, and had 67 men at 
quarters. After the iirst broadside or t\vo, the Arrow had the 
fire of both the frigates, until the larger hauled off after the 
Acheron, which led her a'uay from the convoy. Tlie Arrow 
spreading aloft, and the muzzles of her guns not projecting, 
caused her to be set on lire two or three times during the action^ 
but it was each time immediately extinguished. Both ships 
were greatly amioycd by small arms, in which the enemy were 
very strong, from the great number of troops they had on board. 
The Acheron, after ha\irig d'awn off THortense to some dis- 
tance, was compelled to surrender to the very great superiority 
of force ; and tl(e French having taken out the survivors, burnt 
her, as she was much damaged 5d the action. The boats of the 
Arrovv' being destroyed, I'lncorruptible sent those belonging to 
ber, to take out the people from their sinking ship ; which was 
going down so fast, that there m as barely time to get out the 
wounded ; and except one chest, and a few smaller things that 
were put into the boat, nothing was saved from her, and the 
officers and crew were left only the clothes which they had on 
their backs. Nor did their loss entirely arise from the sinking 
of iheir ship : for the French officers, who were sent to bring 
away the people of the Arrow, no sooner got on board, than 
they rummaged the cabins, and seized whatever things of value 
they could carry away in tlieir hands ; witliout the least respect 
to private property, which on these occasions the law of nations 
considers as inviolable ; so that even watches and other per- 
sonal property, were the objects of plunder. Notwithstanding 
the l}astc with which Captain Vincent was obliged to quit his ship, 
he did not forget the valuable scimitar that had been presented 
to him by the Capitan Pacha, when at Constantinople : he 
mar.aged to take it out of the ship with him, and when in the 
boat, put it into the hands of one of his men to take Care off; 
from whom it was secured, under a feigned pretence, by one of 
the Fiench oihicers, and never after seen by Captain Vincent ; 
although he made tlie strongest representations to the Captain 
of the frigate, and insisted that an inquiry should be made 
for its restitution. Redress uas not to be had of people who 



CATTAIN RICHARD BUDD VINCENT. 287 

respected no principles of honour. L'Incoriuptible was so full 
of troops, that Captain Vincent found it extremely difilcult to 
get his wounded people accommodated in a manner at all 
suitable to their situation ; and the whole of the English liad 
many inconveniences to submit to, particularly a Lady, >\ itli her 
infant and female attendant, to whose solicitations Captain Vin- 
cent had yielded, to allow them a passage from Malta to 
England, in tiie Arrow. — When the Arrow's people were put 
under the hatches, upon their getting on board tiie French fri- 
gate^ a circumstance occurred v\hich is so truly characteristic of 
a British sailor, as to deserve being recorded. Tlie French 
officer, who was employed in seeing them secured, spoke 
English ; which acquisition he made use of in uttering the most 
opp- obrious terms in abuse of our countrymen : and amou"^st 
other things swore, that the French would sweep the seas of 
Jhe English. '"' Not so fast now" said a brave fellow who had 
acted as Cook in the Arrow, "for by St. Patrick^ you have 
not yet got the Broom." 

Captam Vincent could never obtain any information of the 
loss which the French received in the action, but many 
circumstances concurred to convii»ce him it v.as very oieat. 
Their dead were thrown overboard before he entered ihe fri- 
gate ; and he never could obtain any account of the woundtd. 
He also remarked the great care of the French in concealin<» 
the injury their ships had received ; and observed that manv a 
shot hole was attempted to be concealed, by hanging a lantern, 
or some other such thing, over it. The French took the 
Dutchess of Rutland and another vessel of the convoy, which 
they destroyed, after having taken out the people : the former 
ship did not seem to avail herself of the opportunity afforded of 
escaping ; and in addition to the neglect which the Master of 
her paid to the signals of the Arrow during the engagement, 
Captain Vincent had to complain of his unpardonable omission 
in not destroying the Convoy Signal Book, ^^hich the French 
got into tljeir hands ; and a few days after made use of it, in 
order to decoy a sail that appeared in sigiit, but which luckily 
proA ed a neutral. 



288 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR. OF 

When we contemplate the disproportion of the force ; the 
Arrow mounting only 28 guns, with 132 men, and the Acheron, 
8 guns only, and 65 men, opposed to the great superiority of 
that of the enemy, and who had on board, together, 600 troops of 
the line, with musketry : when we consider the almost impossi- 
bility of escaping certain destruction, superseded by the deter- 
mined perseverance of protecting the convoy, we cannot too 
much admire the gallantry shown in this action, and the 
obstinate resistance, and intrepid defence made by the respective 
Commanders ; and it is with pleasure we observe, that the 
object they had in view, they had the satisfaction of securing : 
the convoy having, during the action, gained such distance, as to 
insure the safety of the greatest part of them. 

L'Incorruptible French frigate, having on board the officers, 
crew, and passengers of the Arrow, anchored in the road of Car- 
thagena*^, February 8. She was immediately put under quarantine, 
inconsequence of containing people from Malta. In the evening 
the other French frigate was seen in the offing from the mast 
head. The next day it was discovered, that the French had 
thrown overboard one of the wounded English, who had died in 
the passage, without taking any notice. This day the Captain's 
Steward died, who was veiy badly wounded by the same shot 
that killed the Captain's Clerk. — ^The ship now refitting, and 
being excessively crowded, the being detained on board was 
much dreaded by the English, as the weather was very hot. On 
the JOtli, however, the seamen were sent on shore, to a folt on 
a mountain ; and the wounded and sick were conveyed to the 
hospital, whom Captain Vincent had the consolation of hearing 
were well attended. 

Tuesday, February 1 1, Captain Vincent, with his officers. Sec, 
were disembarked. He found the house allotted for them 
.situated on the Line wall, but so very small, that he applied to 
Mons. Dougot, the French Commissary, to procure another, 
and fixed uj)on one in the Muralia; where he assembled his 

* See also a letter in Naval Chkomcle, from an officer on board His 
Slajesty's ship Arrow, dated Carlbagcna, Feb. 26, loOo. (Vol. XIII, 
page iiai.) 



CAPTAlX KICKARD BUDD >IJiCEXT. 289 

officers^ and arranged the distribution of apartments for the 
whole number, being 19, including two ladies, Mrs. ISIiller and 
Mrs. Green. He here received a visit from the ofTicer of a 
Portuguese brig of war, King in tlie roads, who made many 
professions of kindness. A frigate was discovered in the ofHng, 
which he knew to be English, and supposed her to bo the 
Phcebe. The next day Captain Vincent accompanied the 
French Commissary to the Governor's, (who rose to his present 
station from an inferior office, in consequence of the fever,) antt 
returned him his best thanks for tlie attention paid to the 
wounded ; and assured the Governor, he w ould consider himself 
answerable for the good conduct of the prisoners of war 
admitted to parole, with ptrmission to walk in d-e precincts of 
the city; and would attend to the behaviour of the seamen and 
marines, who were removed from the fort to a prison at one of 
the city gates. He afterwards visited the prison and hospital, 
and found tlie w'ounded doing well. On his return, he received 
a visit from the Captain, and some cfficers of I'lncorruptible. 

Thursday, 14th, he heard tliere were two frigates in the otSng, 
supposed to be English. We got the rooms white-washed ; they 
being much troubled with muskitoes and other predatory insects. 
The 15th, the Boatswain died in the hospital of the wounds 
he had received. Captain Vincent now got money for some bills, 
and supplied his officers. The 18th, the second Lieutenant of 
I'lncorruptible paid a visit to the party, and took leave, as the 
frigate was to sail in the evening. The 19di, I'lncorruptible Mas 
still in the harbour, as it was said that an English frigate v a.'J in 
th^e offing. The house the English inhabited (for which .'ley 
paid twelve hard dollars a month) was pleasantly situated on the 
jSIuralia, commanding a view of the harbour, and part of the 
arsenal. W ithhi a few yards of it a superb edifice was building, 
called the Admiralia, intended as an academy for naval and 
military cadets. It was projected many years ago, but occa- 
sional want of money had impeded its advancement. It fronted 
the harbour's mouth, and is a conspicuous object at sea. 

Cartbagena exhibited a very dull appearance for a large city ; 



■^90 BlOGP-AFKiCAr, MEMOIR 01' 

but the contagious fever had reduced the inhabitants to ahuost 
a third of their number,, iiaving carried off twenty-five thousand 
persons in that part of Spain. There v.as a theatre, where 
comedies had been performed, but the performers were all 
dead ; also an amphitheatre for bull-fights, in a very ruinous 
condition. In consequence of the mortality that had lately 
taken place, no sort of diversion was allowed. The 20thj Cap- 
tain Vincent got his Gunner, and Carpenter, with the Masters of 
the two captured merchantmen of his convoy, released from 
prison on their parole. A Spanish Commissary mustered the 
officers and people, and gave them hopes of being speedily sent 
to Gibraltar. The next day the men in the prison got per- 
mission to walk, a few at a time, in the town to purchase 
necessaries. L'Incorruptible had not yet sailed, but it was said, 
that in order to avoid English cruisers, she was to sail in the 
ni^rht. Several of her crew had deserted. She was, however, 
still at anchor in the harbour's mouth the following morning. 
And on the 23d was still fast, with the intention of escaping when 
tlie coast was clear. Captain Vincent had asked Mons. Billiet 
a few days before, why he did not go out and fight the English 
frigate which appeared in the offing ? he replied, he was not 
ready. His present caution showed his intention of slipping off 
unperceivcd, if possible ; and it was reported that an officer from 
her Mas continually on the look out upon a neighbouring moun- 
tain. She however sailed early the next morning. 

The 24th, being Sunday, the 1-^nglish party walked on the 
Almcria, which is a Mall about a mile long, extending from 
the Madrid Gate, with trees on each side : a great deal 
of company w'as assembled there. There were some handsome 
Spanish ladies present, having fine complexions, black eyes, and 
arc/lied eyebrows, but not well made ; being short, and having 
thick ankles ; which were shown by the shortness of their dress-. 
They liave a peculiar gait, and walk very bad, with a shuffling pace. 
The 26th, a man of \\ ar appeared in tlie offing, which proved 
to be a Portuguese line of battle ship, intending to convoy the 
brijT down the Straits, to protect her from the Algerine cruisers. 
The ComuiHuder of the latter visited Captain \'incenlj and 



CAPTAIN IllClIARD DUDD YINriNT. 201 

offered to take letters to Gibraltar aiul Lisbon^ which was an 
offer very thauklully received. The second day aflerward:-;, he 
sent word that he vould certainly see Captain Vincent before 
he sailed,, to take his contidential letters ; having previously cau- 
tioned hiin not to send letters by land;, as he su.spectcd ihey 
would be opened. The 28i.h, money was procLired lor bills on 
England from M. Douget, who \\as very strenuous to assist the 
Knglish. It was reported in the morning that ^n English mau 
of war was otf the port. 

Friday, March 1st;, the Portuguese brig sailed to the west- 
ward. Captain Guiilard disappointed Captain Vincent in nut 
calling for his dispatches and letters ; which, however, he was 
convinced did not proceed from want of inclination, but from 
the jealousy of the Spaniards, who did not like his visiting the 
Knglish. It was this day reported, that the widow of the late 
English Consul, Mr. Price, at this place, who died of llie i'cvcr, 
was arrived in the city from the country, with her daughter, but the 
Spaniards were so jealous of any communication, that she did 
not dare to visit the ladies. It was reported on the 4th, that some 
fresh cases of fever had occurred in the town, llie party was 
now become very anxious for an exchange, and looked forward 
with eagerness to the arrival of the courier every Tuesday and 
Saturday, from Madrid ; with the expectation of receiving some 
information of their removal : but all hopes liad hitherto been 
disappointed. On the 7th, Captain Vincent heard that a great 
many of his convoy had effected their escape ; atid tlutt the 
Acheron's crew had been exchanged at (Jibraltar. Ilie next 
day he was informed by the Master of a Swedish vessel just 
arrived, that an English lirje of battle ship was off the place. 
He this day met jSIrs. Price, and her daughter, but did not 
speak to them. 

Tuesday, 12th, the Pratique people fumigated the house of 
the English ; which they were disposed to do in a very careless 
way, had they not been looked after. Tliey generally set f re to 
the ingredients, and walk off, without waiting to see iha 
business completed : and it frequtntly happened thut the inh:i- 
VJlaots, as soon as they had Utt t-hc houie, threw the materiiil*^ 



292 EioGRArmcAL memoir of 

8vo. out of windows. It was now said that the fever had broken 
out at Malaga again ; which was conlirmed a day or two after- 
wards. Tl)e Commissary tohi Captain Vincent that he had the 
Governor's permission to remove the EngUsh into the country, 
should the fever break out again. They were informed on the 
I4th_, that the Toulon fleets consisting of twenty-two sail, were at 
Algeziras, A Spanish Sub-Lieutenant of ihe marine, who spoke 
a little English, paid them a visit. The 15th the English wit- 
nessed the operation of shearing mules and asses, which is pecu- 
liar to Spain : the hair is clipped off as 'close to the hide as 
possible, except in particular parts. A few horses were 
trimmed in tlie same manner. Captain Vincent was informed 
on the l6lh by the Commissary, that no intelligence had arrived 
from Madrid concerning the English, who now began to find a 
difficulty of getting i>i«;ney. Captain Vinceut also became ac- 
quainted v/ith a Genoese gentleman, who, visiting Spain in his 
travels, was detained at Carthagena in consequence of the fever : 
he was a very intelligent man; and was a great acquisition, 
by his society, and by lending books to the party. They had 
also frequent visits from the young Spanish officer, and the 
Chaplain of a German regiment stationed at Carthagena ; 
the sormer of whom took pleasure in giving an account of 
the principal ladies of the place, of whom Donna Dolores 
Pmson, the Town Major's daughter, was considered the greatest 
beauty : this officer was usually dressed in a very rich uniform, 
but was very dirty in his person. The Chaplain was often 
accomjianied by a Gorman officer^ Avho seemed very much 
dissatislif d under the Spanish government, being badly paid. The 
regiment had been taken prisoners by the French in Italy, and 
uiade over to Spain at four dollars a nian, as it was reported. 
Oil the 20th Captain Vincent was informed that one of his men 
had made his escape out of the prison. The '24th, the Genoese 
gentleman took leave, having obtained permission to proceed to 
Cadiz. No news had arrived from Madrid respecting the 
English prisoners on the 26th ; when Captain Vincent was 
advised to send a Memorial to the French Ambassador, General 
Bournonvillc ; which he drevv up, and had signed by all the 



CAPTAIN RICHARD 3UDD TINCEN'T. 293 

officers, 8cc., aiul sent it off. A Spauish General arrived on the 
27th, to take the command of the squadron of men of war 
fitting out at tliis place, which they said was to go to sea soon. 
Oa the 29th two three-decked, and two tsvo-deeked men of 
war were warped out of the arsenal into the road, ^vithout any 
sails bent. At ten o'clock Rear-Admiral Salzeda's flag was 
hoisted on board Reiiie Louize, the largest ship, which tiied a 
falute. And the next day two more were warpetl into the 
road. They appeared to be fine ships, but had very few mea 
on board. The 31st, Captain Vincent sent a request to the 
Governor, to allow his Surgeon, Mr. Shaw, to attejid the 
wounded in the Hospital, who complained of the Spanish treat- 
merit : but it was not granted. 

April 1st, Captain Vincent was informed by the Commissary, 
that the Governor had received directions to send the English 
on parole six miles into the country ; a;id on the :jd, he was 
acquainted that they would be moved on the morrow. He was 
that day informed that several of the seamen had escaped some 
nights ago, of whom one had been taken. The 4th, six caliscs an4 
six carts were appointed to convey the English and their baggage 
to Poso Estrecho, a village about seven miles off. They were 
attended by the French and Spanish Commissaries, and a Cap- 
tain's guard of the German regiment. Captain Vincent went 
forward with Signior Bourbon, to see the houses, and arrange 
the distribution of the party. Though situated in a delightful 
and extensive plain, it vv'as a most miserable place, and the 
houses allotted for the English were mere 1, a^, in a wretched 
condition, and hardly fit for stables, neither wind nor weather 
tight. After seeing the houses, he fixed on the best of those 
shown him in the village, for the w arrant and petty officers ; and 
another about half a mile from it, for himself, the ladies, and 
superior officers ; this had been a farm house, but was then in a 
state of dilapidation. He immediately wrute to the Governor 
of Carthagena, representing the very bad accommodations, and 
expressing strongly his displeasure at being treated with such 
inattention. He invited the olHcer of tiie guard to dinner, who 
was to remain in the village with his party, to protect the 



^4 BIOCRAPniCAL MEMOIR or 

JEnglish from the country people, who bore a very bad charac-^ 
i«*r. The six sail of the hne were moored in the road, opposite 
the residence of the English, the day before their removal; 
which step was taken to prevent their observing the progress of 
the equipment. It was reported that the w ant of me© was to 
be siipplied from Catalonia. 

On the Cith, the Masters of t\yo Danish vessels paid a visit to 
the inferior officers, and informed them Lord Nelson was off 
Cape Palos. Captain Vincent and his companions had now 
become very anxious to hear something of the result of their 
nieraorial, and looked forward with impatience to the arrival of 
every courier from Madrid ; but as yet nothing had transpired. 
On the 7th, letters were received from Mr. Vaughan, expressing 
his assurances of promoting their exchange. They were met 
in their afternoon walk by a party of Spanish ladies and gentle- 
men going to make a festa, and were invited to join the com- 
pany ; which they did, and accompanied them to a farm-housq, 
near which they all sat down upon the grass ; and then the re- 
freshments Avere produced, consisting of pasties of various kinds, 
sausages, cheese, bread, honey-comb, oranges, and wine. The 
party was very merry, and the pic-nic scramble, which was 
called supper, though it was only 6 o'clock, w as soon consumed, 
without knives, forks, plates, spoons, or dishes. There w^as of 
course a priest in the party, but his presence was no restraint 
to the general hilarity. The Spanish ladies were very civil, and 
in good spirits ; they most curiously examined, and greatly ad- 
mired the dress of th^ English lady who as as present ; which 
bore a great contrast to the sombre appearance of their black 
muntella. llie English met with much civility from the coun- 
try gentry, by whom they were invited to their gardens, and. 
vi.sitt'd; and frequently joined their fcstas : these little parties 
were formed only on a Sunday. But at Cai thagcna no notice, 
'Aas taken of them by the inhabitants. 

On the 1 1th, Captain Vincent heard tha,t tha French Toulon 
fieet had passed Carthagena on Sunday last to the westward, 
con^stJng of eleven sail of the line, six frigates, two corvettes, 
and four brig<?. He desired Signior Bourbon to wait upon the 



CAPTAIN RICHARD BUDl) VIKCtNT. 29S 

(jrovernor in his name, and represent the bad state in which the 
English were accommodated. On the l'2tii a dispute took place 
in the village between some of the English and some peasants, 
in which the latter drew their knives ; but the guard being sent 
for, one of the Spaniards was taken into custody, and carried 
before the Alguazil. It arose from an imposition the peasant? 
wished to practise, in the sale of a sheep. In the evening the 
officer of the guard waited upon Captain Vincent, to know 
w hat kind of satisfaction he wished to have ; who desired him to 
inform the Alguazil, and to explain to the culprit and villagers, 
that if they menaced or molested the English, they would be 
ready to defend themselves ; but if the villagers kept themselves 
quiet, they would give them no annoyance ; and he requested 
the prisoner might be released. In this affair the Spaniards 
showed themselves to be dastardly cowards : their intention 
was to overreach the English, whom they knew to hayc 
money ; in the circulation of which they derived every 
advantage. 

Ou the 1 3th, Captain Vincent was informed that an English 
squadron, of eight sail of the line, with several frigates, was oti 
the port ; supposed to be in search of the French fleet. He 
this day received a letter from Siguier Guillard, Captain of the 
Portuguese brig formerly mentioned, Nvlio acquainted him witli 
having forv\arded the letters entrusted to him, from Lisbon; but 
he did not name the reason of his not having called for the dis- 
patches; which he was, doubtlessly, prevented doing. The 14th. 
being Sunday, the two Commissaries came from Carthagena to 
dine with the English, but brought no intelligence of their 
exchange. They informed them that the English squadron seen 
oft* the port, consisted of only hve sail of men of war. After 
dinner they were visited by several Spanish ladies and gentle- 
men, and joined them to a festa. On the iSih, CaptMiu Vin- 
cent drew up a Memorial to the Prince of the P«;ace, and got it 
signed by all the ofticers ; intending to send it next day to the 
Governor of Carthagena, by whom he had been recommended to 
ilraw it up. The object of it was, to get the Minister to inter- 
cede with the French Ambassador j(?r a release on parole of the 



296 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOI& OP 

English. It rained vei y hard this night, by which the party ">TaS 
almost dro\vned_, as no part of the house was properly covered;^ 
and there was not a pane of glass in the windows. 

On the 20th, the Captain w as gratified with receiving a letter 
from M. Douget, to acquaint him that he had orders to permit 
the English to embark for Gibraltar. This news afforded the 
most sincere pleasure to the whole party. In the night there 
was a storm of thunder, lightning, an«l rain, which again 
drenched the inhabitants of the crazy hovel. On the 21st Cap- 
tain Vincent received a copy of General Bournonville's letter, 
permitting the departure of the English; also letters from Mr. 
Vaughan, at iVIadrid, and Mr. Hunter, at Lisbon. The 2oth, 
he arranged with jNI. Douget the mode of embarkation, having 
taken up and begun to victual a vessel for that purpose ; but 
was informed, that tlie Governor of Carthagena would not per- 
mit this to take place, till he had received orders from his Court 
to that effect. Sunday, the G8th, he heard that the Spanish 
squadron had sailed oii Friday moining from Carthagena to the 
eastward. He was now become very uneasy at their detention ; 
and all the party were the more anxious to depart, as it was 
reported thai the cordon would soon be removed, and they 
would then be proljably marched into the interior of France, 
notwithstanding they had the French Ambassador's leave to 
depart. The 30th, Captain Vincent received letters from Mr. 
Vaughan, at jNIadrid, and Mr. Hunter, at Lisbon ; the former 
acquainting him that he had at last effected an exchange : but 
the Prince of Peace not having given any directions relative to 
the English, he had sent a Memorial to the Governor of Car- 
thagena, requesting him to allow them to depart according to the 
permission of the Ambas -fidor. Capt. Vincent heard this day that 
the Spanish squadron was returned to port ; the two three-deckers 
having received damage by running foul of each other, Friday, 
May 3d, he was informed that the Governor of Carthagena, in 
reply to the ^lemorial, was sorry he could not permit the 
English to remove from Spain, until he had directions to that 
purpose from the Prince of the Peace. Saturday, 4th, Capt. 
\ iucent was mortified on rcceivujg information that the courier had 



CAPTAIN RICHARD EUDD VINCEXT. 297 

brought no orders to the Governor from Madrid respecting 
the Enghsh ; a fortnight having elapspd since they had the French 
Ambassador's permission to go to Gibraltar : They had now 
been prisoners three mouths. Captain Vincent however was 
awakened at midnight by the Commissary's servant, with a 
letter from his Master, enclosing one from Commissioner 
Otway at Gibraltar, sent by a cartel brig, which had arrived 
about four hours before at Carthagena ; which mentioned that 
the cartel was sent by order of the Commander in Chief, Lord 
Nelson, expressly for the English. The Commissary added, 
that the Governor of Carthagena had given his consent th^t the 
English should embark in the cartel, and desired that they should 
be ready to quit the village by the next evening, or Monday 
morning. This intelligence excited the most lively joy in the 
whole party, and the next day the house was in great confusion 
as they were looking for the arrival of the carriages, 8cc. to fetch 
them, with vast impatience. They did not fail to pay their 
respects, and take leave of the Alguazil, and the Spanish ladies, 
from whom ihey had received attention. 

Poso Estrecho is situated in a beautiful plain, extending near 
thirty miles in a northern direction ; and the farm house, occu- 
pied by the English, was built in a pleasant spot. The soil 
appeared fertile ; and had the cultivation been better, the crops 
would have been abundant. The management of estates is left 
to agents, who o})prcss the tenants, and give them little incli- 
nation or means to improve the ordinary system of tillage. 
Wheat and barley are the principal corn, with some patches oi 
beans and lucerne. Tlie barley, which was turning fast in the 
begitining of April, was very thin, and choked with weeds. 
The cattle were fed upon barley and lucerne ; and beans w ere 
generally eaten raw by the })eople, and considered as a dainty 
and wcie often presented to the English as such. The peasants 
were in extreme poverty, and lived in a very miserable manner ; 
they seldom got meat ; and their houses were mere huts. 
The women employ themselves in spinning cotton, weaving 
coarse stuffs, and knitting stocking,'*, whilst the men are at work 

/^at. efjiton. ©oUXVU. « <a 



298 BIOGUAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

in the fields. They seldom wear stockhigs, and sandals made of 
straw supply the place ol" shoes. A white flannel mantella, and 
red, white, and green striped stuff basanio, compose the dress of 
the women. The Spaniards invariably sleep in the middle of 
the da}' ; and the shops are shut at noon for two hours. 
Although it was early in the spring when the English first 
landed, yet they found it very warm ; and towards the end of 
their stay it began to be very oppressive, and the flies be- 
came very troublesome. In the night the dews are heavy 
and pernicious, and the ground always appeared wet in the 
morning. The people are very indolent, and in general proud 
and vindictive. The peasants sometimes amused themselves of 
an evening dancing the fandango and bellaro dances. There 
was a carpenter's shop in the village, and also a blacksmith's, 
but. their work was very coarse, and their implements rude. 
There was also an Apothecary, but his appearance and ignorance 
bespoke the abject s*ate of the medical art in Spain: his 
poverty was so great, that he wotild willingly have sold all the 
furniture in his house for a few dollars. ISIoney was very scarce> 
and the presence of the Englisli put it in circulation in a degree 
they but little experienced before ; for the villagers contrived 
to bring something to sell to them every day» There was a 
cordon of troops about a mile off, to prevent communicatiou 
with the interior. Th.e people collected there to purchase 
provisions, though no conniiunicatlon was allowed with the par- 
ties. It is conuiion in this part of die country to rear silk 
■worms, which are regularly fed ^ith mulberry leaves twice SL 
day, with due attention to guarding them from the sun. The 
consumption of these leaves is very great, which are used fresh 
from the trees. The worms are equally fond of pomegranate 
leaves ; and these trees arc cultivated near th.e farm houses for 
this purpose. 

On the 6th of INIay, iSI. Douget went to the village to ac- 
quaint the English that they were to embark in the cartel sent 
for tliem : but that she w as not permitted to lay at Carthagena, 
and was ordered round to Porto Cambreras, diree leagues to 
the eastward, because tlie Governor would not aiiow them to 



CAPTAIN RICHARD BUDD VINCENT. 299 

enter tlie city. About noon they left their ruinous dwelling 
at Poso Estrecho, being accommodated with callises and carts 
for themselves and their baggage ; and reached Santa Lucia, 
where they were to embark, about six o'clock : but no boats 
were ready to receive them ; and it being six miles over tlie 
mountains to the place where the cartel lay, they were obliged 
to wait further orders. At 7 o'clock the messenger returned, 
bringing orders to press all the fishing boats, in which they 
embarked, and by midiiight all the officers and baggage were on 
board. The next day all the men, except some of the wounded, 
were sent on board. And on the 8th, the wounded from the 
hospital, except two, whom it was dangerous to remove, were 
conveyed on board ; after which they weighed, and made sail, 
Tbe English oflicers were deeply impressed with the great 
attention they experienced from M. Douget, thti French 
Commissary ; who, on their landing, visited them every day to 
learn their wishes; lending them furniture, and negociating their 
bills at his own risk, when they could not get money froin 
others. He also paid great attention to the men in prison, and 
the wounded in the hospital. He appeared much hurt ^hen 
he was directed by the Govcinor to discontinue his visits to 
them, in consequence of the crew of a French privateer 
acquainting the Governor, through jealousy, that his attentions 
were too particular to the English. 

On the 14th the cartel arrived at Gibraltar, and was put 
under quarantine ; and on the 17th received pratique. 

Whilst at Gibraltar, Captain Vincent was shown the following 
Address, which the Masters of the vessels of his convoy, \vh(> 
had escaped to this place, had drawn up and published :— i 

TO THE CAPTAINS VINCENT ANU FAUQUHAK. 

Gibndtur March J 7, IZF'S. 
WE, the undersigned jMasters, ^hich departed from JMalta 
under convoy of His Majesty's sloop Arrow, . Captain Vincent, 
and Acheron bomb, Captain Farquhar, prompted by the truest 
sense of gratitude, ofler them our sincere thanks, for their unre- 
mitting and assiduous care of our ships, during a passage of pcrpetu- 
^ and tremendous gales ; and for their exertion, imLting with their 



300 BIOCUAPIUCAL MEMOm O? 

abilities, ■which constantly liept the Hcct in order, until the un- 
fortunate morning of th« 4th of February, when two heavy 
French frigates attacked the convoy. 

The annals of history never yet produced, m-b conceive, a con- 
test more unequal, shill and activity more exerted, nor magnani- 
mity more displayed, than in that evejut. Captains Vincent and 
Farquhar's manner of attack, and drawing the enemy to leeward of 
the fleet, merit great praise, as the only possible means of saving us. 
The well directed fire from both the Arrow and Acheron must 
have done considerable execution to the enemy ; whose superior 
force, after a long and severe battle, compelled Captains Vincent 
and Farquhar to yield a victory, by the enemy as dearly bought, 
as by them unwillingly resigned. An engagement thus com- 
menced, and supported for the honour of our country, for the 
protection and interest of its commerce, cannot fail to merit 
enthusiastic admiration from their fellow subjects, and become a 
memorial of their bravery, enrolling their names in the list of 
Bkitish IIf.uoEj. 

Captain Vincent and his officers embarked in the Camel 
store-ship for England, on the 2Sth of May, and arrived at St. 
Helen's on the 4th of June, 1805. 

On the 17th of June a Court Martial assembled on board 
His Majesty's ship Gladiator, in Portsmouth harbour. Captain 
Oakes Hardy, President ; for the purpose of trying Captain Vin- 
cent, bis officers, and ship's cCmpany, for the loss of His Majes- 
ty's sloop Arrow; arid after a minute inquiry into all the circum- 
stances previous to, and during the action, and an impartial 
hearing of t!ie evidence of the officers and men, the follonin"- 
Sentence was read : — ■ 

At a Court M.-^rtial assembled on board His Majesty's 

siiip Gladiator, in Portsmouth harbour, on the 17th 

of June, 1805. Present, 

JoHS- Oakes Hardy, Esq., Captain of His Majesty's ship Zea- 

lous, 2d officer in the command of His Majesty's ships ami 

vesc-els at Portsmouth and Spitbead, President. 

Captain G. Kopr. 1 Captain Ed. Codrington. 



N. D.' Oliver. 
J. Stilks. 
R. Hacl. 

F. S.J.MEUVII.I.E. 



J. Irvi.v. 
A. Drlmmonu. 
U. Hill. 
J. Dick. 



J. Wai-nwiught. C. \V, TayloRo 



CAPTAIN RICHARD BUDD VISCENt. 301 

Pursuant to an order from the Right Honourable Lords Com. 
taissioncrs of the Admiralty, dated the 16th June inst., and di- 
rected to the President, setting forth that Captain Sir R. Strachan, 
Commander of His Majesty's ship Renown, had transmitted to 
their Lordships a letter, dated Carthagcna, 26th February last, 
which he had received from Captain R. 13. Vincent, Commander of 
His Majesty's sloop Arrow ; accjuainting him with the capture of 
the said sloop on the •^Ith of the said month, off Cape Caxine, by 
I'Hortense and I'lncorruptible, French frigates, after an action of 
one hour and twenty minutes. And that their Lordships thought 
fit that Captain Vincent, his officers and ship's company, should be 
tried by a Court Martial for the loss of the said sloop Arrow, and 
for their conduct on that occasion ; the Court proceeded to try the 
said Captain R. B. Vincent, his officers and ship's company, for 
their coiiduct respecting the capture of His Majesty's said sloop 
Arrow : and having heard the evidence produced, and completed the 
inquiry ; and having maturely and deliberately weighed and con- 
sidered the whole, the Court is of opinion, that the loss of His 
Majesty's sl«op Arrow was occasioned by her falling in with a \CTy 
superior force of the enemy, as before mentioned ; and being under 
the necessity of surrendering her, after a brave, determined, 
and well-fought action of nearly an hour and a half, soon after 
■which she sunk from the injuries she received ia the action. And 
that the conduct of Captain R. B. Vincent, his officers and ship's 
company, as well as of the passengers, was highly meritorious and 
praise-worthy during the action ; and particularly that of Captain 
Vincent, by the judicious arrangements he made for the preserva- 
tion of the convoy under his charge, both previous to, and during 
the action ; by Avhich nearly the Avhole of them were prevented 
from ftilling into the hands of a superior force : and doth adjudge 
them to be most honourably acquitted ; and the said Captain 
R. B. Vincent, his officers and ship's company, are hereby 
jnost honourably acquitted accordingly. 

Signed by all the Members. 

After delivering this Sentence, the President, on returning the 
sword to Captain Vincent, expressed his sentiments in terms as 
grateful to the feelings, as they were honourable to the charac- 
ttu- of the gallant Captain : and the second day after his trial, he 
JKad an official notice of his having been promoted to the rank 
of Post Captain, 



302' BIOGfRA?HICAt, MEMOTR OF 

He also received directions from the Committee for managing 
the Patriotic Fund, to furnish them with particulars of the late 
action, and a li.-t of the killed and wounded; and on the 3d of 
July the following resolutions were communicated to him : — 

RESOLVDB, 

That a sword, of the value of 100/., and a piece of plate of the 
value of 100/., with an appropriate inscription, or that sura in 
money, at his option, be prescnttd to Captain R. B. Vincent, 
acting as Commodore on the occasion, for so nobly supporting the 
honour of the British flag, and successfully protecting the convoy 
under his care. I'hat the following sums be given to the oihcers 
and men wounded , . 

Here followeol a list of sums apportioned to the different injuries 
whicii the wounded had sustained, to the amount of 545/. 

The following letter was also transmitted to John Turnbullj, 
Esq., Chairman of the Merchants trading to the South of 
Europe : — 

SIR, Lloyd's, July 3, 1805. 

The very gallant conduct of Captains Vincent and Farquhar, 
and the officers and crews of His Majesty's sloop Arrow, and bomb 
Acheron, entitles them tc^every possible testimony of gratitude from 
their countrymen at large ; but more particularly from the Mer- 
chanls and Underwriters interested in the convoy under their care; 
which was so nobly and successfully protected, by the unequal 
conflict they maintained with the French friga,tes i'Hoxtense and 
I'Incorruptible, of 44 guns each. 

The Committee of the Patriotic Fund have voted honorary 
rewards to the commanding officers ; given donations to, the 
wounded, and made provision for the families of those who fell in 
thus supporting the honour of the l^ritish flag. But the rules of 
that InsUiution extend no farther ; and it is a tril)ute still due ta 
those brave men who have lost thiir own property in so resolutely 
defending that of others ; to provide, that on their return from 
imprisonment, they should at least be furnished with necessaries t©. 
equip them for His ^Majesfy's service. 

Vs''n\\ this view we address ourselves to you, Sir, as Chairman o,t 
the Merchants trading to the Mediterranean, that you may 
recommend the subject to their consideration. Wf shall be happy 



CAPTAIN RiCH.iHD BUDD V1.\'CENT. 303 

to learn that it nieefs their concurrence, and to join tliem In such 
ineasures as shall appear best calculated to carry it into efl'ect. 
We have the honour to be, &c. 

J. ANGEllSTELV, 
R. SHEDDOiV, 
J. MARllYAT. 

August 126th, 1805, the following communication waS 
made : — 

jNIr. Turubull presents his compliments to Captain Vincent, and 
has the pleasure to enclose him a statement of the proportioned 
donations Avhich the Committee have been enabled to raise, in 
ordei to replace the loss of the clothes and necessaries which the 
officers and crew of iiis INlajesty's sloop Arrow may have sus- 
tained in consequence of their gallant action in the Mediterranean. 
The amount in all being 477/. lO.v., Captain Vincent will be 
pleased to draw for it, at ten days' sight, on Joseph Marriot, Esq., 
and distribute it according to the list herewith. Exactly the same 
donations have been made to the officers and crew of the Acheron. 
And it gives Mr. Turubull much pleasure to have had the oppor- 
tunity on this occasion of contributing to establish a j)reoedent, for 
iudemnifying those brave racn, who may have lust their little pro- 
perty in tlie service of their country. 

The sums were thus proportioned : — to Captain Vincent, 50/. ; 
to the Lieutenants, Master, and Captain of marines, a passenger, 
20/. each: to the Surgeon, Purser, Carpenter, Gunner, Master's 
Mate, 10/. each ; to the Midshipmen, Surgeon's Mate, and Tetfy 
OlUcers, 51. each ; to the Seamen, 2/. 10a» each* 

Since Captalti Vincent's return, he v.'as employed in the 
Brilliant frigate, on the Irish station; but is at pref;ent on 
half pay : we have no doubt, that when he has again an oppor- 
tunity, he will manifest the same intrepidity which has so 
honourably distinguished his professional character. 

The information which we have received fi oni the officers of 
the Arrow, enables us to subjoin the foUowiijg very honourable 
testimony to Captain Vincent's professional character : — Captain 
Vincent is a most pleasant, mild, gentleman-like Commandcrji 
yet at the same time a strict officer ; one of the bust and abkst 



304 NAVAL ANECDOtES^ 

in the British Navy. It is needless to mention his courage ; 
that has ah-eady spoken for itself. 



*^* Two beautiful drawings of the gallant action which the 
Arrow sustained, hav-e been made by N. PococK, Esq., from 
sketches furnished by her gallant second Lieutenant, Mr. E. Elers; 
for W. Tennantj Esq. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 



COMMERCL\L HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 

NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 



CAPTURE OF LE LYNX. 

nr^HE following interesting detail of the extraordinary capture 
of the enemy's brig le Lynx, is taken from a copy of Lieu- 
tenant Coombe's log, of the proceedings of the boats of His 
Majesty*s frigate Galatea, from their first setting out, till their 
arrival with the prize at Antigua : — 

Wcdncsdin/, Jan. 21, 1807, iwo P.M. 
In pursuance of orders from George Sayer, Esq., Captain o^ 
His Majesty's ship Galatea, I put olf from the ship with the 
following boats manned and armed, under my command, and in 
the following order, each boat taking the other in tow : Short 
gig, long ditto. Green (Master's Mate); green cutter. Lieute- 
nant Gibson ; pinnace, Lieutenant Walker : barge, Lieutenant 
Coombe ; and launch, Mr. Sarsfield, Master's Mate. In this 
order proceeded to chase a suspicious brig to the eastward of Cape 
Codera, the Cape bearing from us about S.E., 3 or 4 leagues. 
At three, finding the boats gained very little on the chase, ordered 
them to separate, to make the best of their way, but no boat to 
row a-head of the barge : at six, the chase E.S.E. about four 
leagues; ordered Mr. Green in the long gig to reconnoitre, by 
all means to ke->'p sight of the brig, and, on the event of its coming 
dark, to hoist a light ; 8. 30. within musket shot of the chase ; 
lay to on our oars, in order to arm, and give the stcrnmost boats 
time to come up. The long gig joined with the following intelli- 
gence :— Every appearance of an armed enemy's brig, under all 
■sail, and her sweeps out. 8, 40. the sternmost boats having eoms 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 305 

tjp, ordered thorn to arm, and prepare for boarding in two lines. 
Lee line — the barf:;e to lead the van ; pinnace. Lieutenant Walker; 
and long gig, Mr. Green, to board on the s<^arboard quarter, 
steering in close between the sweeps and brig's sid<>. Weather 
line — green cutter. Lieutenant Gibson ; Liuncli, Mr Sarsfield 
(short gig separated) ; pass-word, Sayer, Death or Victory ; and 
to board on the larboard quarter. 8. 50. being within pistol shot, 
hailed twice ; received no answer, but heard her crew jabbering 
French ; gave her three cheers, and at 8. 55. alongside, received 
the fire of several carronades, and a shower of musketry. Made 
two attempts to board, but vrere repulsed, myself wounded by a 
musket ball passing through the muscular part of my left thigh ia 
the first attack. Being determined to take the brig or die in the 
attempt, made a third attack ; the brave Walker fell in the moment 
of victory. We gained the deck, when, after a most malicious 
fight, in about five minutes the French were all driven oH' the 
deck. Thus was captured in 15 minutes, after a chase of forty 
miles in open boats, the Imperial brig le Lynx, of 14 thirty-two 
pounder carronades, English calibre, and 161 men, from Marti- 
nique, bound to la Guira, with dispatches. — Found the Captaia 
wounded; second ditto, M'ounded; late Captain of the Buona- 
parte killed, with others of the officers killed and wounded. 
Having secured some private signals, and the magazine, proceeded 
to get the wounded off the d-eck, the dead hove overboard, and to 
haul down the studding sails ; got in the sweeps, and veered the 
boats astern ; a light breeze springing up from the S. W., stood to 
the northward, in hopes of falling in Mith the ship ; hoisted two 
lights vertical at the mast head, and fired several blue lights to 
show where we were ; at twelve, standing to the northward, ship 
not in sight ; short gig joined a few minutes after the action.— 
A.M. January 22d, light breezes from the S.W., still standing to 
the northward ; at two, ship in sight, bearing N.N.W'. Showed 
three blue lights, two vertical at the mast head, one on the sprit- 
sail-yard ; at three, sent Lieutenant Gibson in the green cutter, 
with private signals, and intelligence of our having captured the 
brig; at five, joined company with the Galatea. 

REMARKABLE ESCAPE FROM DROWNING. 

THE following extraordinary instance of preservation 
occurred on the coast of India^ in the month of October, 
1S04:— 

A. seaman, belonging to His Majesty's ship CaroliaCj was in the 



306 NAVAt ANECDOTES, 

main-chains, endeavouring to set up one of the back-stay?, v,hen 
a tremendous sea washed him clean ororboard! The ship was 
then going between nine and ten knots nearly before the w ind, and 
before she could be hove to, he was not less than three quarters of 
a mile astern. 

He was distinctly seen, however, froui the mizen-top on the 
rise of every sea, swimming very high out of the water, and 
seemingly with great strength. Four men and two officers jumped 
into the jolly boat, which -was Io»vered down from the stern, at the 
imminent risk of all their lives, and tliey succeedad in unhooking 
the tackles, and getting clear from the ship without accident. 
An officer from the mizen-top directed their route, by pointing 
with a spy-glass towards the man in the water, and in about half 
an hour they succeeded in finding him! He was swimming with 
the utmost composure, his face still directed to the ship, which he 
said he could plainly see from the summit of every wave; and 
knowing by the sails that she w'as hove to, he had no doubt but 
that the boat was coming to pick him up. Tlie greatest diihculty, 
how'ever, still remained, and tliat was the getting on board ; the 
ship was plunging and rolling in such a manner, that it was very 
dangerous to approach her : at length, during a momentary lull, 
they attempted to hook the tackles, but unfortunately only suc- 
ceeded with one of them, the consequence of which was, that the 
ship in plunging forward dragged the jolly boat clean out of the 
water, with her stern uppermost ; of course the men and oars were 
all thrown out of her into the sea. 

Their situation at this moment was truly alarming; no boat 
could be got off the booms in time, as they had all been firmly 
lashed during the gale. The tackle being instantly cut that hung 
the boat, she luckily fell on her bottom, but was as quickly 
swamped by a sea that rolled into her. The officers and men, 
however, who were floating about, made shift to get to the boat, 
which, though full of water, was still sufficient to keep them from 
sinking; and it was something remarkable, that the seaman who 
had been so long overboard, was the Jirxi who regained the boat 
this time ! 

By giving the ship stern way, she got so close to them as to be 
enabled to heave them ropes, by which means they got under the 
lee quarter and were all saved. 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, 

A Mr. Newman, of Dartmouth, has recently obtained a patent 
for an improvement in the form and construction of ships aud 



COMMF.RCIAL HINT?, KECOLLECTIOXS, &C. 307 

Tessels of war, Sec. This improvenient consists in, and extends to^ 
the following matters : — first, an apparatus or helm, containing 
two rudders, formed and worked in the direction of the sides, in 
lieu of one placed in the centre line of the vessel, by which bodies 
of the gn at st capacity may be governed, guided, or steered, wore 
and stayed witu greater certainty, ease, and safety : secondly, in 
a concave or hollow form of side and bottom, that will make 
vessels of a light draught of water keep a better wind, carry more 
saiL and roll less : thirdly, in an inverted reduction of capacity 
to.- rd ihe stern, commonly called (he run, by which the resistance 
is k!-;sened, without the siabiiity or power ol' carrying sail being 
diminished by external destruction. 

The Patontee has exhibited in dravvings, attached to his speci- 
fication, the ordinary rudder in its usual situation, where it 
recjuirc^ a magnitude that renders it both incommodious and dan- 
gerous, and even inadequate to its purpose ; and also one which, 
if di.it-rently placed, might be reduced to one half, or even one 
fourtli part of its prestiit dimensions, with increased eilect, its 
power being not on!) greater by projecting into more active water, 
and meeting the current in its undirected course, but also increased 
by its relative distauce from the centre line of the vessel's 
progress. 

The manner of Avorking a helm of this description must depend 
on the natur-.-, size, and service of the vessel. It may act outwards 
or either way, be without or enclosed within the stern and side, 
above or below the deck, and moved by one wheel, winch, or 
othe;- engine, placed amid-ships, or elsewhere, and connected by 
chains or ropes, in the ordinary way, with a short iron lever pro- 
jecting from each rudder, the length of which need not exi ced the 
sixth part of the tiller required for the common rudder. " In this 
manner," says Mr. N., " I found by an experiment tried on a 
temporary fotra, of not less than one hundred and fifty tons bur- 
then, constructed by me for the purpose about four years since, 
that a single man or boy could not only steer with the greatest 
case, but manage at- (he same time the largest sail of the vessel in 
an open and rough sea." In one of the figures attached to the 
specification, is a representation of the traverse section of a vessel, 
whose sides and bottom arc an inversion of the ordinary form, 
curving outwards, and extending down to a level with the under 
part of her keel, opposing by their extent and shape the greatest 
resistance to a lee course, with less tendency to roll or upset, and 
presenting at the same time a stronger surface to the pressure of 



308 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

tiie cargo or weight within the ship. Resistance to lee way may 
aiso, we are told, be increased, by ribbing or iadenting the coat of 
the sides, Avith projecting or binding planks, that obstruct in a 
side direction only, while they strengthen the vessel and protect 
the caulking. 

THE SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS. 

BEFORE the breaking out of the Civil War, King Charles 
the 1st built a ship called the Sovereign of the Seas; the 
following description of which is taken from a publication of 
that time, by Thomas Hey wood, addressed to the King : — • 

This famous vessel was built at Woohrich in 1637. — She was 
in length by the keel 128 feet, or thereabout, within some few- 
inches ; her main breadth 48 feet; in length, from the fore-end of 
the beak-head to the after-end of the stern, a prora ad piippim, 
232 feet; and in height, from the bottom of her keel to the top 
of her lanthorn, 76 feet : bore iive lanthorns, the biggest of which 
•would liold ien persons upright; had three flush decks, a fore- 
castle, half-deck, quarter-deck, and round-house, — Her lower tier 
had 30 ports for cannon and demi-cannon ; middle tier, 30 for 
culverines, and demi ditto; third tier, 20 for other ordnance; 
forecastle, 12; and two half-decks having 13 or 14 ports more 
within-boai-d, for murdering pieces, besides ten pieces of chase 
ordnance forward, and ten right aft, and many loop-holes in the 
cabins for musket-shot. — She had eleven anchors, one of 44CO 
pounds weight. She was of the burthen of 16S7 tons. She was 
built by Peter Pett, Esq., under the direction of his father, Cap- 
tain Phineas Pett, one of the principal officers of the Navy. She 
hath two gallics besides, and all of most curious carved work, and 
ail the sides of the ship carved with trophies of artillery, and typos 
«f honour, as well belonging to sea and land, with symbols apper- 
taining to navigation ; also their two sacred Majesties' badges of 
honour ; arms Avith several aiigels holding their letters in compart- 
ments, all which works are gilded over, and no other colour but 
gold and black. — One tree, or oak, made four of the principal 
beams, wliich was 44 feet, of strong serviceable timber, in length, 
3 feet in diameter at the top, and 10 feet at the stub or bottom. 

Upon the stern-head a Cupid, or child bridling a lion ; upon the 
bulk-head, right forward, stand six statues, in sundry postures; 
these figures represent Concilium, Cura, Conamen, Vis, Virtus, 
Victoria. — Upon the haraers of the water are four figures, Jupiter, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOL J.ECTlOKSj &A 509 

Mars, Neptune, and Eolus ; on the stern, Victory, in the midst of 
\a frontispiece ; upon the beak-heai sitteth King Edgar, on horse- 
back, trampling on seven Kings, 

The Sovereign of the Seas was the largest ship that ha(3 ever 
been buih in England^ and is said to have been designed only 
for splendour and magnjticence ; but, being taken down a deck 
lower, she became, according to report, one of the best men of 
war in the w orld. She was in almost all the great engagements 
that were fought between England and Holland. She was re- 
built in the year 1684, and called the Royal Sovereign; and, 
on the 27th of January, 1696^ being iaid up at Chatham, in 
prder to be re-built a second time, she accidentally tookfuc, and 
was totally consumed. 

FEMALE TOM BOWLING. 

AT the Public Office, Queen Square, an old woman, generally 
known by the name of Tom Bowling, was lately brought before 
the Magistrate, foi sleeping all night in the street ; and was com- 
mitted as a rogue and vagabond, and passed to her parish. She 
served as Boatswain's Mate on board a man of war for upwards of 
20 years, and lias a pension from Chatham Chest. When waked 
fit midnight by the watchman in the street, covered with snow, 
she cried, " Where the devil zcould yon have me sleep ?" She has 
generally slept in this way, and dresses like a man ; and is so 
tardy at a very advanced age, that she nevcy catches coI(^. 



PLATE CCXXIX. 

nnlllS View of the Faro di Messina is from tJie accurate pencil 
•'*■ of Mr. PoGOck, and represents Lord Nelson's fleet, with a 
correct portrait of his ilag-ship, standing through that celebrated 
Strait. 

This passage, which is so named from the Faro, or Light-house 
on Cape Faro, and its vicinity to Messina, is remarkal-Io for 
baving the tide ebb and How every six hours with great rapidity, 
though it is but seven miles over. 

The Greeks always called it Messcne; the Romans Messana, to 
distinguish it from Messcne of Peloponnesus : and yet the Sicilian 
pains bear Messanieis, or Mess^ncnses for the people ; an4 



^10 TIXXT. CCXXIX. 

Damagetus, in a Greek Epigram, calls the city Messana. — It was 
in a still earlier period called Zancle, from King Zauclus ; or from 
the Sicilian term Zancloii, denoting a sickle, alluding to the curve 
of the coast. The Strait was also called Frctuni Sicahun, and \vas 
imagined, by both Pliny and Or id, to have been formed b\' an 
earthquake breaking the Isthmus, which joined Sicily -with the 
main laud. 

On tiie side of Italy is the celebrated rock called Scylla, and on 
the side of Sicily was fixed the dangerous whirlpool Charybdis, 
respecting the exact situation of which our learned men liave not 
agreed. The ancient Poets represented them as nearly opposite : 
and hence their proverb, " Incidit in Scyllam^ dian vnlt vitare 
Chari/bdim.'" — '' He is driven, or strikes on Scylla, whilst he is 
endeavouring to ^void Charybdis." It is S;o dlQicult to navigate 
through the entrance of the Faro, that pilots are always ready to 
put to sea, as soon as a vessel is seen in the offing. Charybdis is 
supposed by Mr. Swinburne fo have been at the Isthmus of Cape 
Peloro, several miles north of .Messina ; where it is commonly sup- 
posed to have been by Strabo, and where there is still a kind of 
whirlpool, although no wise answering to the description given of 
Charybdis by the ancients. 

Mr. Clarke, in his laborious and extensive work on Maritime 
Discovery, informs us, that Sc} 11a was one of the sacred Maritime 
Temples, or Fire Tov/ers, that were constructed by the Cuthites, 
or Amonians, as sea marks by day, and light-houses by night; 
■where charts of the coast Mere deposited, and the votive oftl rings 
of mariners Mere received. The dogs with Mhich the Greeks sur~ 
rounded Scylla, were its Cahen, or J'riests of its Temple. Great 
cruelties, and the most savage rites. Mere exercised in these light- 
houses, which then greatly added to the horror of passirtg this 
Faro. The seamen w^ho came to these places for assistance, M'ere 
often obliged to wrestle in the area before the light-house, as Mr. 
Clarke informs us, with an athletic Priest, trained to, the exercise, 
and skilled in the M'ork of death. It is believed that hui^an ficsh 
M'as eaten by the Pagans in those places ; and accordingly Ulysses^ 
when entering the dangerous pass of Rhegiiim, had six of his com- 
panions seized by Scylla, and lost the same number in the cavern 
of the Cyclops. The Furies, or Furia;, and the Harpies, were 
originally their Priests of Fire*. 

Its interest, M-hich at present is so deservedly attached to the 
Island of Sicily, as it induced us to publish this Plate, ^^^U also be 

* See an Eniii'-aving of the Temples iii Claike's Fi•ogrc:^^ of JMaritime 
Discovery, '^'ol, I, Introduction; pn,ge xci. 



PLATE CCXXIX. ^ 3lt 

the cause of onr paying a greater attention to our account of it, 
than we shonld otherwise have clone. — It may be of service to many 
of our naval readers, who arc now stationed in the adjacent sea, 
to be i formed, that an excellent Vui)(fj;c Fillorcsque dcs hlca de 
Siciie, Maltc. et de Lipari, was published many years since by 
M. Houcl : the part relative to Messina appeared about the year 
1785. The 73d plate of the 13th number gives a view of the 
Pharos and Straits, and tlie coast of Calabria. The 74th plate 
contains a plan of the Straits. In the 14th number are six beau- 
tiful views of ?vlessina, as it appeared before the dreadful earth- 
ijuakes in 1783 : and this number is terminated by au account of 
that remarkable aerial pha?nomenon, called the Fata Morg-^JiS, or 
Fairy Morgana, which is sometimes observed from the harbour of 
Messina, and adjacent places, at a certain height in the atmos- 
phere. 

*' lit fine summer days," says ]\I. Houel, ''when the weather is 
calm, there rises above the great current, a vapour, which acquires 
a certain density, so as to form in the atmosphere horizontal prisms, 
whose sides are disposed in such a manner, that when they are 
come to their proper degree of perfection, they reflect and repre- 
sent successively, for some time, like a moveable mirror, the 
objects on the coast, or in the adjacent country; they exhibit by 
turns the city and suburbs of INIessina, trees, animals, men and 
mountains ; they are really beautiful atrial moving pictures. There 
are, sometimes, two or three priems, equally perfect, and they 
continue in this state eight or ici\ minutes : after this, shining 
inequalities are observed upon the surfaces of the prism, Avhich 
render confused to the eye -the objects that had been before so 
accurately represented, and the picture vanishes. The vapour 
forms other combinations, and is dispersed in air. Diliercnt 
accounts have been given of this singular appearance." 

An engraving of this singular scene, with a further account of 
the Fata Morgana, was given by Mr. W. Nicholson, in the 5th 
number of the first volume of his Journal of Natural Philo- 
fiophy, (page 225.) lie informs us that the account was taken 
for Minasi's Dissertation on the Fata Morgana, printed at Rome 
in 1773. This singular appearance is also noticed by Brydoue, 
and Swinburne, and many other writers. Minasi distinguishes 
three sorts of Fairy ^lorgana in the Straits of jMes;ina.— First, 
that which appears on the. surface of the sea, which he calls tlie 
Marine Morgana; the second, in the air, called Aerial Morgana ; 
and the third, only at the surface of the sea, which he calls, the 
Morgana fringed with prismatic colours. 



31$ 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



journal of the Proceedings of a Squadron * of His Majesf^'^s Ships^ 
umler the Command of Sir John Jervis, K.B.^ emplojjed in 
rxmjunciion rciih a Body of Troops, under the Command of Sir 
Charles Gkey, K.B.^ to reduce the French Colonies in the 
Xieexcard Islands, 1794 +, and 1795. 

[rrom the IVISS. ofa Naval Officer.] 

AFTER waiting nearly a month beyond the time expected for 
the fleet's sailing, we put to sea from St. Helen's, having left 
several of the ordnance vosiels behind, with the Quebec frigate, 



Basse Terre. 
Cone to Mariagalante. 



Ships. 
* Boj-ne ... 
Irresistible . . 



Guns. 
. 99 
7i 



n-i 



Veteran 64 

Roebuck 44 

Assurance 40 

Vvoolwich 40 

Blanche '. 32 



5 Vv^i 



ncliclsea 



32 



Commanders. 
ce-Admiral Sir John Jervi*. 
aptain G. Grey. 
J. Heriry. 
C. E. Nugent. 
A. Christie. 
V. C. Berkley. 
J. Parker. 
R. Faulknor. 

Lord Viscount Garlics. 



Fort Royal. 



Point Petre. 



Terpsichore 32 

Rose £8 

Reprisal 18 

Inspector, sloop 18 
C^Bulldog, do 18 

j Vengeance 74 

I Asia 64 

i Dromedary 44 

I Undaunted 28 

j Avenger . .^.... 18 

t.Nautilus, sloop.. 18 

5 Experiment .... 40 



S. Edwards. 

W. H. Scott. 

Young. 

Briger. 

E. Browne. 

', Rear-Adiniral C. Thompson. 
Captain C. Sawyer. 
■■ J. Brown. 

■ S. Tatham. 

J. Carpenter. 

. Griffiths. 

I Bowen. 

— S. Miller. 

E. Riou. 



'. Beaulieu 40 

■With Rocharabeau. -^ Vesuvius, bomb. 8 
fSpiteful. 

Gun -boats, with one 24- I Y''""™- 

pounder. < ^P''^''^' 

*■ I leaser. 

^Tickler. 

Goaewith Expresses to S f°?,'^° 'l ?« 

Endand. JRatllesnake .... 18 

(Sea J lower .... 14 

< Quebec 32 

^ Ceres 32 

t The Squadron sailed from St. Helen's, November 27, 1794; and 
landed at St. Anne's Bay, February 5. Pidgeon Island surrendered 



England. 



To St. Thomas's. 



J. Markham. 
D. Preston. 
AV. Pierrepoint. 

J. Rogers. 
R. Incledon. 



'C0RnESP6NDE:5icE. 313 

Captain Rogcr$, who had orders to bring them out to join the 
squadron, with all possible dispatch. 

One cause, among others, which apparently stopped the early 
sailing of our squadron, was the expedition then on foot, and at 
that time ready to sail, under the command of Admiral M'tJiide 
and Lord Moira, against the coast of France. Eight regiments, 
destined for the West India p]xpedition, were taken from the 
command of Sir Charles Grey, and sent upon that fruitless enter* 
prize, so contrary to the known interests of our country, according 
to the opinion of those persons who have known them best; and 
so constantly deprecated by the worthiest and wisest of the king^ 
dom, who have had sense enough to perceive, that our genius and 
our situation were not fitted to Continental Wars, where the num- 
bers of the enemy must always carry success v. ith them ; and that 
small expeditions against a country so peopli^d, and so warlike, 
must, according to all rational calculation, turn out to our disad- 
f^antage. 

In our passage down Channel, we met Commodore Paisley in 
the Bellerophon, with two other ships of the line, who gave us 
intelligence that Lord Howe, with the British licet, was to the 
westward; and that they had made an unsuccessful cha^e after four 
or five line of battle ships of the enemy, who had got into Brest, 
notwithstanding all his Lordship's exertions to prevent it, being 
favoured by the darkness of the night, and the wind. 

When off Madeira, having foul winds, blowing very hard ; Sir 
J. Jervis, «vith the Boyne, and several of the forty-gun ships, left; 
lis with the convoy under the command of Commodore Thompson, 
(who then hoisted a broad pend.-mt,) to make our passage, by con- 
stautly standing to the westward, whiUt he stood to the eastward. 
On our ai-rival at Barbadoes, the IQtii day of January, 1791, wa 
found Sir J. Jervis had arrived a few days before. Two or three 
days afterwards came in the irresistible, with transports from Ire- 
laud : dilierent frigates were dispatched to Tobago, and the other 
Islands, to collect all the troO[)s which could be spared. The 

*: ^,^^ : > ^, , > . 

four or five days ?.fterwards; St, Pierre's taken, February 17; took 
possession of the heights of Soab line, Feb. 19 j Fort Royal stormeJ, March 
20; landed at St. Lucia, April 2; anchored at the Cozier, Uuadaloupe, 
April 10 ; Fleur d'Ep^e stormed, April 12; landing of the troojts and 
sailors at tiic Ance de vieu.\ Habitants, April 15 ; taking of Morne Ilijel, 
April 19 ; capitulation of Fort Churlcs, April 2^; sailed from Guadalo-ipa 
in the Santa Margareua, April -2-1. 

/5a^. (3:|)ron. ©ol.XVU. s s 



314 coiinr=po.\Di,Ncit;. 

Vet. ran, Captain C. E. Nugent, ^ras ordered to bring up the Oih. 
Tt-^^imont from Grenada, and St. Kitt's : on their arrival at Gre- 
nada, the UIvssps had jiist landed a part of the 9th, and was going 
to join Sir J. Jcrvis, with a part of another rcpment, which they 
had relieved. The Thetis, and another transport, brought down 
the 56th regiment, very sickly, nnder convoy of the Veteran, with 
orders to leave part at Grenada, and part at Rt. Kitt's. Having 
embarked that part of the 9th brouglit by the Ulysses, we returned 
agoin to join Sir John Jervis, and looked into Caz Navires 13ay, 
Martinico, and into Gros Islet, St. Lucia, that we might join thfr 
feqnadron as soon as possible, if they Merc already arrived there; 
and finding they were in neither of those places, we hauled our 
wind for Barbadoes. 

Next morning, then sixteen leagues to leeward of that island, 
we spoke a brig, and found that the fleet Averc already sailed. 
We then made sail again for Martinico; and, not meeting with 
the squadron, in the evening made all the sail we could for Barba- 
does; and to our great joy, in the night, about 12 o'clock, wc 
saw the Admiral's light, and soon after the fleet : but not being 
certain that it was our own, as they had been from Barbadoes 
already t\Vo days, we hauled in for St. Anne's Bay until day-light; 
and then found our fleet standing in for the land. All the next 
day wc were v/orking into the bay ; and did not land the troops 
until late in the night of that day, being the 7th of February. 

The 9th, under the command of Major Baillee, were landed 
earlier, to spike the guns of a battery wliich was very troublesome ; 
and re-etnbarkcd in the V^eteran as soon as that service was over. 
The troops nnder Sir Charles Grey marched along shore tlic next 
morning, to the Bourg de la Riviere Salec, and a laige body 
invested Pidgeon Inland, Avhich surrendered two days afterwards, 
i'lir John then went with the Boyne to the Grande Ance d'Arlet^ 
for the sake of keiping up a more certain communication with the 
army ; and the frigates, Mith the Irresistible, landed a iaigc body 
of troops at Caz Navires. 

Whilst these operations were going on, General Dundas, with 

Commodore 'i'hompson, went round to * at the back of 

the island, and laiidcd a large body of troops ; m hich, after taking 
the posts and ports adjacent, marched and took possession of 

* Ilcre jhe MS. cannot be (ieciplieied, but a reference to our map of 
jN'tartiuico, (Vol. XIU, page 474,'j points out Gallion Bay as the place where 
Ge!i«ral DfiMda? liuidfd. 



tOKflKSFONDENCE. 3} 5 

Gfos IMornc. General Dundas then marched to Port Ic IMartre, 
to complete the investiture of Fort Bourbon ; ^vhilst Sir Charli-s 
CrTcy marched round the bay ol' Fort lloyal, and Sir Charles Gor- 
don from Caz Navires invested it on the other side. The Ucet 
then pushed into Fort lloyal Bay, and tiie seamen were landed, 
part at Caz A'avircs, and part at the Gul de Sac de Cohe, to get 
the cannons and mortars up the heights, meaning to besiege that 
important post. 

Whilst these operations were carrying on, the Veteran, with the 
transports, <icc. from St. Annc\s Bir>', anived. Captain Xuj^ent 
■»vas immediately ordered, with the liatt!(;snake, Zebra, and Roe- 
buck, to run down to St. Pierre ; and there take into the squa- 
dron, the Blonde and iN'autilus, i'or the purpose ol" co-operating 
with General Duiidas in the reduction of (tiat place : the Vesuvius 
bomb was also sent with this detachment. Tlie first {lay we were 
employed in cruising olV the port, to prevent a- y of the vessels of 
the enemy from attempting to escape ; and the next day passed iu 
the same way. The s({uadron was soon reinforced by the Asia, 
Captain Brown ; and in the evening Colonel Symms came on 
board, who was to have the command of tiie troops, and seamen, 
intended for an attack to the westward of the town, to assist iu 
drawing off the attention of the enemy from the ports, which were 
to be forced by (jeneral Duiidas in his niaich towards St. i^ierre's ; 
another body of men were also expected, under Sir C. Gordon, 
from the eastward. 

The Veteran, on going in to reconnoitre the enemy's batteries, 
received a hre from two batteries in tiie town, on the east side ; 
one on the right; the other, called Corbet, was a gun and mortar 
battery, at some small distance from the town, to the eastward. 
She also reconnoitred a landing place to the westward, near the 
bed of a river, defended by a small ])attery, with two guns only, 
out of reach of point blank shot from Fort St. Marc, and also 
from a battery to the westward ; and, besides, sufiicicntly secure 
for the landing of the troops, as was intend-d during the night. 

On the night of the 16th, the troops having embarked in the 
ilat-bottomcd boats, the Vesuvius l)ymb was orderetl in to bombard 
the town, under cover of the Blomle, and tlie Santa Margarctta; 
which service was performed by Captain Sawyer, as well as the 
nature of it would allow : it being impossible to api)roachthe town 
sufiicicntly, or to come to an anchor near it, without great danger 
irom tlie forts and batteries that lined the UdVy whose cross tire 



316 CORUESPONDENCE. 

would soon have obliged her to sheer off. The Captain of the 
Vesuvius was thus obliged to direct his fire as well as he could 
under sail, and as near as possible without the point blank range 
of their shot. 

The three sloops of war, the Zebra, Nautilus, and Rattlesnake, 
\rere to cover the landing of the troops, at four o'clock, when the 
thrco-gun battery was silenced ; b.ut from some delay, they did 
not land until five. The Veteran, Captain Nugent, had silenced 
this battery early in the night j and soon after, being close off the 
west end of the town, the batteries ceased their fire, and a flag of 
truce Avas sent off for the purpose of capitulation ; but the Veteran 
unluckily haying fired several shot into the town, from her lower 
deck, the flag of truce returned, and did not come off again until 
the morning; wheri the Veteran and Asia came to, close within 
pistol shot of the town. An officer was sent to Fort St. Marc, and 
la Boutolle, to strike the French colours, and hoist English. It 
•was spme hours l^efqre Colonel Synims got into the town with the 
troops under his command. General Dundas did not arrive until 
the evening; and Sir C. Gordon not until neit day. 

A ludicrous incident occurred on this service. — As I was goin^ 
from the municipality to visit the town, and the batteries to the 
westM ard, a flag of truce from General Dundas came in ; and I 
■was much astonished to find that the ships bad anchored there five 
hours before. I forgot to mention, that the flag of truce which 
was sent off at day-break from the town, broughf a letter to the 
commaiiding olficcr of the Navy, desiring to capitulate ; which was 
answered by saying, that they must surrender at discretion. 

The Veteran, Captain Nugent, after remaining some time at 
this place, to regulate the business of the prizes, and the prisoners, 
returned to Fort Royal with the Blonde, carrying five hundred 
men, under General Dundas, to reinforce the besieging army under 
Sir Charles Grey : or rather to take post on the heights towards 
Mount Tartenson. It is impossible to do justice to the perse- 
verance, and ind'.sstry, of the troops and seamen, on this attack of 
Fort Bourbon, which lasted about six v/eeks. The seamen under 
the command of Captains Nugent and Rogers, were of so mucU 
use, in all the heavy work of dragging up cannon and mortars, 
through roads deemed before that event totally impracticable; that 
jt has been frequently ouned by the Commander in Chief, that ij; 
would have been iinpossihle to succeed without their exertions. 
iJut great as those exertions were^ it is doubtful what the event cf 



CORRESPONDENCE. Si7 

this siege would have been, but for the change which latterly took 
place in the mode of attack ; as, during the 'vhole of the siese, 
notwithstanding the fire constantly kept up fiom all our batteries, 
very little impression had been made on the fori. They had lost, 
it is true, between three and tour hundred men, before tha storm 
of Fort Royal ; but as long a« they kept up the communication 
between Fort Bourbon and the town of Fort Royal, they had 
such constant supplies of arms and ammunition, of men atid pro- 
visions, added to the advantage of casements, onl)' open to (ire 
from Fort Louis ; that little success could ba expected, Avithout 
first cutting off the supplies which they obtained from this place. 
The event proves the truth of this conjecture; for as soon as our 
seamen got possession of Fort Royal, they sent out a Hag of truce 
to capitulate : though, on marching out, they araouated to nine 
hundred men, who laid down their arms. 

Monsieur de Sansi (a great friend of tlie INIarquis de BouelH, 
who had had the merit of superintending the plan formed by that 
able General in the attack of this isiand) was the first mover of the 
detail of this latter attack. A battery was formed under his 
direction, by the seamen, in which were mounted two 24-pounders; 
and another close to it, of one 24, and one eight inch howitzer. 
These two batteries having dismounted all the guns on this iront 
of attack of Fort Louis, and another battery being raised in 
Mount Tartenson, of five ^I's; and another close by the Prince's* 
quarters, which dismounted all the guns upon the +.-..atFort 
Louis, and the upper batteries of that Fort; the Asia and Zebra 
were ordered to prepare to enter the harbour, or careenage, close 
under the walls of the Fort, to cover the boats which were already 
prepared to storm the place. 

[To be continued.] 



* His Royal Highness Prince Edward, ?fIajor-General, since creafed 
Duke of Kent, who L-roatly distinguished hirauelf. The towu uf Fort iioj-id 
was changed to fort Edward, in honour of this PrinCe. 



t Not made out '^ the MS.. 



318 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

[Continued from page 140.] 

j;5o. XVI. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 
The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 
^ Falconer. 

LOSS OF THE BLANCHE FRIGATE. 

ni^HE following" ii'iteresting particulars, relating to the loss of 
-^ the Blanche, are extracted from a letter from Sir Tliomas 
Lavie, her late Commander : — ■ 

Brat, March 9, 1807. 
We sailed from Portsmouth on the 3d, as you may rein^rabcr. 
At two o'clock the next morning we made Portland Lights, distant 
about four leagues ; we afterwards steered a west course until eight 
o'clock, then west by south half south. At eight at night it began 
to blow hard ; and, from being under all sail, we reduced to close- 
reefed fore and main top-sails, and got down top-gallant yards ; 
Ushant at this time, by our reckoning, bore S. S. W. half W. 
16 leagues. I left orders in writing to haul to the northward, the 
■wind being E. N, E., when i}\e. ship had run ten leagues, which I 
thought a good position to join Admiral Sir James Saumarez in the 
morning. At elevcu Lieutenant Apreece awoke me, to say that 
it blew harder, on which I ordered the ship to be brought to the 
wind on the starboard tack, and the forc-iop-sail to be taken in ; 
he had hardly got out of the cabin before she struck ; every body 
was on deck in an instant, sails Avere clewed up, and the anchors 
■were let go ; we rode a little while, until she parted from her an- 
chors, and was driven on the rocks. The night was dreadfully 
dark and cold, and there was no possibility of discriminating 
■whether the rocks were distant from the land or connected, with 
the shore; however, happily it proved the latter. I immedi- 
ately ordered the masts to be cut away, and recommended the offi- 
cers and men to stay by me and the ship to the last; a few hands 
got into the quarter boats, and they were no sooner on the water 
than they were dashed to pieces ; it was about high Avater, and 
•while the tide flowed, the ship lay tolerably easy, until it began 
to fall, when most tremoiulous breakers covered us. I remainctl 
by the wheel until she divided amidships and fell over seaward. 
The crew were all on the side, and hauled me up to them 3 it was 



COURFCT REr.ATIOX OF SIIIPVy-KECKS. 31^ 

pleasing to observe the attention they paid me to the. last, and now 
they caressed me as their father: we lay in this state about three 
hours, when the water left the wreck sufficient for us to attempt a 
landing, and, with the exception of a few, got safe on shore, and 
assembled under a rock, when three cheers were given to the re- 
mains of the poor dear Blanche. At day-light, not two pieces of 
"wood were left together, and the masts were shattered into shivers. 
Nothing was saved, and v»e make a most shabby appearance. A 
cask of rum was the only thing found on the shore, which, after 
I was carried to a cottage, some were so imprijdent as to broach, 
by which about fifteen died : it is not possible to ascertain our 
exact loss, but should think forty-live, twenty of whom were 
marines. All the officers are saved. Mr. Goodhew, passenger, 
died through fear. AVe landed on a shocking cuast, but every 
attention possible was paid to us. We have already boen marched 
about thirty miles, and arc now at Brest, w hich is a heaven to all 
liands, as they are most comfortably lodged and fed in the Navy 
Hospital. I am at present at the house of the Commander in Chief, 
M. Ccflorelli, a perfect gentleman. Our destination is fixed for 
Verdun, and I would not leave my people, were freedom offered 
me. Gregg is quite well. It is my intention t(\ put all the 
boys to school, and to secure their maintenance while they con- 
tinue in France. Excepting a few bruises, my people are quite 
well. 

The Officers saved are : — Sir Thomas Lavie, Captain ; Robert 
Basten, first Lieutenant ; William Apreece, second ditto ; James 
Alton, third ditto ; Roger Taylor, Master; J. T. Wilcock, Pur- 
ser ; James Brenan, Surgeon ; James Campbell, Lieutenant of 
marines; T. J. P. Masters, James Lyall, John Rooks, Henry- 
Stanhope, AV, J. AVilliams, Robert ilay, George Gordon, J. T. 
Secretan, Thomas Gregg, Charles Street, and F. E. S. A^inccnt, 
Midshipmen ; Joseph Slingsby, JMasler's Mate ; John Moissey, 
ditto ; J. C. G. Moreatt, Clerk ; John Patterson, Assistant Sur- 
geon ; John Carr, Gunner; William Lonmlii, Boatswain; and 
John Parro, Carpenter.— ISO seamen, and 25 marines. 



LOSS OF THE AJAX. 

IF N the absence of official accounls, respecting the unfor- 
•^ tunate loss of His Majesty's sliip Ajax, by iiiej we submit 
die followiDg extract of a Idler from an officer in the squadion 



320 CORJIECT REtATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

under Sir J. T. Duckworth^ as containing some interesting par- 
ticulars : — 

Our force has lately experjeficed a diminution from an event 
which I now with grief relate to you. Valentine's day was, in- 
deed, a sad one for the unfortunate Ajax. At half past nine on 
the evening of that day, the Ajax took fire in the bread-room, 
and in tin minutes she was in a general blaze from stem to stern; 
the wind blew fresh from the N. E. which prevented the boats of 
the ships to leeward from rendering any assistance : but from those 
to windward, and near her, she was well enough supplied to saveup- 
ward of -JOO of her people ! and those may consider themselves as most 
providentially preserved ; as it had blown a gale all the day, and 
for two or three days before, and fell moderate towards the even- 
ing — a continuance of the gale would probably have rendered all 
assistance impossible. The fire, it appears, had been for some 
time (comparatively speaking,) alight in the bread room before 
the alarm w;is given ; for when the first Lieutenant, and many 
others, broke open the door of the Surgeon's cabin, the after 
bulk-bead was bnrst down by the accumulated flames and smoke 
abaft it, and t^o rapidly made its progress through the cockpit, that 
it was with difficulty he could regain the ladder, and most of those 
who accompanied him were suffocated in the attempt. On reach^ 
ing the quarter-deck he found-the fire had out-run him, and Cap- 
tain Blackwood agreeing with him that she was past all remedy, 
they both ran forward where the majority of the people were 
assembled, calling most piteously on their God for that help they 
despairt'd of getting, although many boats were approaching them, 
so rapidly did the fire work its way forward, and leapt from the 
sprit-sail-yard, when the Canopus's boat fortunately picked them 
up. At this time the boats were assembling under the ship's bows, 
aud saved most who still clung to them ; though many, naked, 
benumbed with cold, and pressed on by others, let go their hold 
and perished, as did every one who imprudently on the first alarm 
jumped overboard. The boats, however, cleared her bows, 
though many of them were in imminent danger of swamping, from 
the number of the poor creatures who were clinging to the gun» 
■wales, and Mho were obliged to be forced off, and left to perish, 
for the safety of the rest. The ship burnt all night, and drifted 
on the island of Tenedos, where she blew up at five next morning, 
with a most awful explosion. 

The unhappy sufferers of her ward-room are. Lieutenant Rowe, 



CORRFCT UELATION' OF SHIPWRECKS. 321 

Lieutenant Sibthorpt', Captain Boyd, of the Royal Marines; !Mr. 
Ovpen, Surgeon ; and Mr. Donaldson, Master. The Gunner, unhap- 
py father ! had thrown one child overboard, which was saved ; but, 
going down for another, perished in the flames. Of forty-five 
Midshipmen of every dcscrip'jon, about twenty are saved ; a soa 
and a nephew of the late Captain Dull', and who were with hitn in 
the Mars when he gloriously fell in the action otl Trafalgar, aie 
among the survivors. Three ^Merchants of Constantinople were on 
board, two perished ; ai?o a Greek Pilot. One woman, out of three, 
saved herself by follow ing her husband with a child in his arms down 
a rope from the jib-boom-end. The Purser's Steward and his Mate, 
and the Cooper, are missing. The occasion of the accident can- 
not, indeed, be exactly ascertained; but that there was a light ia 
the bread-room when there ought not to have been one, is certain. 
Several of the people died after they were got on board the dilier- 
ent ships, the rest are distributed among the squadron. 



ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF THE BETSEY SCHOONER, 

ANn OK THE SUKSLQUENT SUFFERINGS OF JU.R CRKW. 

/0\N the 10th of November, 1S05, the Betsey schooner, burdoa 
^^^ about 75 tons, left Macoa, bound for New South Wales ; 
the crew consisted of William Brooks, Commander ; Edward 
LfUttrell, Mate ; one Portuguese sea-cunnic, three Manilla, and 
four Chinese Lascars. From the 10th of Novenibcr to ilie 20th, 
nothing particular happened ; but on the 21st, at half past two 
A. M., the vessel struck upon a reef, going seven and a half knots ; 
instantly lowered down the boat, and sent a small anchor astern ; 
but, on heaving, parted with the cable; they then began to make 
a raft of the water-casks, but the swell was so great that it was 
impossible to effect it ; at day-break found the vessel had forged 
upon the reef four or five miles, not having more than two feet 
water; the reef extending to the S. nine or ten miles, E. and W. 
four or five. During three days and nights every exertion was 
nied to get her off, but to no effect ; and the crew were so weak- 
ened, that they could hardly be persuaded to construct a raft, the 
vessel at thi< time being bulged on the starboard sivle. On the 
24th made a raft, and left the vessel, the jolly-boat in company, 
steering for Balambungan ; Captain Brooks, the Mate, Gunner, 
and two sea-cunuies, were in the jolly-boat, provided only with 
six bottles of water, and a small bag of biscuit : on ihj raft wore 

/9atj, erijwn, aoi.xvir. i t 



322 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

one Portuguese, four Chinese, and three Malays, much better 
provided ; they parted coir.p.iny the same day, it counn^ on to 
blow a brisk f^ale from the N.VV'., and the raft was seen no more. 
As the islarid of Borneo bore S.E., there is a probability of its 
having drifted upon it. Fr m the 21th, until the 'iSth, it con- 
tinued blowing hard from the N. W. with a mountainous sea, and 
then fell calm ; (he water Avas, by this time, entirely expended, 
and the remainder of (he biscuit wet with salt water. At day- 
break, on (he 29th, saw land, which they supposed to be Cala- 
bac, the people nearly exhausted \viLli pniling, it being a perfect 
calm, and ^nder a binning sun ; added to w liich, they were obliged 
to drink their own urine. At night it blew so hard from the N. E, 
that they were obliged (o bear up for Pianguey, the N. W. point 
of which they discovered af day-break next morning, and in- 
stantly went in search of water, which they soon discovered, and 
drank to excess. Being in search of fruit ran>bling in the woods, 
they were met by two Malays, to whom they made signs that they 
were in want of food ; this being ra.derstood, the Malays went 
away, and in the aUernoon returned with two cocoa-nuts and a 
few sweet potatoes, vvLich they gave in exchange for a silver spoon. 
At night went on board the boat ; next morning five Malays made 
their appearance, aud brought some Indian corn and pofatoes, for 
which they received spoons ; these people pointed to Balamban- 
gan ; gave them to understand that the English had quitted it some 
lime; they then returned on board with tiieir little stock, and at- 
tended next morning to receive a promised supply ; eleven Malays 
appeared on the beach ; at th.-ir landing, and after a little conyer- 
sation, one of them threw a spear at Captain Brooks, which hit 
him in the belly: another ras.le a cut at Mr, Luttrell, who being 
armt d with a cutlass, parried it oft", and ran to the boat ; Capt. 
Brooks withdrew the pike, and ran to a short distance, but they 
followed him, and cut off both his legs ; the Gunner was likewi>c 
severely wounded, and reached the boat covered with blood; at 
this time they saw the Malays stripping (he dead body of Captain 
Brooks ; the Gu.iner expired in about fifteen minutes. 

They immeJiately made sail, and on examining their stock of 
provisions, found it con -isted of ten cn'js of Iridian corn, three 
pumpkins, and two bottles of water : with which, trusting to the 
mercy of Providence, they determined upun shaphig their course 
for the Straits of Malacca. 

From the 4th of December nu(i! the l-1th, nothing particular 
occurred; they had been forturiatcly" supplied with v.atcr by fre- 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 323 

qiicnt showers, but were nearly exhausted by constant watching 
and hi4n<;ci-. 

On the 1:5th they fell in with a group of islands, in hit. 3° N., 
long, about KjO' E. In a]3proaching the sphere they were descried 
by three Malay prows, which inuncdiatcly attacked them, and in 
the pursuit oue oi' the sca-cuniues was speared, and died instantly ; 
the other was wounded. Mr. Luttrell had a very narrow escape, 
a spear having passed through his hat. Thus overpowered, the 
Malays took possession of the boat, and immediately deprived 
them of their property, the sextant, the log-book, some plate, 
and clothes, keeping them in a prow, exposed to a burning sun, 
without any covering, and with only a Email quantity of sago, 
during tiirce days ; alter which they were taken on shore, to the 
house of a llajah, on an island named Sube, where they re- 
mained in a state of slavery, entir-'Iy naked, and subsis ing on 
sago, until the 'iOth April, on which day the Kajah sailed in a 
prow for Rhio, taking with him Mr. Luttrell and the tuc sea- 
cunnies. Tiiey arrived at that place after a tedious passage of 23 
days, nearly famished. 

Their distresses, however, were here alleviated by Mr. Koek, 
of Malacca, who treated them in the kindest manner; and the 
ship Kandree, Captain Williamson, arriving the foJIowing day, 
bound for Malacca, (hey obtained a passage i'or that ])ort. 

The Belsy was lost in hit. 9. -48. X., long. 11 1. 1 1. E. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

■^ccounis and Paperx^ prcyevlcd to Ihe lluitsc of Commonly 
relativg to Ships uf Har, ^c- — Ordered lu be prinU'd ISih 
M,'nj, 1805. 

^WV. series of papers which \\t are about to notice, is not 
of a nature to rc(]nire much couimcnt from us; but, from 
the inipoitant iiifurnuitioii wliich it exhibits, the substance 
thereof will be found iatcrcstuig, both al the present, and at a 
future period. 

From No. 1, we learn that, between the 1st of January, 17S'.*, 
and the ilst of December, 179'2, 87 ships of the line, and friga'es, 
were launched ; of which. 3 of 100 g-ins, () of (.(S and iJO, 3 of 74, 
3 of 60, and 1 of 32, were built in the King's Yards ; and 24 of 



324 XAVAL LITEftATC'Ur. 

74 guns, G of 64, 13 of 4 J, G of 36^ 13 of 32, and 8 of 28, were 
built in the Merchants' Yards, 

By No. 2, %ve perceive that, on the 1st of January, 1793, there 
■were in commission, and in ordinary, at the several dock-yards, 
176 ships of the line, and 201 frigates ; making a total of 377 ; of 
which 14 were buihling. 

On tlie 1st of January, 1794, according to No. 3, there were 
in commission, not including those for harbour service, 83 ships of 
the line, and 104 frigates. 

No. 4 is an account of the number of line of battle ships and 
frigates of each rate, launched from the King's and Merchants' 
Yards, between the 1st of January, 1793, and the 18th of 
February, 180! ; showing the number added to the Navy by 
purchase or capture ; also the number that had been sold, taken 
to pieces, captured by the enemy, or lost out of the service. 
From this it appears, that, in 1793, 2 ships ol the line, and one 
frigate, were launched in the King's Yards ; 1 ship of the line, 
and 7 frigates, were optured from the enemy; 1 frigate was sold 
out of the service; 1 was taken to pieces ; and I was captured by 
the enemy: in 1794, 2 ships of the line, and I frigate, were 
launched in the King's Yards ; 11 frigates were launched in the 
Merchants' Yards ; 6 ships of the line, and 9 frigates, were cap- 
tured from the enemy ; 1 frigate was sold out of the service; I 
ship of the line, and 4 frigates, were ta'Kcn to pieces ; 1 ship of the 
line, and 1 frigate, were captured by the enemy; and 1 ship of 
the line, and 1 frigate, were lost; in 1795, 1 ship of the line, and 
1 frigate, were launched in the King's Yards ; 6 frigates were 
launched in the Merchants' Yards ; 3 ships of the line, and 5 fri- 
gates, Mere captured from the enemy ; 5 ships of the line, and 9 
frigates, were brought into the service, while building; 1 frigate 
was sold out of the service ; I ship of the line was taken to pieces; 
1 ship of the line was captured by the enemy ; and 2 sliips of the 
line, and 2 frigates, were lost : in 1786, 5 frigates were lanuclied 
5n the King's Yards; 1 frigate was launched in the Merchants' 
Y^ards; 4 ships of the line, and 16 frigates, were captured from 
the enemy ; 1 ship of the line, and 1 frigate, were taken to pieces ; 
1 frigate was captured by the enemy ; and 2 ships of the line, 
and 7 frigates, were lost : in 1797, 2 ships of the line were launched 
in the King's Yards ; 8 frigates were launched in the Merchants' 
Y'ards ; 14 ships of the line, and 3 frigates, were captured frorn 
the enemy; 1 frigate was sold out of the service; 1 ship of the 
line, and 1 frigate, were taken to pieces j and 5 frigates v-evc 



NATAJ. LITERVTUUE. 32S 

l.'jst : in 1798, 2 ships of the line, and 1 frigate, ivere lannchcd ia 
the King's Yards ; 7 ships of the line, and 1 frigates, were launched 
in the Merchants' Yards; 7 ships of the line, and 8 frigates, were 
captured from the enemy ; I ship of the line, and 1 frigate, were 
taken to pieces ; 2 frigates were cay)tiired by the enemy ; and 1 
ship of the line, apd 10 frigates, were lost : in 1799, 5 frigates 
•were launched in the King's Yards ; 5 ships of the line, and 11 
frigates, were captured from the enemy ; 1 ship of the line, and I 
fi iH,at8, were taken to pieces ; and 3 ships of the line, and 7 fri- 
gates, were lost; in 1800, 1 ship of the line, and 1 frigate, were 
iaiinched in the King's Yards ; 1 ship of the line, and 3 frigafe<:, 
were jaiinched in the Merchants' Yards ; 3 ships of the line, and 6 
frigates, were captured from the enemy ; and 3 ships of the line, 
and "-i frigates, were lost : between the 1st of January, and the 
ISth of February, IKOl, 1 frigate was captured from the enemy ; 
1 shi]) of the line was taken to pieces; and I frigate was captured 
by the enemy. — Thus, within the stated period, 64 ships and fri- 
gates were launehcd ; 119 were captured from the enemy; 14 
wore purchased inlo the service ; 4 were sold out of the serTicc; 
16 were taken to pieces ; 8 were captured by the enemy ; and 46 
were lost; so that the total number of ships added to the Navy, 
was 197; and Vac. number taken from the Navy, was 74. 

No. 5 is a similar account, between the 19th of p^cbruary, 
1801, and the 29th of April, 1802; during which period, 2 ships 
of thii line, and 2 frigates, were launched in the King's Yards ; 1 
ship o^ the line, and 5 frigates, were launched in the Merchants' 
Yards; 3 ships of the line, and 5 frigates, were captured from the 
enemy ; 4 frigates were sold out of the seryice ; 1 ship of the 
line, and 1 frigate, wore taken to pieces ; 2 ships of the line, and 
1 frigate. Mere captured by the enemy ; and 1 ship of the line, 
and 7 frigates, were lost. 

i\o. 6 is a similar account, between the 30th of April, 1802, 
and the 8th of March, 1803 ; during which period, 2 frigates were 
launched in the King's Yards ; 2 ships of the line were launched 
in the Merchants' Yards ; 7 frigates were sold out of the service ; 
and I was taken to pieces. 

rvo. 7 is a similar account, between the 9th of March, 1803, 
and the 15th of May, 1804 ; during which period, 1 ship of the 
jine was launched in the King's Yards ; 4 ships of the line, and 3 
frigates, were launched in the Merchants' Yards ; 1 ship of the 
Jine, and 3 frigates, were captured from the enemy; 1 ship of the 
}ine, and 3 frigates, were taken to pieces ; and 2 ships of the line, 
and (J frigates, were lost. 



528 NAVAL LITERATL'RE. 

No. 8 is a similar account, b'.'tween the 16th of riiav, 1804, and 
the 30th of April, 1805; during which period, 2 bhips of the line, 
and 5 frigates, were launched in the Kinjl's Yards ; 1 ship of the 
line, and 1 frigate, were launched in the Merchants' Yards; 2 fri- 
gates were captured from the enemy; 6 frigati;s were purchased 
into the service ; 1 ship of the line, and 1 frigate, were taken to 
pieces; and I ship of the line, and 2 frigates, were lost. 

From No. 9 we derive the following information : — That, on 
the ,31st of December, 1791, there wore '210 ships and frigates 
in commission, exclusive of ti'osc for harbour service; on the 
3 l=;t of December, 1795, 2U; on the 31st of December, 1796, 
243; on the 31st of December, 1797, '242; on the 31st of De- 
cember, 1798, 262; on the 18th of February, 1801, 2S5 : on 
the 29th of April, 1802, 194: on the Sth of Afarch, 1803, 181; 
on the 15th of May, 1801, 226; and on the 30th of April, 
1805, 2J4. 

No. 10 shoM's, that of 26 ships and frigates, which were build- 
ing on the 18th of February, 1801, 23 had been launched be- 
fore the 21st of May, 1805. 

No. 1 1 is a li>t of ships and friga+es building, or ordered to be 
built, on the 15th of May, ISOi; the number of which was 41. 
Of these, 9 in the King's Yards had not been taken in hand ; 
and only eight had been launched. The reasons why those ships 
had not been taken in hand. Mere said to be — •" The great want 
of timber which has been experienced since the ships were or- 
dered: — and nearly the whole strength of the Yards (which is 
at every port less than it was during the greater part of the last 
war) being required for the refit and repair of the fleets, and the 
current works of the port; which always in time of war, parti- 
cularly at the most important ports, very greatly protract the 
building of ships in the King's Yards." 

No. 12 is an account of the number of building slips in the dif- 
ferent Dock Yards, and how they were occupied on the 15th of 
May, 1804. 

No. ISshows, that on the 21st of May, 1S05, there were 112 
ships and frigates in commission, built in the Merchants' Yards, 
and 60 captured from the enemy ; besides 11 commissioned for 
harbour duty. 

No. 14 exhibits copies of correspondence between the Admiralty 
and the Navy Board on the subject of building 74 gun ships, 
in January, 1803; also copies of tenders for building 74 gwn- 
ships, received at that tinie. The tenders — nont of which^ hu«'- 



KAVA'L LITEKATURE. 3'X7 

ever, were accepted — varied from .^28 to j£25 per ton, for 
a 74 gun sliip: and from ^8'25 to ^GlO per ton, r,r frigates. 
The last price wliich had hecn given for.biiiluing a 74 gun--.hip, 
was o€21. 10,v. per ton; and for a frigate, <£lf). iGi. per ton. 

No. 15 consists of copi>:s of the correspondence between the 
Admiralty and the Navy Board, ou the sul)ject of building 74 gun 
ships, in 1805 ; from which it appears, that, owing to the advanced 
price of materials, kc. ^ JO per ton was the lowest price at which 
(Tovernmeiu conld induce the Alcreliant builders to contract for; 
and, on those terms, ten 7i's wer*; ordered to be built. 

No. :G isan account of ships and vess^ds ordered to be built in 
tlie King's and Merchants' Yards, between the 18th of February, 
1801, and the 15th of May, 1805; stating the time when or- 
dered; Ai hen taken in hand; and when completed, or expected 
to be completed. The total number is, 8 ships of the lin^^, and 
103 frigates, sloops, g,Hn-brigs, &c. 

No. 17 is a similar account, between the 15th of May, 1801, 
and tlie 30th of April, 1805. The total number is 75 ; of which 
I0are74's. Two of these are to bo launched in August, 1808; 
and the remaining 8 in the month follow ing. Nine are small fri- 
gates, 16 brigs, 36 gun-brigs, 2 mortar vessels, 1 sloop, and I 
armed schooner. 

No. 18 relates to the quantity of tia^ber in store in His Majes- 
ty's Dock-yards, between ^larrh ISOJ, and May or Jiinc 18U4. 

No. 19 relates to the quality of the timber ia. ported from the 
Continent in 1802. 

rVo. 20isan account of the principal articles of naval stores 
in the King's Yards, in February 1801, March 1S03, Maj 
ISOi, and April iSOo. 

No. 21, the last of the present series, is an account of the 
additional naval force ordered to bo provided between the loth 
and oOlhofMay 1804, as follows. To be purchased: — 6 East 
India ships, built in India, of teak, to mount from 44 to 60 guns; 
10 Merchant ships to serve as sloops of wa^-, to carry 16 car- 
ronades, 24-pounders, ar.d2guns; 10 vessels, to serve as gun- 
brigs ; 4 vessels, to serve as fire-vessels ; 2 packets, in the ser- 
vice of tire East India Company, to be employed as sloops of 
war ; six ships, to be purchased by Vice-Admiral Rainier in the 
E;ist Indies, to carry from 36 to 40 guns. To be buiit: — 6 Fir 
brig sloops of war ; 4 20-gun ships of small draught of water; 
2 mortar vessels^ of ditto; aiid 20 guu-brigs. 



328 



ilabal pcctr\?. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

AaJ l«mch its Springs, wlicn Frose avaii'd u» mure. 

F^tCONIH. 



WILLIAM AXD NANCY. 

A B.\.LL.\.l). 

'Tounded upon an interesting; incident which took place on the embarkalioa 
wf tLe asth regiment tor Holiaud, at llam>gHte, August 10> \799. 

AS on the transport's dusky side 
Young William stood with folded arms, 
SiUnt he watcii'd the rising tide, 

The loud wind llU'd him m ith alarms. 

Not for himself he knew to fear. 

But for one dearer far than life ; 
Nancy, ia parting doubly dear, 

Kis tender bride, his faithful wife. 

She still had hop'd to share his fate. 

To sooth him in affliction's hour ; 
On all his wand'ring steps to wait, 

And give the comfort in her power. 

But chance denied the wish'd-for prize^ 

The envied lot another drew ; 
Now sorrow dim'd her sleepless eyes, 

And to despair her sorrow grew. 

But when the shouting seamen strove 

To tow the vessel on its way, 
Wak'd from despair by anxious love, 

She rush'd along the crowded quay. 

The sails unfurl'd, as gliding round. 

The parting cheers still louder grew, 
She flew, and M'ith a fearful bound, 

Drop'd in her Wiliiam's arms below. 



KAVAL POETRY. 329 



A MERMAID SOXG. 



"TVTOW the dancing sunbeams plaj 
-^ ^ On the green and glassy sea ; 
Come and I will lead the way, 

VVhere the pearly treasures be. 
Come with me, and we will go 
Where the rocks of coral grow ; 

Follow, fo'Jow, follow me. 

Come, behold what trearures lie 
Deep beiov? the rolling waves. 

Riches hid from human eye 
Dimly sliiiie in ocean's caves ; 

Stormy winds art^ far away, 

Elbiog tides brool< no de'ay; 
Follow, follow, follow me. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

(March — April. ) 
RETROSPECTR^E AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

rTF^HEKE is an old proverb in the Spanish language, that Three 
Changes are equal to a Fire. Another, and a most suddea 
change, has again taken plate at the Admiralty ; and the plans which 
the cool judgment of Mr. Grenvillk had begun to mature, must give 
■way to new men, and other projects. We have often lamented the 
injury which the best mterests of the State must sustain, from the un- 
certain tenure by which the station of the First Lord is held : and 
anxiously wish, that an equal degree of stability was given to this situa- 
tion, as appears in the War Department: but every thing belonging to 
our naval interests does not seem to rest on so secure and Lxcd a basis 
as our military. 

In our last, we early marked our astonishment at the Bill which Lord 
IIowicK deemed it right to bring forward: but though we dreaded the 
consequences of such a measure, little did we expect, that so complete a 
revolution would thus be brought about in the political world. 

The ingenious Mr, Bap row, who is well and universally respected, 
hris been re-appointed to the situation of Second Secretary to the Admi- 
raliy. 

Lord Mui.r.RAVE, who at present presides at the Board, is the brother 
^f the celebrated Navigator, who, in 1773, sailed to explore the \orth 
Polar Seas, (Nav. Cbron,, Vol. V ill, p. 89,) aud wLy> on the 4th of 

JiiSab. <a:{)tcn. ajo[,XVII. V u 



.^■^O KATAT, HISTORY OV TUT. rRr.$i:NT TEAR, 1807. 

December, ITTT, was npnoinlod one of the Lords Commissioners of the 
j^dmiralfy. He ^as an. early and steady patron of the late Lord Nelson. 
The present I-ord, who was J^ccretary of State for the Foreign Depart- 
ment in 1796, is a Lieutenant-Geucral, and Colonel of the 91st regiment 
of foot: and particularly distinguished himself at the siege of Toulon. 
The Rifht Hon. George Rose, who succeeded Mr. Sheridan as Treasurer 
of the >avy, has been long known and respected for his abilities and 
experience, particularly in every thing that relates to the trade and 
commerce of his country. It is but doing justice to the humanity of 
Mr. Sheridan to remark, that before he left the situation of Treasurer, 
the sole request that he made, was a petition to His Majesty, which 
secured a very old man, who had been fifty-seven years in the Navy 
Office, a considerable independence for life. 



SHIP LAUNCH. 

On Thursday, the 23d of April, the Bulwark, of 74 guns, Teas 
launched at Portsmouth Dock-vard. — This sight is at all times a pecu- 
liarly grand and pleasing one: but the fineness of the day, the vast 
asscmhlage of the most respectable people, and the strength and deco- 
rated beauty of the ship, all contributed to increase this occasion to a 
superemiuent degree of pleasure. Mr. Diddams, the builder, added a 
wreath to his acknowledged high professional character. She went off 
in a peculiarly fine stile, at twenty minutes past eleven, being christened 
by .Adiniral Montagu. Nothing like an accident or oversight appeared : 
she went otf amidst the shouts, and the mixed feelings of awe and plea- 
sure, of a greaier number of persons than was ever known to have 
attsndod a similar occasion. The nobility and gentry from all parts of 
this and the neighbouring cou;i!,;.?s were there. The Officers of the 
Ward-room of His Majesty's ship Dragon gave an elegant dinner, ball, 
tfid supper, on the occasion, on board that ship in the harbour. Up- 
wards of 100 persons sat down to dinner, of which there were nearly 50 
fcuijps. Yesterday she wasi taken into dock to be coppered, after having 
taken in her masts. 



Imprricil parliament 

HDITSE OF LORDS, Monday, March 23. 

rTflHE Marine Mutiny Bill received the Roval .\sscnr, by Commission j 
1^* a:id tlie .Shive Trade Abolition Hill, with the ameudiuents of the 
Commuus, w;uj agreed to. 

TiTt;nsDA.Y, April 16. 

On the motion of I^ord Mulgruve, the Thanks of the House were voted 
to Hear- Admiral Siiilinp;, and to the Officers, Seamen, and Marines, under 
bus roinmand, for their services at the capture of .Monte Video. 

Lord Aui khmd, on this occ:L-%i-Dn, spoke in warm terras of praise, of the 
recent Ciipture of the Lyns hy the boats of the Galatea. 

Tuesday, April 21. 
l.OTii Muira moved, "That aa. Address he prci-emcd f.o His Majestr* 
firasjing, tkit fee would be pleased to order the pro^jer oiacer to lay before 



NAVAL HlsrOUV OF THE PRESENT YEAJl, lS(/7. 331 

tlie House an account of the quantity of ammunition embarked by order of 
the Ordnance UtHce, on hoard of the vesiels which sailed on the Expedition 
witii Sir Sanjuel Aucliuiuty, and a comparison of the same with the quaiititjr 
UMially shipped for Expeditions oi a £ji,uhtr ileocnpuoa.'' 

ilia Lordsliip ohseived, that the producticjii of this paper would do away 
the effect of a siranjie misapprehension whicli had guiiu forth, respectin'4 a 
passage in the dispatch of Sir Samuel Auclunut^. it liud been supposed that 
too small a provision of ammunition had been made for the expeditioa 
under tlsat officer, whei-eas the quantity was more than sutiieient for the 
object on which the expedition was sent out, and more than is usually 
shipped on foreign expeditions of the s'.ime sort. — ^Tiie motion was put and 
agreed to. 

The Bill for remdating the Office of Treasurer of the Navy was read a 
third time and passed. 

Thursday, Apkil 23. 

Lord Auckland, in addressing the House, on tlie I,oan Bill, vvhicli stood 
for a Committee, deprecated the narrow principles introduced by His 
Majesty's present Ministers, with regard to what they emphatically denomi- 
nated « fOHsJc^er^i/jc^/i 1)/ the shipping uittrest ; and attempted to show, 
that they defeated the object which they had in view, by the clauses 
which they had introduced into the Bill. 

The Duke oi' Uluntivse observed, that the petition from the shipping 
interest stated very strong grievances ; and he appealed to tiieir Lordships, 
whether their solicitations should be disregarded, or whether any set 
of Ministers could conscientiously hear their complaints, and not attend 
to them? This His Majesty's present Ministers had done by the clauses 
which they had introduced into the Bill; and they had done it without 
affecting, in the .smallest degree, the financial welfare of the country. 

Lord Sahi.uuih, and Loi:d GrcnviUe, spoke in favour of the Bill in its 
original state. 

Loril HuuJ:ciburi/ contended, that, by the new provisions, the faith 
of the pulilic was not only preserved, but the shipping interest was inaJu- 
tumed and improved; and, above all, the great nursery for our seamen 
wai protected and encouraged. 

The Bill was at length conunitted and reported, without amendment 

Saturday, April 25. 

The Royal Assent was given, by Commission, to the Bill for rei?ulating 
the Office of Treasmer of iJis .Majesty's Navy, to the Royal Jsaval As}luni 
Bill, and to a Biii for regtdating and improving the fisheries on the nver 
Tweed. 

MuMDAY, AruiL 27. 

The Earl of Cfl/ncZf «, Lord Haukesburi/, and the Lord Chancellor, sat 
as Commissioners; and, the Commons being in attendance at the Bar, 
a Commission from His Majesty, for proroguing the P.irliainent, was read; 
us Wits His Majesty's most gracious Speech, in the following terms: — 
My Lords and Gentlemen, 

We have it in coiuuiand Iroiu His IMnjest}' to iuform you, thfet His Majesty has 
thought fit to a vuil liiiiiself of the first nioiin-ut which wjuld adtr.it of tlie init-rrup-' 
tionottlie sitting ol I'ailiain'iiit, witlioul iiiaieridl intunvemeiice 10 the pubucbiiii- 
nc-.t, to close the present Session; and thai iln ;M-.ijjst) has theretore been ^leajed 
lo cilUbfr a Comunssiou lo bt iiwaed, undci ths(ir<Mit Hcitl, for prorcguiajj FarLa* 



3?2 KATAI, HISTORY OF THE PRT.S] XT YEAR, 1807. 

y» e art^ further cornmanded to stale lo you, tliat His !\rajes'y is anxious to rernr 
to the sfiise ot his Pco[ile, while tde evciKs winch nave icceatly taken plai;e are 
jei fri'bh ni their recollection. 

His Majesty feels, tliat in ri sorting to this measure, under the present < ircamslances, 
he at once deinousirntf?, m the most nui'qanocal aiaiiner, his o,\n couscienliijas 
persnasion of the rectitude of those motives upon which he has acted, and atfords 
to his People the best oppoi tiinity of lesufyui^ their <leleriiiiualiuu to si-.ppirt hiai 
in every exi^rcise of the prerogatives of his Crown, wliich is coiifonuabie to ihe 
sacred obligation'- under ivhicli ihey are held, and cuD iucive to the ■\velfar-" of his 
kmedoii, and to the sccnrit3' of the Constitution. , 

His JMajes-ty directs us t'l express his entire conviction, th^t after so long a H'i;'!!, 
marked by a series of indulgences to his Honiaii (Jatnolic Subjects, they, m coiuiuou 
with every other class ol his People, must feel assured oi his attachment ;o the 
principles of a just and eniigiiteued tolerauon, aiid of lis anxioys desire lo pro- 
tect equally, aud proixjote unpartmlly, tiie happiness of all destnplioiis of his sub- 
jects. 

Gentlemen of the Hou^e of Commons, 

His Majesty has couiniaadBd us lo thank you, in His Majesty's nama, for the 
Supplies winch yon have lurnished for tlie public service. 

He has seen wiih gieatsaiisfaction liiat you have been able to find the means of 
detrawng, in the present year, tiiosc lar-^e but necessary expenses tor virhicli you 
liave provided, without imposing upon his People the inimedtate burthen of addi- 
tional ta.\es. 

His Maiesiy has observed with no less satisfaction the inquiries which yon have 
insiitiiled into snhji'cts connected ^\ ith public economj' ; and, lie trusts thkt the eariy 
attention of a new Parlianioni, whicl; he will forthwith direct to be calfed, will be 
applied lo the prosecution of these iniportant objects. 

My I ords and Gentlemen, 

His .Majesty has directed us most earnestly to recommend to you, that you 
should cultivate, by all nioaui in your power, a spirit of u.uoa, liaruioiiy, aiid good 
will, amongst all classes and descriptions of Ins People. 

His Afajesty trusts that the divisions naturally and unavoidably excited by the 
late uiiloruinate and uncalled for agitation of a question so lutcrestiiiL; to the feel- 
ings and opinions of his People, will speedily pass away ; and that the prevailing 
sense and determination of all his subjects to exert their united eftorts in the cause 
of liieir Coinitrv, will enable His ^laj sty to conduct to an IiououruLle and secure 
tcfiuinatioa the' great contest m wnich he is engaged. 

The Lord Chancellor then, in His ]Majesty's name, and with the usual 
formiilities, prorogued the Parliament to the 13thoi'i\iay next. 

HOUSE OF COMMONS, Tuesday,' Makch 3. 

A Bill for the better rei!;uktion of Pilots, and pilotage of vrsse!'^ navi- 
gating the Fntish Seas, was, accordinsr to order, read a second time, And 
comniitted to a Committee of the whole House; ard the sa'd Hill, m 
jiinended, was ordered to be printed. We can only insert tlie following 
marginal notes : — 

1. Vessels sailing up or down the river ThaTiie* and Medwav, between 
Orf irdiiL'SS and London Bridge and Portsrnouch, and the South Foreland, 
shall be conducted by Pilots licensed by the Corporation of the Tnnity 
Hou^e 

9. Penalty on Masters of vessels navigating within limits without 
Pilots. 

3. Exemption in cas?s where no Pilot can be procured. 

4. Per.alty on persons actinji as Pilots witlioiit license. 

3. Penalty on knowingly jEpi'p'.oying unlicensed iJcrsons, or out of proper 
iinuts. " .... w- 

5. Penalties not to extend to persons assisting vessels in distress. 



NAVAL mSTORY OF THE PRESENT fEAR, 1807. 331 

■ 7. Trinity House may atpoiiit perions at the outports to examiae 
Pilots. 

8. Authority of the 'I'riiiity House not to extend to any ports or places, 
the pilotage whereof is i emulated by any special Acts of Parliament. 

9. No person to be licensed as a Pilot in the Thames, who has not com- 
manded vessels, or served apprenticeship. 

10. Piluts not hiiviiig served tlirce years, not to take cha-'^ge of liwge 
vessels. 

, 11. Licensed persons mav supersede unliconsed persons. 

12. Directions that Pilots keeping pulilic houses, or concerned ia prac- 
tices ai;ainst Revenue, &c. to forfeit their licenses. 

13. No Cinque Port Pilot to be compelled to biing any vessel above 
Gravesend. 

14. Allowing the Trinity House to license proper Pilot vessels. 

15. Pilot vessels running before vessels to direct their course, the owners 
of such vessels entitled to Pilot rates. 

16. Corporation of Trinity House to establish rate of pilotage. 

17. Allowing an appetd to the Privy Council. 

18. Pilots to be subject to the governuieni of tlie Corporation, who mar 
make b^'e laws. 

19. Copies of bye laws to be put up in the Custom House. 
no. Regulating the rates of pilotage at the iiut-p<jrts. 

21. Pilots to execute a bond to conlorin to bye laws. 

'■it. Qaar intine \ esacL carried to Stand^aie Creek to pay the full pilotage 
to London. 

as. Pilot boats to carry disMnguishing flags. 

24. Penalty on Pilots refusing to ta!:e charge of vessels, or exacting feeSj 
or not completing their service. 

i?o. Pilots, or persons assisting vessels, not to have greater sums thafi 
settled by Trinity House. 

'2ti. Pilots taken to sea entitled to pav and compensation, 

27. Owners of foreign ships to pay pilotage, on oath that theCaptain Las 
iiot paid it. 

28. For recovery of pilotage money. 

29. Penalty on giving false account of draught of wate.'-, and on alteria' 
■watermarks or stern posts. - 

3(1, Captains of ships, on entering inwards, or clearing outwards, to give 
the Pilot's name. 

31. Lists and registers of Pilots at out-ports to be transmitted to Tx-inity 
House. 

32. Lighted vessels to be protected. 

£3. Penalty of running foul of Trinity House buoys. 

34. Certain penalties to be recovered before Justices of the Peace. 

35 Other penalties — how to be recovered. 

36. Witnesses summoned, and refusing to attend — tbepunishmcut, 

27. Application of penalties. 

38. Persons escaping into other countries mav be followed. 

39. Distress not unlawful for want of form. 

40. Conviction of otfenders. 

41. Appeal. 

4'i. Limitatioa of acti'jns. 

Tuesday, April 14. 
The Royal Naval Asylum Bill was read a tliird time and passed. 

^ Thursday, Aprtl 16. 
On the motioa of Lord CMtlereagh, a Resolution was passed, that tlJ* 



334 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S07. 

House does acknowledge and highly approve the diligence and skill mani- 
fested by Rear-Adniiral Stirling, in landing the troops, 6:c. at the capture 
ot" Monte Video. — Motions of thanks to the Officers, Seamen, and Marines, 
imder the command of Rear-Admiral Stirling, were also passed. 

Tuesday, April 21. 

The New Sierra T-eone Transfer Bill was read a third time and passed. 
The consideration of the report, on the Pilots' Regulation Bill, was post- 
poned till the 28th of April. ^ 

Wednesday, Apkil S2. 

Colonel Wood moved, that an Address be presented to His Majesty, 
praying that he would he graciously pleased to direct, tliat there be laid 
tefore the House copies of the letters that passed between the General 
and other officers commanding in the West Indies, and Government, re- 
specting the appointment of a Governor of the island of Curacoa. — His 
motive was to know, why Captain Brisbane, who had the tcmporniy com- 
mand of that island, was not continued therein, and why another was 
appointed in liis room ? 

Mr. Windham observed, that it had always been customary to give, pr« 
iempure, the Government of any conquered place to the officer commanding 
at such conquest. In due time the sign manual appointed another; for, 
without prejudice to the conqueror, who might be every way quahfied 
for all military service, he might not be fit to conduct the civil affairs of such 
a place. This had frequently happened of late, and no person was ever 
known to complain of it. It frequently happened, that in giving such an 
appointment to Commanders, tliey would not think the gift worth accep- 
tance, and many of them would prefer the command of a iittle Govern- 
ment called a frigate, in preference of that of an island. This might have 
been Captain Brisbane's case. He certainly deserved well of his country; 
but allowing him every thing which belonged to courage, and the highest 
sense of honour, he might not have those qualiticatious, wliich rendered 
him an eligible person to manage and conduct the civil atfairs of a new 
colony. 

) Colonel Woody after a few explanatory observations, withdrew his 
amotion. 



%nux& en ^rrtirc, 

Copied verbatim from the London Gazette. 

[Continued from page 261.] 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, MARCH 28, 1807, 

Copy of a Letter from Rear-Admiral Sir Akiundtr Cochrane, K. B.', Com- 
niander in Chit f if His Mujcstfs Shiph and Fessels at the Leeward Lland-i, 
to William Mursden, Est].; dated ua board the Northumberland, at Bar- 
badoes, the 22d Janumy, 1S07. 

SIR, 

TlT^OR the information of the T-ords Commissioners of the Admiralty, X. 
Jr beg to enclose t!ic copy of a Letter from Captain Matson, of llis Ma- 
jesty's ship Venus, accjuaiuting ine witli the capture of the Determinec, a 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUHSEXT YEAR, 1807. 335 

line brig privateer from Guadalniipe, pierced for twenty guns, liaving four- 
teen mounted, and one hundred and eis^ht men on board. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His Majesties Ship Venus, Carlisle Bay, 
SIR, Bailadoes, January 18, 1807. 

"With great pleasure I report to you the capture, l>y His ^lajesty's sliip 
under my conmiand, of the French privateer brii; Determinec, from Ouii- 
daloupe, mounting fourtecui guns, with a complement of one hundred and 
eijiht men. We saw her from our niast-hca(l, on the forenoon of the 16th 
instant, about a hundred leagues east of Barbadoes, and she gave us a chase 
of sixteen hours. The Deterniinee is nearly new (being on her fourth cruise 
only), and a renvarkable fine vessel, coppered and copper-fastened, out six- 
teen days, and had not taken any thing. 

I have, &c. HENRY MATSON. 

*rhe Honourable Sir Alex. Cochrane, Rear- 
Admiral of the White, &,c. ^c. SfC. 

Copy of another Letter from Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, dated 
at Barbadoes, January 22, 1807. 

SIR, 

The enclosed copies of letters from Captains Selby and Sayer, of His 
Majesty's ships Cerberus and Galatea; from Captain Hodge, of His Ma- 
jesty's sloop St. Christopher's; and from Lieutenant Dean, commaiKhng 
His Majesty's armed brig Dominica, I request you will be pleased to laj 
before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Tliey give me an ac- 
count of the capture of two small privateers, a letter of marque, and two 
other vessels. Considerable spirit and gallantry were displayed hy the otS- 
cers and men in the boats of the Calatea and Cerberus; the loss in the lat- 
ter ship has been rather great, and I am sorry to add, that Lieutenant 
Coote's wound is of a very severe and dangerous nature. 

The Creole privateer schooner, of one gun and twenty-eight men, cap- 
tured by the Circe on the .Sd instant, is also arrived in this Bay. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His Majesty's Ship Cerberus, off" Mar" ■. ■ 
SIR, tinique, January 3, 1807. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that in pursuance of your orders to me by 
Captain Pigot, I reconnoitred the ports of Guadaloupe and the Saints; 
rtftcr having so done, and percejvins; no force of any consequence, except a 
brig, of sixteen guns, lying in tlie Saints, I left Captain Pigot, of the Circe, 
off that port, and wa's proceeding to my former station in further pursuance 
of your directions, uht-n on the 'Jd ii!Stant, as I was beating to windward 
between Martinique and Dominique, I observed a privateer schooner, with 
a schooner and a sloop in company, standing for St. Pierre 's with French 
colouis flying; I ga\e cha.-e and prevented them from reaching ftiat port, 
upon which they all tlu-ee anciiored under a battery to the northward, near 
to the Pearl Patck, and \ery close to the shore. 

It houcvcr appeared to me practicable to cut them out in tlie night. I 
consulted Lieutenant Cootc on tlw? occasion, who, with Lieurenant Bligh, 
volunteered the attack; when about eight o'clock, they very srallantlj 
boarded two of the vessels, nudtr a most tremcnd(jus fire of canncm and 
liuiskttry from tiie shore, and brought them out, nutwithstauding the ene- 
jny liad taken the precaution to unbend their sails. 

Our ipss, however, upou this occasion, has, I am concerned to say, been 



335 NATAt. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807, 

considerable. Lieutenant Coote has received a most desperate wound in 
the head, which has depri'-ed hitn of his eye-sij;ht, and I very much appre- 
hend will, eventually, his life. One Midshipman was wounded by a musket- 
irall in the leg. T^vo men were killed, and eight more were wounded ; a 
list of which r herewith enclose. 

r cannot close this account without expressing in the highest terms my 
entire satisfaction of the gallant condur^t of Lieutenants Coote and Bligb, 
togetlirr wit!) Mr. Hall, blaster's Mate, Mr. Sayer, Mr. Carlewis, and 
Mr. Selby, Midshipmen, wliose bravpry on this occa=iion could not be ex« 
ceeded; and which I feo\ a'^sured will be the means of procuring them yorlV 
approbation. Messrs. Horopka and Ratcove, RuS'.ian young gentlemen, 
sert'ing as Midshipmen, and iMr. Collins, Boatswain, are also entitled to my 
warm praise. 

The privateer made her escape with her sweeps under cover of the dark- 
ness of the night. I heipwith enclose you a list of the vessels captured 
(one schooner, one sloop, French) ; and have the honour to be, &c. 

W. SELBY. 

T^e Honourable Sir Alexander Coch- 
.rane, K. B., Commander in Chiefs 
4"C. 4'f- 4"C. Barhudoe^. 

A IJst of Officers and Men Killed and Wounded on board His %M^jesty''s 
Ship Cerberus. 

Killed. 
William Torbuct, ordinary seaman ; William Townsend, marine. 

Wounded, 

William Coote, second Lieutenant, dangerous; George Snyiu:, Mid?hip- 
r«»n, not bad ; Peter I'lpoii, ordmary, since dead; VVilliam Smith, land- 
man, not dangerous; .loljn Burke, Quarter Gunner, ditto; John Tucker, 
landman, dangerous; John Tesdale, Corporal of marines, ditto; Antliony 
jWlarlej, ordinary, slightly; Stephen Old, able, ditto. 

His Majesti/'s Ship Galafea. off" Guudaloupep 
SIR, , November 1*2, 1806. 

This morning I gave chase to a suspicious schooner in the N. W., and, 
after a few hours, got near enough to him, when it moderated by degrees to 
a <r;ilm, and our boats were dispatched under Lieutenants Gittens and Wal- 
\rr; in a few minute'^ after thoy reached near enough torchirn his fire with 
irtuskptry, and were on the point of boarding, when his Fi-cnch colours were 
sfriick, and proved to be the Reunion, a fine new vessel of trn guns,fpierced 
for fourteen,) copper bottom, from la Guira, bound to Martmique with a 
fargo; she obtained some dispatciies for the French General in Cb:cf, from 
the Span. sh Government at the Carraccas; not a man of ours was hurt, 
■p-'hicb 1 attribute to Lieutenant Gitten's judicious disposition of the boats, 
while under the entniy's tire. Our men confirmed me in the good opinion 
J have so frequently had occasion to have of them. 
1 have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO. SAYER. 
Rear-Ad.. iral Sir A. Coihrane, S^c. 

His MqjesTy's Sloop, St. Christopher x, Basseterre 
STR, Road, St. Kin's, Jannari/ 3. J 807. 

I have the honour to inform you, that at dny-bght, on the morning of 
the ?d instant, Sr. Bartholomew's bearing N. VV., distance about three 
miles, I fell in v/ith thiee French privateers, all to leeward of us j I ju» 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PKESEJJT YKAR, 1S07. 337 

jTar.tly gare chase, but as they separated, we liad only the gnod fortune 
vo capture one of them, the other t^vo having escaped into Great Bay, St. 
ilartin's. 

TIad they united, T am happy to assure you, from the spirit and alacrity 
of the otiicers and ship's company, we should either have taken or destroyed 
the whole of them. 

Tlie Tessel I have captured is the Entreprenante French sloop, of on» 
small guu and seventeen men. 

I have the hanour tJ be, &c. 



Hear- Admiral the Hon. Sir A. Cochrane, 
K. B., 4"f- fyc. 6)C. 



A. HODGE. 



His Majcxti/.s armed Bri^ Dominica, off 
SI R, Kosscau, Nijv. 28, 1806. 

I have tlic lionour to inform yon, that I yesterday captured, to wind- 
ward of Mariegalante, the Basilisk lugger.ri;j;<^ed French rovv-bo;it priva- 
teer, arnied with one brass tiiree-]JOunder, and sixteen men; she was re- 
turning to Ponit-a.-1'etrfc, from a three months' eruise, and had mads three 
captures. 

I have Uic honour to be, &c. 

^^^ beax. 

To the Hon. Sir J. Cochrane, K. B., 
ifc, <§c. 4"C. 

List ofCfrpfures made bi/ the Ships of His Majesfr/s Squadron in the East 
Indies, under Cwnmaitd nf Rear-Adiniral'Sir Edward VcLlczi;, Bart., since 
last Return, per Ti'emcndous, February 12, 1B06. 

French sloop Entli le Pincon, of .10 tons, from Madaii^aKcar to Port 
N.W. ; taken oh' St. Dennis, October 1 1, 1805, by the Duncan, Lieutenant 
Sneyd, Commander, anri destroyed at sea. 

French brii^ la Courier, of 280 tons, fitted for slaves, from Seychelles; 
taken off Seychelles, November 9, 1805, by the same ship, and tlie same 
Commander. 

iM-ench brig la Slrins, of 80 tons, laden with gum, rosin, and plank, bound 
to Port N. \N'.; t;iken oft" Seychelles, same date, by the same ship and Com- 
mander, and destroyed. 

A French brig, (name unknown,) of 90 ton-:; taken same date, by the 
same ship and Commander, and set on fire. 

French schooner la Cacottc, havino; 4 guns, but pierced for 8, and 70 
tons, laden willi cocoa nuts; takea off Diego Garcia, November 27, 1805, 
by tiie same shijj and Coumiandcr. 

A French bri|i, (name unknown,) of 80 tons, from Port Louis to Bour- 
bon ; taken off the Mauritius, .ianuary 14, 1806, by tljo Pitt, W. Bathurst, 
Commander, and destroyed, haviii'ji; b:de sioods and military clothing. 

French ship privateer la llenriette, of 20 t!;Mns and 135 men; taken , 
off Friar's Hood, June 1.3, 180b, by ll.e Po\veri'ul, 11. Piampin, Com- 
mander. 

French brier privateer I'lsle de France, of 8 guns and 71 men; taken 
at sea, April 8, 1806, by llie Duncan, Lord G. Sluart, Commander, de- 
stroyed. 

French ship privateer la Bellone, irt" 30 l'uus and 194 men; taken "ff 
Basses, July 12, 18!)d, by the Pcjwcrful, Ft. Piampin, Commander, and the 
Hattksnake, J. Bastard, Connnandcr. 

French sloop packet Alcxaiidriane, from Bourbon to France; taken at 
sea, March 28, 1800, by the Psyche, W. \Vooldrid^e, Cummauder. 

/2ab. Cpion. ©oltXVlI. i x 



538 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

French schooner la Celestine, laden wiih plank, corn, and cloves; taken 
at sea. May 20, 1806, by the same ship and Commander. 

A French brig, (name unknown;) taken May 26, 1B06, by the same 
sliip and Commander, and run on shore, and wrecked under the batteries of 
St. Gilles. 

Fienc'ii hig<:,er I'Uranie, laden with rice; taken at sea, same date, by the 
same ship and C'ommander. 

trench lupgcr la Sophie, laden witli rice; taken and burnt at sea, cargo 
taken out. saine date, by the same ship and Conminuder. 

French brig; la Paque Bot, laden willi "um and rice ; taken at sea, June 1, 
1806, by the same ship and Commander. 

French scliooner I'Etoilc, laden with ric*^; taken at sea and scuttled, 
cargo taken out, June 2, iy06, by the same ship and Commander. 

French briu; la Corjuette, hiden with rice ; taken at sea, June 10, 1806, 
by the same ship and Conmiander. 

French luizger la Grange, taken and scuttled at sea, same date, by the 
same ship and Conmiander. 

Spanish brig Piovidentiay laden with sundries, from Manilla to the Mau- 
ritius; taken at sea, June 11, 1800, by the Sir Francis Drake, P. B. Pellevr, 
Commander. 

French bri"; Fxpedition, laden with slaves and cotton ; taken off the Isle 
of France, July 3, 1806, by the Pitt, W. Batluirst, Commander. 

French brig pri\ateer Vigilante, of "2 eigliteen-pounders; taken at Muscat, 
July 21, 1806, by the Concorde, J. Cramer, Commander. 

French ketch le Charles, of '2 guns, 16 men, and H5 tons; taken at Ro- 
drigue, July 15, 1806, by the Sea Flower, Lieutenant Owen, Com- 
mander. 

French ship privateer I'Emilien, of 18 guns and 160 men; taken at 
sea, September 23, 1806, by the Cullodcu, Christopher Cole, Com- 
mander. 

EDW, PELLEW. 

APRTt 4. 

Cnpy of a Letter from Sir Thomas Troubridgc, Bart., Rear -Admiral of thr 
Whitt, &c., to WiUiam Manden, Es(j.; dated on board His Majestj/'i Ship 
the Blenheim, Fort C'or?iualiis, Auguat 20, 1806. 

SIR, 

I enclose to you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, the copy of a letter which I have received from Captain EI- 
phinstone, of His Majesty's ship Greyliound, in the Java Seas, dated the 
27th July last, containing an account of some successful operations against 
t'lc enemy, performed by tiiat ship, in company with His JMajesty's sloop 
Harrier; and of his having, on the 25th of that month, fallen in with the 
Dutch Kepublican frii^atc Pallas, of thirty-six guns, and two hundred and 
seventeen men, and the William Corvette, of twenty guns and one himdred 
and ten men, having under convoy the two large armed ships named in th* 
margin*, laden with spices, the produce of the Moluccas; that after a 
smart action of about foity-five minutes, the Pallas nnd iier convoy struck 
to liis Majesty *s ships. The conette taking the advantage of the crippled 
stal:e of the Greyhound and Harrier, effected her escape. 

Ihe encomiums bestowed by Captain Elphinstone on ail his officers, petty 
officers, seamen, and marines, and also upon Captain Troubridge, the offi- 
cers, and men of the Harrier, render any observation I might be induced 
to malie, unnecessary. 

I am happy further to acquaint you, that the Greyhound, Harrier, and 
prizes, arrived yesterday at Port Cornwallis. 

* Victoria and Battavia. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YF.IR, 1807. 339 

I enclose Captaia Elpbinstoiie's return of the killed and wounded. 
I am, &c. 

T. TROUBRIDGE. 

His Ma/csti/s S/iip G reyhozmd, Jc.va 
SIR, 'Sea, 27th Ju/j,'l806. 

I have the honour to Inform you, that His Majesty's ships Greyhound and 
Harrier, after destroying, on tlie 4th uf July, under the Fort of Manado, the 
Dutch Company's brig Christian Elizabeth, aniied wiUi ei^lit guns, and 
having a complement of eit;hty oicn, stood cicross the Molucca Sea t.^ tlie 
Ihland of Tidoa, when they cajjtured, on the Oth, another of the enemy's 
cruizers called the Belgica, armed vviih twelve guns, and manned with thirty- 
two men; from thence proceedin;^ to the westward, on the evening of the 
25th of July, four sail of ships were descried passing through tiiC Straits of 
Salayer; immediate chase was given to them; and, by nine, I had the satis- 
faction of seeing them lying to betwfen the small Dutch Posts of Bonthean 
and Balacomba, at about seven miles' distance from the shore. I easily 
made out one of them to be a frigate, and another a corvette ; but a third 
had so much the appearance of a line of battle ship, that both Captain 
Trouhridge and myself deemed it prudent to wait till daylight before we ex- 
amined them. We accordingly lay-to during the night, at two miles' dis- 
tance to windward. As the day broke, I had the pleasure of finding the 
ship which had forced us on cautionary measures, was a Jarge two-decked 
bhip, resembling an English Iiidiaman. 

The enemy (for they proved to be a Dutch squadron) immediately drew 
out in order of battle on the larboard tack under their topsail.^; the frigate 
taking her station in the van, an armed ship abtern of her, the large ship in 
the centre, and the corvette in the rear. Fortunately for us the frigate, by 
fore-reaching upon her second astern, caused a small opetiing in their line.- 
It was suggested to me by Mr. Martin, Master of His Majesty's ship Grey- 
hound, that if we could close with the enemy whilst in that position, our at- 
tack might be made to advantage; accordingly, under French colours, we 
bore up, as if with an intention to speak the frigate; and when within hail, 
all further disguise being unnecessary, we shifted our colours, and com- 
menced tiring, which was instantly returned with a smartness and spirit 
that evinced they were fully prepared for the contest. The Harrier, who 
had kept close astern of the Greyhound, on seeing her engaged, bore round 
up, and passing between the frigate and her second astern, raked them both, 
(the latter with such effect,) that they bore up in succession to return her 
fire, thus leaving the frigate sepai'ated from them. Being resolved to avail 
myself of this advantage, and being anxious to be in a position for support- 
ing the Harrier, now engaged in the centre of the enemy's line, I wore close 
round the frigate's bows, raking her severely whde passing; and when on 
the starboard bow, by throwing our sails aback, we fed into the desired po- 
sition. The cannonade from the Greyhound was now admirable, while that 
of the frigate visibly slackened ; and at last, after an action of forty mi- 
nutes, wholly ceased. On hailing to know if they had struck, they answer- 
ed they had, and Lieutenant Home took immediate possession of her. On 
directing her fire on the 5hi[)S astern, they all followed her example, except 
the corvette, who, from being in the rear, had suffered litile from the ac- 
tion, and now made off towards the shore. Captain Troubridge iuimeJi- 
atE'ly wore in pursuit of her, sending, at the same time, a boat to take pos- 
Bcssion of the large ship, (\vhose fire he had nearly silenced early in the ac- 
tion.) Perceiving the corvette sailed remaikal>ly well, and tliat she could 
spread more canvass than the Harrier, her mast and rigging being entire, I 
recalled the latter from a chase which was likely to be fruitless. 



340 NAVAI, HISTOUY OF THE I'R¥:SE\-T TEAR, 1807. 

The prizes proved to be the Dutch Republican frigate Pallas, of thirty- 
■ six guns, commandecl hy X. S. Aalbers, a Captain in the Dutch Navy; the 
Victoria, a two-decked ship, of about eight luuidred tons, commanded by 
Klaas Kenkin, senior Captain in the Dutcli Company's service; and the 
Battavia, a ship of about five hundred tons, commanded by Williani 
JLeVal, a Captain in the same service; both the Company's ships are 
armed tor the purpose of war, and richly ladeu with the produce of the 
^Inlirccas. 

The ship which escaped, I lenrn from our prisoners, was the Republican 
corvette ^Vil^ialn, mounting twenty twenty-four pounders, and nianued with 
one hundred and ten men. 

The support and assistance T have received from Captain Troubridge on 
every other occasion, (through a difficult and perilous navigation,) [ attribute 
to the same talents, abihty, and zeal, which he so nobly displayed on this 
one. 

I feel happy in an opportunity for recommending Mr. Purvis Home, first 
Lieutenant of the Greyliound, a deserving good officer, who proved that 
innate courage was to be assisted by experience, and I reaped the benefit of 
that which he had acquired at Copenhagen, by tlie advice and assistance 
■which he gave me. T!ie fire from the main decks and the consequences of 
■it<is the best encomium on Lieutenants Andoe and Whitehead ; but I beg 
leave to add, that their conduct has been as good and exemplary on every 
Other occasion. I have, had cause to speak of Mr. Martin in the body 
of this letter; I can only add, that he is a credit to the profesiion to which 
he belongs. The beliavjour of the Warrant Officers and Midshipmen was 
highly hocnming; from among the latter 1 beg leave to recommend Messrs. 
Harris, Bray, Giace, and Majoribanks, as young ofiicers deserving of pro- 
mo!-i<jn. 

The cooInc5«, bravery, and good conduct of the Petty Officers and ship's 
company, was such as would make it tedious, difficult, and perhaps invi- 
dious, to attempt to particularize iheir individual merits; they have long, 
by iheir excellent behaviour, had a claim on my gratitude, and they 
now have one on my admiration ; suffice it then to say, that an enthusias- 
tic courage reigned throughout tiie ship ; such as I fancy belongs to Britons 
alone. 

Captain Troubridge speaks in the highest terms of the Harrier; he has 
requested me to make known the great assistance he received fi-om Mr. 
j^Iitcliell, the first Lieutenant, and the very exemplar}' conduct of acting 
Lieutenant C, Hole, and Mr. R. Quulst, the Master. In expressing his ap- 
probation of the conduct of the Warrant and Petty Officers, lie mentions 
[Messrs. Coffin and Mitford, Jvlidshipmen, especially : and I take the liberty 
<)f adding, that both of the-ti have served their time. 

Lor all other particulars I beg leave to refer you to llie enclosed reports, 
from the perusal of which you wilt perceive how much His IMajesty's ships 
have suffered m their masts and rig':ring; but you will participate in the joy 
which I fieeJ, that our loss has been triHing when compared with that of the 
enemy. I I'.iive, 6cc. 

E. ELPHINSTONE, 

Sir Thcmas Traufiridge, Barf., Ticar-Jdmiral 
■ of Ihe White, SfC. Sfc.^c. 

iist qfXitlrct and Wmaded ori hoard Hi'! Majestifs Ships, in Action uit,h d 
Dutch S:j2ir.droti nn the '2bth of Julij, 18ut;, off Macassar. ' '* 

(^reykotini — 1 killed and B wofinded. 

}iikrricr—'6 wounded. — ■lotal, 1 killed and H wounded.. 



KAVAL HISTORV OF THE JUrSENT YEAR, 1807. 341 

Officers slightly wounded. 
. Greyhound — James Wood, Boatswain; George ZVIajoriHank?, Master's 
Mate; atui John JBradfurd, Clerk. 

last of Killed and Wounded an hoard the T.nemy^s Skips, in Action on-thc 
Itth of July, laCO, of Macassar. 

Pallas — 8 killed and 32 wounded. — (The Captaiu, Pilot, and four sea- 
men, bitice dead.) 

Victoria — 2 killed. 

Battuvia — -2 killed and seven wounded. — (The Lieutenant and one sea- 
men, since dead.j — Total, 12 killed, CJ9 wounded. 

Officers hilled. 

'Pallas — Jan Hendrick Resen, Boatswain. 
Jbattavia — P. Hulsenbos, first Lieuten;uit. 

Officers zcounded. 

Pa//as— N. S. Aalbers, Captain, since dead ; W, Slander, second Lieate- 
nant; E. C. Herson, fifth Lieutenant; B. V'alk, Pilot, since dead; A. An- 
drisse, second Pilot; P. V'ander Wagtz, third Pilot; A. Edetz, Midshipman; 
T. Animban, Clerk. 

Battalia — F, H. Mammael, Lieutenant; Cenit Fredericks, ditto, since 
dead. 

E. ELPHLS'STONE. 

LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAOKDIXARY. 

■• APRIL 12. 

Captain Donelly, of His Majesty's ship Ardent, arrived this morning 
vith dispatches from Rear-Admirai Stirling, commanding a squadron of 
His Majesty's ships in the Rio de la Plata, of which tlie following are 
copies. 

SIR, Diadem, off'Montc Video, fjth Feb. 1807. 

I have peculiar satisfaction in couirratulating my Lords (Commissioners of 
the Admiralty on tlie capture of Monte Video, as well from tlie impoitance 
of the conquest, as from the honour wiiich has thereby been acquired by 
His Majesty's arms. 

Immediately on the arrival of Brijadier-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, at 
Maldonado, it was determined tj invest this place, and having assembied 
our force off the Island of Tlores, a descent was elfected on the lOtti ult. 
near Carreta Point, which is about seven miles to the eascward of the town. 
'J'he enemy had assembled in considerable numbers, and with several pieces 
of artillery seemed determined to oppose our progress. 

Tlic navij:ation of the Pcio de la Plata, with the strong breezes which we 
have experienced for several wet.-i;5, rendered tlie landing of troops, and 
assisting their operations, very difticult, but the place chosen was happily 
adaptetl to allow the covering vessels, under the direction of Captain llar- 
dyman, to approacii so close as to command the beach, and notwithstand- 
ing the weather threatoned, and was unfavour.able, the soldiers got all on 
shore without a siiigle accident of any kind, and were in possession of tlie 
heights before six o'clock, with such things as the General wanted. 

Ou the i9th the army moved forwurds, and as an attempt to harass 
the rear was expected, 1 diieclcd boats to proceed clo^e along shore to 
iook out for and bring otV any wounded men, whilst the covrring vessels 
were placeil to prevent the enemy from giving annoyance, and i iiad tha 
tiappiiK'Ss tu hear that all the sutierers were brought oif, iu despite of well 



342 NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

directed efforts to destroy them. In the evening T dropped, with the fleet, 
«li' Chico Bay, near winch tlie army encamped, within two miles of the 
citj. _ ' . 

I had landed about eight hundred seamen and royal marines, under the 
orders of Captain Donnelly, to act with the trf)ops; and, as I saw no 
advantage could icbtik from any eftorc of ships against a strong fortress, well 
defended at all points, and wiiich, from the shallowness of the water, could 
not be approached within a distance to allow shot to be of any use, I dis- 
posed the squadron so as to prevent any escape from the harbour, as well 
as Co impede a conimuuicatioii between Colonna and Buenos Ayres, and 
CDofined my whole attcntioa to give every possible assistance in forwarding 
thesfege, by landing jjuns from the line of battle ships, with ammunition, 
sJores, provisions, and every tiling required by the Commander of the 
forces. 

The distance which the ships lay from the shore, with the almost constant 
iizh v/itid* and swell we lutd, and the great way every thing was to be 
dnfsgtd by the seamen, op a heavy sandy road, made the duty excessively 
laVxjrions. The squadFon had almost daily fourteen hundred men on shore, 
Mm\ this shi[> was ofttn left with only thirty men on board. 

The dc'fente made by the enemy protracted the siege longer than was ex- 
pected,, and reduci.-*! our stock of powder so 1(jw, that the King's ships, 
with aPf the tranj.ports, and what a fleet of merchantmen had for sale, 
C(«u!d HOC h,»ve fuinished a further consumption for more tlian two davs, 
wfwn a praciicaUe breach was iortuiiatt'ly made, and on the od instant, 
eavly m the morni'ig, the town and citadel were most galliuuly carried by 
storm, 

in a conversation with the General on the precedii:^ day, I had made 
such di&fK>sit;ioii of t\w. smaller vessels and armed boats, as appeared most 
likely to answer a dcbircd purpose; and so soon as Fort Saint Philip was in 
possession of the British troops. Lieutenant William Milne, with the armed 
launches, {ook poss^'ssion ot the island of Rattones, mounting ten guns and 
g:>rri50ued bv seventy men, which suirendered without any resistance, al-> 
»hongh it IS well adapted for defence, and might liave given considerable 
unnoyance, A veiy tine frigate mounting twenty-eight guns was set fire 
to by Iser new, and blew up with an awful explosion; as also three gun- 
l»oats, but the other vc^seL in the harbour were saved by the exertion uf 
our j>eople. 

It has been much the ( ustom to speak slightly of the resistance to be ex- 
pectetl from the Spaniards in this country; and with confidence of the faci- 
lity vbich has been given to naval operations, by a prior knowledge of the 
river; but the battics lately founht prove the former opinion to be erroneous; 
and experier>ce evinces that all the informatiun hitherto acquired has not 
prevented tlie most formidable dithcultics. 

The conduct of the Captains, officers, seamen and royal marines of the 
ships and vessels, which I kept with me for tliis service, has met with my 
entire approbation: and I teel persuaded that I should have had occasion to 
express n)y satisfaction wjiii the exertions of t!ic oliiccrs and crews of the 
Djomede and Protector, if I had not been obliged to detach thenj on other 
service. ' ' ■■•■■■- ^ 

I am miich indebted to the able assistance which Captain Warren has 
afforded me; and I admire the zeal, the patience, and diligence of every 
individual in the ileet dtu'ing the incessant fatigue which 1 have daily wit- 
nessed. 

Captain Donnelly will have the honour to deliver this dispatch, and is 
fully aUle to give their Lorrlships furiiicr particulars. 

Enclosed is a list uf men behniging to the Navy, who were killed oi 



NAVAL insTonY or tut: presen't year, 1S07. 343 

woundnd in tlic batteries; and al^o a list of tl;e enemy's ships and vessels 
found in t]'.e haibom-, v\ith a reluin of ordnance, &c. on the island of 
Ilattoncs. 

I have the honour to be, &c, 

CHARLES STIRLING. 

A List of the Seainen and Marimsbclungiug to theSgtcadrv7i,ufiOiiere killed 
and zcoundcd at the Capture of Monte Video, FtbrituryZ, 1807. 

Diadem. — Ralph Blair, seaman, killed; John Francis, seaman, ditto; 
Thorr.ton Purke, seaman, badly wounded; John C'raJiy,, marine, slightly 
wounded, 

Raisonabk,- — Michael IMiller, seaman, badly wounded ; Edward Roach, 
seaman, slightly wounded. 

Ardent. — Honourable C. L. Trhy, Midshipman, slightly w(^unded; Joha 
Doak, seaman, slightly wounded ; Michael Btirne, seaman, ditto; Joh» 
Levan, bcaman, ditto; William .Icffji, seaman, daiigerousiy wounded; Wil- 
liam Hart, seaman, missing; James \\'ebster, seaman, ditto; Lawrence 
Plunket, seaman, killed. 

U/Hcorn. — John James, ordinary, badly wounded; Henry Smith, Mid- 
shipman, ditto. 

Mtdusa. — William Garey, able, dangerously wounded. 
Lancuiler. — Josiah Smith, ordinary, slightly woimded; Andrew Swedea, ~ 
able, ditto. 

Daphne. — Timothy Conner, landman, slightly wounded. 
Houe. — William M'Cromick, landman, missing; \^'illiam Burges, land- 
inun, slightly wounded; George Markham, Captain of the forecastle, ditto ^ 
Edward Hill, ordinary, ditto; ^''raucis Bonifast, able, ditto. 

Charuell. — Oliver Luke, seaman, killed ; Joim Murphy, missing. 
I'heusant. — None killed or wounded. 
Encounter. — Richard ^lann, able, badly wounded. 

Slaunek. — George Stewart, Sub- Lieutenant, slightly wounded; Thomas 
Start, alias Joseph Dickins, Umdman, killed ; John Fryar, Captain of the 
foretop, slightly wounded; Patrick ^Niooney, landman, ditto; Thomas II. 
(Jlden, able, ditto; Richard Walker, ordinary, killed; I'eter iiees, Ca}jt;iin ■ 
of the forecastle, slightly wounded; John Morrison, Midshipman, ditto; 
David Miller, ordinary, ditto ; John Moore, landman, ditto. — Total, 6 kdled 
28 wounded, 4 missing. 

CHARLES STIRLING. 

List of Prizes taken at Monte Video, 3d of Februuri/, 1807. 

La Paula, a King's ship, of Q'2 guns, very old, and badly ston-d. 

El Principe de la Paz, an Indiaman, mounting '20 guns, very old, unrigged, 
has a few stores. Fit for a prison ship. 650 ions. 

J./a Princessa, an Indianum, of 6y0 tons, pierced ibr £0 guns, no riggiug 
over head. 

La Fuerte, a King's ship, pierced for 23 guiis, about 6 years old, has be«a 
hove down on one side, and is ready to be hove do\\a on the other, toler- 
ably well found. 

Le Hero, a brig of war, of 20 guns, about 6 vcait old, well fitted, and in 
tolerable good condition, tier sails and rigging on shore, 

Los Dolores, a King's schooner, pierced for 10 guus, is about 5 years old, 
and tolerably well fnund. 

La Paz, a King's schooner, pierced for 10 siius, about 3 years old, sails 
on shore, is coppered, and pretty well fiiund. 

Name unknown, a merchant snow, about 300 tons. 

Name unknown, a merchant brig about 180 tons. 

Nelly, a ship of about 400 tons, nearly new. 

Jolly Tar, a brig of war, pierced for 14 guns. 



344 KAYAL HISTOllY OF THE PRESEXT YEAR, 18G7. 

Name unknown, stout built snow, of about "200 tons, laden with salt. 

Merchant schooner, new, of about 60 tons, laden with spirits and sundry 
merchandise. 

Name unknown, ship of '^2 guns, hgw, of about 400 tons. 

Name unknown, ship of 24 suns, of" about 350 tons. 

Name unknown, ship of about 350 tons, 3 years old, well found. 

Prince of JManilla, ship of alwut 1000 tons, very old. 

La rior del Mayo, merchant ship, about 270 tons. 

La Mana Paula, ship of about 280 tons. 

Name unknown, merchant ship of about 270 tons. 

Name unknown, ship about 200 tons. 

Name unknoNyn, a brig of 160 tons, 5 or 6 years old. 

Ansan Jose de Bilhas, ship of about 240 tons, new, and well found. 

Name unknown, ship about 3uO tons, S or 6 yeais old, well found ir. 
sails and rigL'ing. 

La Reyna Louisa, man of war sloop, pierced for 26 guns, well found, a 
good ship, with brass 12 pounders. 

Minerva, ship, 6 years old, about 180 tons. 

Name unknown, brig, about 180 tous, about 10 years old. 

A ship sunk. 

Smack of 120 tons. 

El Pilar, sunk, of about 120 tons. 

Name unknown, brig, about 180 tons, very good. 

Santa Louisa Polana, ship of loO tons, very good. 

Name unknown, ship almost new, 350 tons, well found. 

Name unknown, ship, very good, of 300 tons. 

Polacca ship, very good, of 100 tons. 

Name unknown, ship of 350 tons, quite new. 

Name unknown, a ship of 460 tons. 

Name unknown, a ship of 350 tons, about 6 years old, a fine ship. 

Santissima Trinidada, very fine ship, vvell found, of 210 tons. 

La Providencia, a ship of 200 tons, in good condition. 

Name unknown, ship of IBO tons, about 10 years old, with new sails an<£ 
riggino-. 

Name unknown, ship of about 230 tons, good state. 

Santa Rosa, a ship of 3 years old, of about 200 tons. * 

Neptuno brig, a brig of 2C)0 tons, good state, well found. 

Name unknown, brig, quite new, of 150 tons. 

Name unknown, ship, very old, of 150 tons. 

La Virgin de la \'illa, ship of 170 tons, in good condition, well found. 

L'liamtas, polacca brig of 220 tons, a good vessel. 

Name unknown, a brig of 150 tons, a good vessel, well found in sails and 
riggmg. 

La Maria Antonia, a ship of about 200 tons, good vessel. 

Ntime unknown, a ship of 300 tous, new and well found. 

Name unknown, a bri-: of 150 tons, a good vessel, well found. 

Name unknown, a ship of 2i0 tons, well found in rigging, spars on 
board. 

Name unknown, ship of 16 guns, almost new, well found in rigging, cop- 
pered, about 260 tons. 

Name unknown, a brig of about 220 tons, good vessel, well found, some 
bides and tallow on board. 

Name unknown, a brig, of about 120 tons,, coppered and good. 

Name unknown, polacca brig, of lUO tons, old. — Total, 57. 

Fifteen sloop-rigiiod gun-boats, 

bix row-boats with guns. , ^ 

CUAPvLES STIRLING. . 



KAVAr, lIISTOIi'S- OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 315 

A Return itf Ordna7ice, HjC, found on and near the Isle of Ra'.iones, F&- 
briiary 3, 180r. 

Loiij:; guns — 4 tweiity'four-pounders, '6 cightecn-pouiulcrs, 3 twelve- 
pounders. 

1 gun-boat long twenty-rour-poundor. 

2 laiiiiclies witli twelve-poundcr carronade?. 
I launch with a long brass six-poundcr. 

1 pinnuce fitted for swivel guns, 

1 lar<;c drckeci launch. 

5 unarnicil luunclici. 

25 small boats, 

60 powder barrels, stove, with side arms, &c. &c. 

7 1 prisoners. 

CHARLES STIRLIXG. 

APRIL 14. 

Ciipj/ofa Letter from Vkc-AdTviral Dacrex, Coimncmdcr in Chief of Ills 
Majcslifii Ships iind Vesnels ut Jamaica, to William Mursden, Esq.} dated 
at Port Rot/al, Junuuri/ 15, 1807. 

SIR, 

I enclose you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 
miralty, the copy of a letter I have received from Captain Briggs, of the 
HJrphens, acqnamtinc me wiih the capture of the Spanish man of war schoo- 
ner Dolores, by the boats of that ship. I am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majeatt/s Ship Orpheus, at Sea, 
SIR, November 21, ISuCi. 

I be<^ to inform yon, that Lieutenant Geor^fe B. Vine did. ort the night of 
tlie 2Uch inst., in the liar};c of His Majesty's ship Orpheus, very gallantly 
board and carry the Spanisli man of war schooner Dolores, mounting one 
lon^ nine, two ibur-poundcr cuns, and four swi\ els, with a complement of 
thirty-four men, in Campeachy Biiy; which schooner was ient out for the 
express purpose of aitackiuij; the Orpheus's boats. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

IIIOMAS BRIGGS, 
To James Richard Dacres, Esq., Commander 
in Chief, &c. 

Copt/ of another Letter from Vice- Admiral Dacrcs, to William MandeUf 
Esq.; dated at Fort Rot/al, February 7, 18U7. 

SIR, 

It gives me much pleasure to enclose yon the copy of a letter I have re- 
ceived from Captain Inglctield, of the Hunter, aCqnainimg me of the cap- 
ture of a Spanish privateer, fitted out to cruise H<^Uli^l ttie trade of this 
Inland. 1 am, &c. 

J. R, DACRES. 

His Mitjesttfs Shop Hunter, S:dith Negri, 
Jiitnuicu, S. E. liu leagues, ijth cj Ju' 
SIR, nvari/, 1807. 

It is with much pleasure I have t!ic lif)nonr of informing vou, that Hi* 
Majesty's sloop under my command fell in with rhis morninir and captured, 
w.fter a cliase of eight liours, and nmch labour at the iweops, the IJabelia 

i?9ato. CJiron. Sol. XVII. r v 



346 KAVAL nisroRif of inc present year, 1807. 

"Spanish schooner privateer, Don Juan Antonio Parodi, Captain, manned 
■with sixty-four men, mounting a loot; nine-pounder on midships, and twcr 
four-pounders, with tliirty muskets, and otherwise well armed and stored 
for a lonij cruise. She is from Carthagena fifteen days; and I am happy to- 
add has not captured any thing, bat was on the point of taking asloop w'hen 
•we fortunately fell in with her. 

I have the hoilour to be, &c. 

H. S. INGLEFIELD. 
James Ricftard Dacres, F^?q., Yice-Ad- 
yniral of the White, Commander in 
Chief, 4 Ci ($c. SfC. 

Copy of a Letter from Hear- Admlrat Sir Ale.Tnnder Cochrane, K. B., Co'~ 
mander in Chief of Hia Mnjcs^t^'x Ships and Vesse/s at the Lecuard hlands^ 
to William Murndcn. Esq.; dated on board the ^Northumberland, at Sea, 
th-e 2d February, iiiOl . 

I have the honour to enclose, for the information of the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Adinir.ilty, the copy of a leuer from Captain Saver, of Ilis 
Majesty's ship Galatea, giving an account of the capture of the French 
national corvette T yix, /"one of tliose which escaped from Sir Sanuui 
Hood's squadron,) by the boats of that ship, under the command of Lieute- 
nant Cocmbe. 

When it is tal<en into consideration the fatigue of so long a row as the 
"boats' crews !iad before they came up with the enemy, their great disparity 
in numbers, their huving to attack a man of war under sail, completely pre- 
pared for their reception, and their perseverance in the attack, without a 
chance of support from the ship, afrer being twice repulsed, I may safely 
ray that more ('etrnnined bravery has not been shown during the war. 
Wliile I admire their gallantry, I must sympathize with the friends of those 
■who fell in the action. In the death of Lieutenant Henry Walker, who 
was some time ago promoted from this ship, the service has lost a most 
promising officer. Lieutenant Coonibc's conduct speaks for itself; al- 
though he had before lost a leg, his activity in the execution of his duty 
has always been remarked ; in this action he received a severe, and 1 
fear a dangerous wound, in the thigh, above the former amputation; 
I therefore feel assured their Lordships will judge him deserving theii 
protection. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His MafeSti/'s Ship Galafca, Coast of 
STBj Caraccas, Junuary 22, 1807. 

Yesterday morning we discovered, from the mast-head, a sail in the S. E.j 
steering lor la Guira, and i>oon compelled her to another course lor Barce- 
lona; about noon it was mostly cahn, when she appeared to be a man of 
war, and, by her manojuvre, an enemy; she had now the advantage of us 
by a breeze, and with her lofty flying sails, and sweeps, was leaving us fait. 
At two o'clock her top-gallant-s.iils were scarcely above the horizon, but in 
a situation between the ship and the coast that still afforded me hopes of 
her, by co-operation of ihe boats; they pushed off, under the direction of 
the first Lieutenant William Coonibe, manned with five ofhcers, fifty sea- 
men, and twenty marines; and, after rowing about twelve leagues in eight 
hours, (part of the time under a burning sun,) they came up with her, going, 
with a light land breeze, about two knot.~; having first hailed fier, our brave 
fellows instantly attempted to board on both quarters, but by the fire of her 



NAYAL HISTORY OF THE PHESEVT YEAR, 1807. 347 

guns, which had been all trained aft in readiness, and havir,-; to combat, under 
every disadvantage, with more than double their numbers, were twice re- 
pulsed by them. The boats now dropped, and poured through her stern 
and quarter-ports a destructive fire of musqnetoons and small arms, thsit 
cleared the deck of many of the enemy, who were all crouded aft; v.lien, 
after an arduous struggle, (a third time,) for a footing, our men rnslied 
?.-board, and in a few minutes drove all before them; the bowsprit and jib- 
boom were covered; some flcvv aloft, and others below; the Captain and 
most of his officers were lying woanded on the decks, leaving the remainder 
of this handful of men in proud possession of the I'rench Imperial corvette, 
ie Lynx, of fourteen twentv-four pounders, carronrcdes, and two long nine- 
pounders, chasers, pierced for eigliteen guns, and manned with one hundred 
and sixty-one men, commanded by Monsieur Jean M. Yarquost, with dis- 
patches from Guadaioupe for theCaraccas; she is two years old, and a 
well-equipped tine vessel, in all respects, for His Majesty's service. 

At the head of our invaluable men's names, who fell in this quarter of an 
hour's sharp contest, stands that of the second Lieutenant Harry \V«1« 
ker, of his third wound; of the oficers commanding our live boats, 
only lieutenant Gibson was unhurt. It may be unnecessary to add Lieu- 
tenant Coombe's report, that every man did his duty — I am satisfied they 
did. I am. Sir, &c. 

GEO. SAYER. 

To R^ar-Adniiral the Hon. Sir AkxandtT 
Cochrcne, K. £., Commander in Chief. 
(5c. S>;c. tVc 

A List of killed and icounded Decern, Seamen, and Marinss., on hoard the 
Gal-uteu uitd le Lxpii. 

Killed on board the Galatea. 
Harry Walker, second Lieutenant; George Vincent, seaman; John Mil-' 
dron, ditto; Thomas Whetcridge, ditto Robert M'Cann, ditto; Frederick 
Plank, ditto; James Mason, Sergeant of Huiriues; William Cooper, private 
of marines; J3avid ISicholis, ditto. 

Severely zcoundcd on board the Galatea. 
William Coombe, first Lieutenant; Barry Sarsfield, P'lasterV ^latc; Ro- 
bert Jbbbin, Pi tty Otticer; William Cock, seaman; John FoX; ditto; Wil- 
liam West, ditto; Robert liaynes, ditto; William Mills, ditto; Richard 
Bartlein, pri\atc of marines; Henry Thompson, ditto; David Jones, 
ditto. 

Slightlij ramnded on board the Galatea. 
John Grc-en, Master's ?/Iate; R. Berry, Petty Officer; Robert Bailey, 
seaiaiiu; Tlioinus Wluiaker, ditto ; George Grilhths, ditto ; Thomas Jones, 
ditto; Janit.s Bog, ditto; John Ciiapinan, ditto; John IS orris, ditto; John 
Lewis, ditto; Ibomas Guidon, piivate of marines. — Total, 9 killed and 'ii 
bounded — oi. 

Killed on board le Lynx. 
The third Lieutenant, 13 Petty Officers, seamen, and soldiers. 
Wonnded on boiird le Lynx. 

The Commander, Moh*. M. Yarquest, and the first Lieutenant, (both 
fcadly,) 4 <iiriccr>^, and 14 seamen and soldiers.— Total, 14 killed and ii!0 
wounded (must of tlieiu badivj— 34. 

' ' ' GEO.. SAYER. 



54S NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRr,S£.\f YEAR, 1S07. 

Copy of another iMter from Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, K.B., 
to William Mar^dr.n, Esq.; dated on board the Northumberland, Carlisle 
, Bay, Barbadoes, February 5, 1807. 

SIR, 

I have grent pleasure in acquainting you, for the information of the Lords 
Cominissiuners of tlie Admiralty, with our having again possession of His 
Majesty's late sh")op Favourite. She was raptured by the Jason on the 
coast of Guayana; and I enclose a copy of t'aptain Cochranc's letter, giving 
an account thereof. 

I am in great hopes he will also fall in with her consort, from having dis- 
covered her orders and rcnriezvous. 

I have the iionour to bo, tkc. 

A I. EX. COCriRANF. 

His Majesli/.i Ship Jaxon, at Sea, 
SIK, January 28, 1807. 

Having received your orders by His Majesty's sloop Osprey, I proceeded 
towards Maroney river, and yesterday morning at day-light, Soiauiine river 
bearing south by east twenty-six miles, discovered u ship and brig nearly 
six miles on the weather beam, apparently men of war; and from tiie in- 
formation I received a few days before, conceived them to be the vessels of 
which we were in search; and about a quarter before ten, succeeded in 
bringing the ship to action within pistol-shot, who sliortly after struck, and 
proved to be la Favorite, (formerly in His Majesty's service,) mounting 
sixteen long sixes and thirteen twelve-pounder carronades, liaving on hoard 
one hundred and fifty men, and commanded by Mons. Le Murant Daniel, 
Lieutenant de Vaissean. The brig, from her sailing superior to the Favorite, 
and in consequeiiCe of signals from her, kept above gun-shot to windward, 
and I am sorry to say, from the time it took to exchange the prisoners, 
^nd being favoured by the wind, she has made her escape; she mounts 
fourteen brtss eight-pounders, (English nines,; and one hundred and twenty 
men. 

I am happy to add, we had only one man wounded; the P'avorito had 
one killed aud one wounded, and was very much cut up in her sails and 
rigging. 

I cannot conclude without returning thanks to Lieutenant Prinde, first of 
tjiis ship, for his active conduct on this, as well as every occasion, and aiu 
only sorry that this affair did not'afFord him a greater opportunity of distin- 
guishing himself. 

I have the honour to be, Szc. 

T. COCHRANE. 

Rear-Admiral Cochrane, K. B., ^-c. 

APRIL C5. 

Copy of a Letter from the Earl of St. Vincent, K. B., Admiral and dnnmandcr 
in Chief (if Hix Majiatyx Fitet employed in the Channel, Soundings, 4c. , to 
William Mursden, Esq.; dated in Torcn, the Hth Instant. 

.'^IIi, 

I enclose, for the informatiou of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, a letter which I have received fiom Captain Maitland, of [lis Maiesty's 
ship Emerald, giving an account of the capture oi the Austcrliiz French 
Pfivateer. I am, tuc. 

ST. VINCENT. 

JIY LORD, Emerald at Sea, April .4, l'M7. 

I beg to inform you that His Majesty's ship under my command, yester- 
day captured a Spanish polacca ship from la Cuira, loaded with cocoa. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE mrSENT YEAR, 1807. 349 

lark, indigo, &c., vvhicii I was convoying as far as the limits of my station, 
■when a report bein^^ m<ide of a sail on tlie "catlier bow this iiioniini^ at day- 
liglit, I gave cliase, and after a very liard ran of ten hours, had the good for- 
tune to capture ib.e Austerlitz of Nantes, « jwivflteer brig, carrying fourteen 
iiine-pounders, and ninety-six men. She is quite new, appears to sail ex- 
tremely fast, and is in my opinion perfectly adapted for His Majesty's ser- 
vice. The Austerlitz was titled for a five months' cruise, and had beta out 
eight days from Naiites witliout making; any capture, 
I have tiie honour to be, 6:c. 

F. Z, ]\IAITLAND. 
The Earl of St. Vincent, K. B., &-c. S)X. .^c. 

Cojji/qfa Lei ter from Flee- Admiral Dacres, Commander in Chkf of Hli 
Majesfi^^s Ships and Vessels at Jamuua, to William Marxden, Ei^q.; 
fluted on board His Mujesti/s Ship Veteran, at Fort Ituj/al, March 12, 
1807. 

SIR, 

Tt is with much satisfaction I enclose you, for the information oftheLord^ 
•Commissioners of the Admiralty, the copies of two letters I have received 
from Captain Dacres, of the Bacchante, acquainting me of the capture of 
the French national schooner Dauphin, and of the destruction of the fcjrt, 
&c. at Samana, the nest t'rom whence tlio privateers are fitted out that are 
■constantly cruising about St. Domingo aud Porto Rico, by that ship and the 
Mediator. 

I trust their Lordships will approve of the enterprise, which has been so 
completely successful. 1 am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

Ilk Majcst(/'s Ship Bacchante, at Sea, 
SIR, Febnuuy Iti, J 807. 

I have the honour to inform you of His Majesty's ship Bacchante under 
my command (Mediator in company) iiaving captured, on the 14th inst., otf 
Cape Raphael, the French national !^cllooner Dauphin, after achuseof teu 
hours. She mounted one long twelve and two four pounders, but the two 
latter she hove overboard in the chase; ami IkiiI on board seventy-one 
men. 

I am extremely happy in havini^ captured this vessel, as she has done 
much mischief to our trade, and was returning from a successful cruise tu 
J?t. Domingo. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

J, It. DACRES, jun. 
To J. R. Dacres, Esq., Vice-Admiral 
of the White, Commander in Chief, 
^■c. ^c. &iC. 

His Majesty's Ship Bacchante, at Sea, 
SIR, Febritary 'Zii, 1807. 

Having captured the French national schooner as mentioned in my letter 
•f the KJth instant, which I found was well known in Samana, (that nest for 
privateer;*,) and havini: constdtcd with Captain Wise, of the Mediator, 
wliora I fell in with off the Mona, under similar orders to myself, crnismg 
for tiie annoyance of the enemy, (whose vessels are principally privateers 
in these seas,) I took him under my orders, auii arrived at a (ktcnnination 
to send the captured vessel in, under her lormer colours, to disiiuibe tliis 
s!iip as a prize, and the Mediator as a neutral; which strat.ij^em so com- 
pletely deceived them, that we got tiM'0Uj;h the intricate navigation of the 
harbour, and anchored within half a mile of tlie fort, before tlie enemy dis- 
covered their mistake, and opened liicir iisc upon us from tiic fort, wiiicb 



330 NAVAE HISTORY OF THE PRESENT- YlARj 1807. 

3 have thepFeasare to acquaint yon, Sir, after a heavy cannonade of four 
iiours from the sliips, was carried by storm, by the semnen and marines of 
hoth ships, landed under the comnaflnd of Captain Wise, assifted by Lieu- 
tenants Baker, Norton, and Shaw. We found in the harbour an American 
sliip, and an English schooner, prizes to the vessels aforemetitioned, and two 
Piench schooners then fitting for sea as cruisers. T a:n concerned to say, 
the Mediator suffered considerably ; the fire of tlie enemy being chiefly di- 
rected against her, but not so much as might be expected from the com.- 
manding situation of the fort, which was manned principally by the crews 
of the privateers. The behaviour of the otficers and men of both ships^ was 
5tich as always distinguislies Bfitish seamen, and great credit is due to the 
Masters for carrying the siiips through so ditSculta navigation, which caused 
this enterprise to be so completely successful. 

*The fort and cannon were destroyed by Lieutenant Gould, when we eva- 
cuated the place on the 21st instant. The enemy's loss must have been 
considerable, though we could not ascertain the number, from their retreat- 
mg to the woods. 

Enclosed is the return of killed and wounded. 

I am,^ &c. J. R. NACRES, jun. 

To Vice-Admiral Dacres, S(C. SfC. S(C. 

A List ef Killed and Woundtd. 

Bacchante. — Mr. T. H. M'Kenzie, Master's Mate, slight!;/ wounded; 
■WiUiam Acton, seaman, wounded; William Snow, seaman, ditto; James 
Keid, seaman, ditto. 

Mcdialor. — William Barker, seaman, killed; M. Wilson, sr'aman, ditto; 
Jasper Hanson, seaman, wounded; William French, seaman, ditto; F.Nash, 
seaman, ditto ; Wiliifim Jewson, seaman, ditto; William Gordon, seaman, 
ditto; James Simpson, seaman, ditto; Edward Faulkner, searaaji, ditto; 
Edward Collins, seaman, ditto; Edward Wilkins, seaman, ditto; John 
Lewis, seaman, ditto; T. Forster, seaman, ditto; Samuel Deer, marine, 
ditto. — Total. 2 killed, 16 woundetL 

J, R. DACRES,jun.. 

C(^y of a Letter frovi the H&rteurabfe Rear-Jdmiral Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, K. B., Commander in Chief of His Majesty s Ships and Vessels 
at the Leeward Islands, to WiUiam Marsden, Esq. ; dated on board 
His Majesty's Ship Northumberland, Carlisle Bay, Barbadoe9, I'eb. 
22, 180T. 

SIR, 
The enclosed copy of a letter from Captain Matson, of His Majesty's ship 
Venus, acquainting me with the capture of a French privateer, I request yol^ 
to lay before tlte Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for their Lordships'' - 
iniformation. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

A. C0CHR.4NE. 

His Majesty s Skip VcmiR, Carlisle Bay, 
SIR, Barhadoes, Februa7-i/ 22, 1807. 

I have the satisfaction of naaking you acquainted with my having cap- 
tured in His Majebty's ship under my command, on the 20th instant, about 
eight leagues east of Barbadoes, the French privatctr schooner I'Etoile, 
of six guns, (two of which were throvai overboard,) and fifty-four men, 
helonging to Guadaloupe, but last from Cayenne, which she left on the 
17th instant; during our chase after this vessel, the Cygnet hove in 
sight to windward, which made her bear up, and greatly shortened the 
ptirsuit. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S07. 35i 

The Merchant brig, Volunteer, from Cork to Barbadocs, was taken hj 
her on the 1st of tliis month. 

I have the honour to be, &c- 

HENRY MATSOX. 
^ke Hon. Sir A. Cochrane, K.B., Rear- 
Admiral <jf the, White, ^c- 



Promotions anH appointments. 

WHITEHALL, APRIL 4, 1807. 

Tlie Kins has been pleased to constitute and appoint tne Et^liS/ 
Jjonniirable Henry Eruoii IMulprave, James Gamhier, Esq., Admiral of the 
fihae Squadron of His jMajesty's fleet ; Sir Richard Biclcer'.on, Ri^it., V:ce-« 
Admiral of the WUUo Squadron of His Majesty's fleet ; William Johnstone 
Hope, and Robert Ward, Esqrs.; the Rii:ht Honourable Henry John Vis- 
Count Palnierston, and James Buller, Esq., to be His Majesty's Cotn- 
niissioners for executin;; tlie Office of His;h Admiral of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dominions, islands, and teriito- 
ries thereunto belonging. 

The Lords of the Admiralty have appointed Sir Home Popham to tl-e 
command of a small squkdron, to cruise off the Continent, in the Rivers, 
&c., uith a Roving Commission. 

Mr. Smith is appointed by Mr. Rose Paymaster of due Navy, 2«« 
Henry Scutt, Esq. 

Captain Sir C. Hamilton, Bart., to iho Temeraire, 98. 

■ Hon. C. Elphinstone Hemiug, to the Buivvafk, ?4, 

Hon. T. Colville, to tlie Hercule, 74. 

•' E. D. King, to the Monmouth, 64. 

G. R. Coliicr, to the Surveillaiite, 38, 

C. Shipley, to the Nymph, 3G, 

Hon. H. Duncan, to the Poicupine, 24-, 

Edward Hawkins, from the hall-pay list, to tlie command of ibe 

Minerva. 

Lieutenant Samuel John Pechell, of the Foudroya?>t, to the command of 
the Ferret sloop oi' war, with the rank of Master and Commander. 

Vice-Adrairal Holloway, to the Newfoundland j Vicc-Admiral Rowley, 
to the Downs, zi/ce Admiral Holiuway; Vice-Admind Stanhope, to Slicer* 
ness, vice Rowley j Itear-Admiral T. Wells, to Woolwich, vice Stanhop*;; 
Captain Freemantie, lu the William and Mary yacht; Captain MaxweJl, txt 
the Alceste, of 38 guns ; Captain WaiUs, to the Sea Fencibles at Harwich; 
Captain Dighy, to the Cossack frigate. 

Captain J. Bligh is ap])ointeJ to the Alfred; Captain Duff to thcMuros; 
Captain J. Evans to the Valorous; Captain Davis to the Sapphire; Caj»- 
tain Hollingsworth to the Minstrel. 

Lieutenant Bowker, of the San Joseph, is proinotod to a Comma:) dor, 
and appointed to the Epervier; Lieutenant Rauiage, of llie HiSernia, n 
promoted to a Commander; ]\Ir. Munro, Purser of tlie EmuLui, to the 
FraAJchise. 



Sb2 NAVAL HISTORY Ot THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Captain .Tames Young, to the V.iliant; Captain Halliday, to the Gibral* 
tar ; Captain Austen, to the St. Albans ; Captain Wolley, to the Sen 
Fencibles at Lynn ; Captain Cracraft, to the Sea Fencibles at Margate'; 
Captain 11. Lloyd, to the Hussar ; Captain Lye, to the Bombay frigate; 
Captain Rastarii, to the RelloJia frigate; Capiain F. Peiiew, to the Kattie- 
snake; Captain Troubridi^e, to the Macas^ac (late Pallas) ; CaptainGreen, 
to the Foxhoinid; Captain Syraonds, to the Tweed (at Portsmouth) ; Cap- 
tain Ilickey, to the Atalante: Lieutennnt VVilbraiiana, to be a Commander, 
and to command the Harrier ; Captain Hyde Parker, to the Prometheus, 
at Portsmouth ; Captain C.Claridge, to the Daiver. 

Captain G. Harris is appointed to the Prospero; Lieutenant J. Browne 
is appointed Agent for transports at .famaica. 

Lord Gardner is appointed to the command of the Channel fleet; Ad- 
miral VV'hitshed succeeds Lord Gardner as Commander in Chief at Cork ; 
and Vicc-Adiiiiral G. Bowen is to superintend the Sea Fencible service in 
Ireland, in the room of Admiral ^^'hitbhed. 

Captain Be resford is appointed to the Illustrious, of74 2;uns, off" Cadiz. 

Lieutenant Coombe, for his g;reat gallantry in the boats of the Galatea, 
IS promoted to be a Commander. 

BIr. Ireland is appointed Boatswain of Plymouth Dock-yard, in the room 
of the late Mr. Marr. 

OBITUARY. 

On tlie 19th of .Tuly last, when on a cruise in the East Indies, Captain 
J. B. Bogue, of His ^lajesty's ship Terpsichore; lie was a good and active 
officer, was of a generous mind, and much respected. 

On the -1th March, onboard His Majesty's ship Diamond, off Ilavre-de- 
Grace, aged 2,), by the consequences of a cold, Percy Currcr Dodgson, 
second Lieutenant of that ship, son of the late Bishop Dodgson. He was 
an amiable young man, and a good othccr. He was interred with miiitarv 
honours, off that port, with the sincere regret of Captain Argles, and his 
brother officers. 

Lately, at Cntlsfield, after a lingering illness, which slic bore with ex- 
emplary fortitiule and resignation, Mrs. O'Bryen, the lady of Edward 
O'Bryen, Esq., Hear- .Idmiral of- the Blue. 

A few montlis since, Mr. Thomas Ross, eldest son of Mr. Charles 
Iloss, Purser of His Majesty's ship Maida, a prisoner on tl;e Island of 
Cuba, where he had. ucen a long time; he was Sub-Lieutenant of the 
"Baracoetta schooner, wrecked off that Island on the morning of the 2d 
October, 1805, and taken prisoner with the rest of the crew. 

BIFtTH. 

At Plymouth Dock, the wife of Captain H. Garrett, of the Navy, of 
a son. 

MARRIAGES. 

April 4, at Alverstokc, by the Rev. F. Clifton, IMr. W. Slade, of U;e 
Royal iSavy, to Miss S. White, daughter of the late Captain R. White, of 
Arundel. 

22. At Kingston, lieutenant Collier, of tlie Royal Navy, to ]Mi«f F. 
Pinhorn, ofPortsea. 




'^"^'--^^.J.-y^feri-^^ 



CAPTAIP^^ JlJOHN COOKE 







mOCnAPHlCAL MEMOm 

OF THE LATE 

CAPTAIN JOHN COOKE, 

WHO FELL IN THE ACTIOX OFF TRAFALGAR. 



" WEEPING Pity b.adf. her sorrows tell 



iiow GALLANT CoOKE A^JD DuFF I ^' BATTLE FELL ! 
LaSIENTED CHIFFS ! whose fate too. EARLY prov'd. 

They died regretted, as thiy liv'd belov'd!" 

Dr Halloras's Battle t^ Trafalgar. 

?lflO the distinguished names of Nelson and Duff, heroes who 
fought and fell in the ever-memorable Battle of Trafalgar, 
We now add that of Cooke, another of those lamented officers, 
whose fame will be cherished and revered, '' while memory 
shall hold her seat on this distracted globe." 

Captain John Cooke was the second son of Francis Cooke, 
Esq., Cashier of His Majesty's. Navy. At the early age of 
eleven years he embarked on- board the Greyhound cutter, 
commanded by Lieutenant (now Admiral) Bazely*. From this 
first introduction into his profession, he, however, soon returned 
to Mr. Braken's celebrated naval academy at Greenwich, that no 
time might be lost for acquiring thoroughly the first elements of 
nautical science and military tactics. 

It was during his lesidence at this seminary, that he first 
received that patronage from Sir Alexander Hood, (now Lord 
Bridport,) which was never withdrawn through life. By his 
favour and kindness, he was borne on one of the King's yachts* 
books, and thus obtained the double advantage of prosecuting his 
naval studies, and reckoning his time as . though in actual 
service. 

He was placed in a more active situation at the age of thirteen, 
by accompanying Lord Howe to America, in the Eagle, of 64; 

* A portrait and biographical memoir of this officer are given in tlie XI\'tli 
Vuhirae of our Chronicle, page 177. Captain Cooke's entrance into the 
naval service must have been about the year 1774. 

£9ato» erj?ron» CloI»XVir. z z 



Sbi BIOGUAPIlICAl, MEMOIR OF tllZ L AtE 

guns*". His exertions and activity at the attack of Rhode Island^ 
where he particularly distinguished himself, and was one of the 
first who entered the Fort, procured him tlie favour and appro- 
bation of his Commander ; as a proof of which, it may be men- 
tioned that, on his return home in the Eagle, whilst busily 
employed in the discharge of his duty, his juvenile modesty was 
startled by Lord Howe's clapping him on the back, in his abrupt 
manner, and saying to him in the presence of many persons, 
" Why, young man, you wish to become a Lieutenant before 
you are of sufficient age." 

During the station of the Eagle on the American coast, in 
order to see more active service than in a flag-ship- he served as 
a supernumerary ]Midshipman on board the Liverpool frigate, 
mider Captains Bellew and Christian. On the arrival of the 
Eagle in England f , he w as made a Lieutenant^ and appointed 
to the Worcester. 

In this ship he went to the East Indies with Sir Edward 
Hughes J, whose fortunes he followed, until his active services 
atTVincomale and Seringapatam so much affected his health, that 
lie was under the necessity of returning home in the Nymph 
sloop, Captuin Sutton. This step, however indispensable at the 
time, lost him his promotion for some years, being the next on 
Sir E. Hughes's list, who was his sincere friend upon all occa- 
sions, and never evinced it more than by sending him back to liis 
native country at that period. 

His stay in England was about two years, during which time 
his health was fully re-established, though all hope of promotion 
at home was next to impossible, as even to get employed in a 
profound peace required the greatest interest. At this time, for 
the puipose of improving in the French language, so useful in 
his proftssioii, he Merit to France, His stay was nearly a year, 

*'Thc Eajile arrived ott TIalifiix on I'tie Ist of July, 1776. Vide biogra^ 
phical memoir of Lord Howe, NaX'al Ciipomcle, Vol. I, page 15. 

t The Eaiilc arrived in Eiisilaiid in the winter of 1778. 

t For a detailed aecoiint ot" the bervices of .Sir Edward Hughes in the 
East Indies, see the hio<:ra[ihictil memoir oj" that oirlccr, jS.'iVAL CuRO:* ic:.t:, 
Vol. IXj [jagc b8, el sej. 



c.vrXAiv JOHN cooler. ' 35^ 

when he was unexpectedly appointed to go wllh Admiral (now 
Lord) Gardner to the West Indies*. He soon became his first 
Lieutenant; and fortune, during three years, seemed to promise 
certain promotion. His conduct as an individual, and as an 
officer, soon gained him the hearts and good opinion of his 
superiors, as well as of those under his authority, who have 
always admitted, that although he strictly exacted of every man, 
over whom he had power, the performance of his duty, he 
never was known in the most trivial instance to omit dischai^ging 
his own with the most scrupulous attention. 

At the expiration of nearly three years, he had a severe fall 
while employed in the active performance of his duty on board 
the flag-ship, Europa, by which accident he was wholly confined 
to his bed, and the Singeoas declared that a longer continuance 
in the West Indies would bring on complaints the most dan- 
gerous. He was therefore immediately sent home by his Com- 
modore, widi a ccrtiticate to the Admiralty, stating that his return 
to that cHmate must at any future period prove fatal to him. 
In England his natural strength of constitution prevailed, and he 
recovered his usual health in the course of a year. 

About this lime an armament took pkice, and he was 
appointed, by his respected friend and patron. Lord Bridport, 
his third Lieutenant, on board the London f. Before he joined 
his ship, however, he married t,he 4th daughter of Mr. Hardy, 
His Majesty's Consul at Cadiz-, and niege to the late Sir Charles 
Hardy, who died when connnanding the Channel fleet. In 
about seven months this armament was dispersed, and he returned 
to iiis cottage in Esjjex, to enjoy the comforts of domestic 
life. 

After flfieen months' residence in this place, he was again 

* Captaii) Giirdiicr was appuiiitc«i to the Duke, of 98 auiis, at the liUttT 
cud of the yeur 1781 ; and he joined the licet of Sir George llodiicy, in the 
West Indies, previously to the 12th of April, 17y'2. Conbequently Mr. 
Cooke had the satisfaction of sharing in the perils and glories of that inemn- 
m\)\e day. Vide Naval Chromplf, Vol. VIII, j.age 1;J1 ; and VqI. T, 

t About the month of May, U9% 



355 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF THE LATE 

called from his retreat by the breaking out of the French 
Revolution. His character and abilities procured him an imme- 
diate appointment. Lord Bridport nominated him one of the 
first to his own ship, as first Lieutenant of the Royal George *. 
He now enjoyed every flattering mark of approbation from his 
Admiral, and also his Captain, (Domett,)f an ofHcer of great pro- 
fessional ability, as well as amiable character. 

At the end of the year, through the good offices of Lord 
Bridport, he was made a Commander, and appointed to the 
Incendiary fire-ship. Whilst she was fitting at Plymouth, an 
accident happened to the Captain of tlie Monarch, which 
obliged him to come on shore, and Captain Cooke was appointed 
to supersede him. Here Lord Bridport again interposed his 
kind services, and got this appointment confirmed, by V\hich he 
was at once made a Post Captain, without ever going to sea as 
a Commander. The Monarch was appointed to carry the flag 
of Sir James Wallace to Newfoundland; and, after the summer 
spent on that station, returned to England I, when he being too 
young a Captain to keep a 74 at home, resigned his command. 
He put in his claim however for a frigate, and after some montlis 
was appointed to the Tourterelle. She was fitted at Plymouth^ 
and then ordered to the West Lidies; but upon proper repre- 
sentation to the Board, Lord Gardener's certificate was proved 
to have full weight, and Lord Spencer, with his usual candour^ 
superseded him with a promise of another early appointment. 
This was punctually fulfilled, by his being named the spring 
following to la Nymphe frigate, of SG guns. By the month of 
August following, she was ready for sea, and ordered to attend 
the King at Weymouth, togedier with the St. Fiorenzo, com- 
manded by his particular friend. Sir Harry Burrard Neale. 
After the usual period at Weymouth, they were ordered together 
to join the Channel fleet, at that time uncler the command of 

* InPebruary, 1793. 

t A biogrnphical memoir of this officer is given at the commencement, 
of our XVth Volume. 
I In 1195, 



CAPTAIN JOHN COOKE, 357 

Lord Bridport; who, always ready to compliment Captain 
Cooke by particular marks of his favour, sent him, together with 
Sir H. ]3. Neale, on some particular observation close in on the 
coast of France ; after which, on their return to the fleet, they 
fell in with two French frigates, on their way from the Welsh 
coast, where they had succeeded in diseinbarking the troops 
M'ith whom they had been freighted. After a smart action they 
were both taken and brought into Plymouth*'. 

La Nymphe, after this, had a choice cruise given her, as a 
mark of the approbation of the Board of Admiralty ; but although 
thrown into fortune's way, she returned after many weeks 
without bringing with her a single prize. 

During the unfortunate mutiny in the Navy, which broke out 
about this time. Captain Cooke Mas one of the greatest sufferers. 
The complaints preferred against him, like those against other 
officers, were without foundation, and frivolous. He treated 
them therefore with the contempt which they deserved, and 
resolutely determined never to give up his ship till compelled to 
do it. He remained for some days under circumstances the 
most painful and distressing to a British officer, till sent on shore 
by the mutineers ; but his cool steadiness and dignified behaviour 
always commanded personal civility. A few days after this, 

* This capture was made on the 9th of August, 1797. The two French 
frigates, -when discovered by tlie St. Fiorenzo and la JS'ymphe, were .stand- 
ing in for the huid. The wind being at this time offshore, and the French 
fleet in sight, in Brest lloud, it was necessary to make as decided and 
prompt an attack as possible ; for which purpose Captain Cooke and Sif 
H. B. Neale bore down on the largest and headmost of the French siiips, 
which they attacked so warmly, that, after a short resistance, she struck. 
By this time the smaller frigate came up, and being instantly attacked in 
the same manner, soon also surrendered. The former proved to be la 
Resistance, of 48 guns, IB-poundcrs on her main deck, comniantled by M. 
iMontagne, and manned witii 3-15 men, 10 of whom were killed, and the 
fu'st Lieutenant and 8 men wounded : the latter was la Constance, com- 
manded by M. Desauney, of 24 nine-pouudcrs, and 139 men; of whom 8 
^vore killed, and 6 wounded. ' Neither la Nymphe, nor the St. Fiorenzo, 
sustained any loss. — La Resistance, and la Constance, were taken into the 
service; and, in consequence of their having been two of the French 
squadron which had landed the troops in Fisgard Bay, the foiiner had iier 
pcvme changed to the Fisgard. 



358 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF THE LATE 

thqy requested his return to the ship^ which he thought it right 
to comply with. But when the violent measures were pursued 
against Admiral Sir John Colpoys, la Nymphe,, as she lay next 
ship to the Londou, supported as long as her Captain had power, 
those on board that ship who were on the side of Government*. 
For this proper couductj however, with many other officers 
under similar circumstances, he was